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The Chief Surgeon of an Army Corps is an officer attached to the staff of the commanding general, and is charged with the supervision of all matters pertaining to the health of the command. This includes sanitation, the hospital and ambulance service, the detail of medical officers and the obtaining, distribution and care of medical supplies. He prepares general orders, when necessary, which are signed and promulgated by the Corps Commander. The Chief Division and Brigade Surgeons have similar duties within their divisions and brigades. The regimental surgeon has charge of the health of his regiment, and the treatment of temporary ailments, all serious cases being sent to the brigade, division, or general hospital, as circumstances may require. There are attached to each full regiment, one surgeon, ranking as Major, and two assistant surgeons, ranking respectively, as Captain and Lieutenant. When in action, field hospitals are established in sheltered places, as near the firing line as possible where temporary treatment is given, and are manned from the staff and regimental surgeons as circumstances require or permit. The organization of a medical service in a campaign is constantly changing, al cording to circumstances, but severe cases of wounds or sickness are sent as soon as possible to the general hospitals, where the best care can be given, and which are under the control of the Corps Surgeon. Each hospital, however, is an organization of itself, in charge of a surgeon and as many assistants as necessary, the surgeon in charge reporting to the Corps, Division, or Brigade Surgeon as the case may be. All officers and men are under the direct medical and sanitary direction of the regimental surgeons, until transferred to some hospital.
THE SUPPLY AND AMBULANCE SERVICE. That part of the medical service which in civil life is known as the “drug store" is in charge of non-commissioned officers, known as “Hospital Stewards." For the positions of hospital steward, and acting hospital steward, special examinations are necessary, and these are made by a medical board. Candidates must be unmarried and be physically and mentally capable of endurance, and have had experience in discipline and control of men, nursing and dispensary work, clerical work, cooking and mess management, hospital corps drill and minor surgery. Their duties are to care for the hospital stores and property, to compound and administer medicines, supervise preparation and serving of food, maintain discipline in the hospitals and watch over their police, and to supervise the duties of the Hospital Corps in the hospital and in the field. The Hospital Corps consists of stewards, and acting stewards and privates who are assigned to regiments as required.
The ambulance service is organized for the transport of the sick and wounded Ambulances are attached to each regiment and hospital and are under control of the surgeons, and there is an Ambulance Corps organized for general service, in removing the sick to hospitals and the wounded from the field of battle.
Except under special circumstances which justify the expectation that their rights as noncombatants under the Geneva Convention will not be recognized, no arms are issued to the Hospital Corps. During the war with the Filipinos, however, it has been frequently necessary to arm them, as they were not respected by the enemy.
The ambulance and hospital service of each command is under the supervision of its chief surgeon, who makes all necessary arrangements for the care of the sick and wounded, and their transportation during action. These arrangements are so made that they may receive attention with the line of battle under fire, at the dressing stations, at the ambulance stations and at the division, brigade and field hospitals.
To the ranking surgeon also falls the duty of detailing the number of medical officers, hospital stewards and privates of the Hospital Corps for duty with the advance line. First dressing stations are established at places near to the combatants, but where the wounded and those attendant upon them will not be exposed to fire. These dressing stations are distinguished by Red Cross flags in the day and by red lanterns at night.
MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE EIGHTH ARMY CORPS. At the head of the medical service of the 8th Army Corps was Surgeon Henry Lippincott,* U. S. V., with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and Deputy Surgeon-General. Immediately upon his arrival at Manila, Col. Lippincott was compelled to deal resolutely with the subject of
* Since relieved by Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred A. Woodhall, U. S. A.
sanitation. There was much sickness in the army, partly growing out of the filthy condition of all buildings and places which had been occupied hy Spaniards or Filipinos, and partly by reason of the imprudence of the men, who did not willingly submit to the strict regulations concerning diet, drink and exposure which were necessary under the circumstances. By vigorous measures, however, the surroundings of the troops were made and kept clean, the men restrained from indulgence in unwholesome fruits, and compelled to drink no water which had not been boiled. As a result sickness rapidly decreased, and by the end of August, 1898, the health of the command was fairly good.
The surgeons had much to contend with on arrival, as transport work between the vessels and Camp Dewey and Cavite was difficult and dangerous, owing to the very stormy weather and heavy rain prevailing at the time. Much valuable property was lost or ruined, while lives of patients were endangered in the landing under such circumstances. On the organization of the Medical Department, under Col. Lippincott, the Volunteer Hospital Corps was transferred to the regular establishment. This secured many excellent men, and a sufficient number of privates was furnished for duty in the Divisional Hospital Corps and for attendance upon the sick in transports.
VICTIMS OF WAR IN THE PHILIPPINES. The following is a complete list of the deaths, as copied from the records in the SurgeonGeneral's office, occurring in the U. S. A. operating in the Philippines up to June 2, 1899:
Dysentery on NN e | Typhoid
-: : Greri osi
Astor Battery ..
193 124 114 50 18 85 | 4 2 3 22 23 8
6 8 37 721
Total died of disease, 401. Total died of wounds, 124. Total killed in action, 193. The total number of fatalities given is 736—23 officers, 699 privates and 14 civilians attached to the army. The mortality of officers from disease was small, but the officers killed in battle were out of all proportion to the number of privates. Of the 23 officers killed, 16
were shot down in battle and the other 7 died of disease. In the case of the men, 294 died of wounds received in action and 9 were killed accidentally. In addition to the above, 1 officer and 18 enlisted men died on transports returning to San Francisco, and 1 officer and 155 enlisted men had died in the general hospital at San Francisco up to September 30, 1899. The grand total of deaths in the Philippine campaign up to October 1, 1899, is 25 officers, 1 retired officer, 872 enlisted men and 14 civilians, in addition to deaths in the islands between June 2d and October 1st, and a small number who died on hospital ships not reported at Department Headquarters.
NOBLE WORK OF THE VOLUNTEER LADY PHYSICIANS. It would be improper to close this sketch of the work of the Medical Department in the Philippines without mention of the effective aid given by several lady physicians, who were early on the ground, by permission of the government, and who placed their services at the disposal of the medical officer. The true physician is devoted to his profession and unsparing of himself in emergencies, and it would be improper to say that these ladies were any more zealous in the service than the medical officers, who exposed themselves on the field when occasion demanded, as freely as those bearing arms; but it is true that in the womanly touch there is a deftness and in the womanly nature a tenderness which are wanting in the kindest man; and the gentle ministrations of thes: faithful co-workers in the hospitals, comforted the departing hour of many a dying soldier, and live as a grateful memory in the hearts of hundreds of those who survive.
THE RED CROSS WORK. In connection with the Medical Department, it is appropriate to make some mention of the “Red Cross Society.” It is the duty of all governments to care for their wounded and sick soldiers, and they all seek to discharge that duty, but with the progress of civilization there has arisen an earnest and world wide desire to supplement government care with the gifts and services of private devotion. During the Crimean War, in 1854, Miss Florence Nightengale at the head of a body of women nurses sent out by the British government, first demonstrated, on a great scale, the effectiveness of women in organized work of relief, and while the Red Cross Society was not founded by women, they have always born their full share of the work, and, in this country, have usually been the recognized leaders.
The immediate occasion of the founding of the Red Cross organization, was the dreadful suffering which followed the Battle of Solferino in 1859, when the army surgeons were utterly unable to deal with the thousands upon thousands of the wounded of the two armies. Henri Dunand, a Swiss gentleman, wlio was present and aided in this care, was so much impressed with the inadequacy of government efforts, that he began an agitation which resulted, in August, 1894, in an official convention of delegates representing sixteen governments, which formulated articles “ for the amelioration of the condition of the wounded in the armies in the field," and which, as modified in a later convention, have received the formal adhesion of the governments of nearly all civilized nations. The badge, the red cross on a white ground, is the national colors of Switzerland reversed, and was adopted as a compliment to the nation where both the treaties have been formulated, and which is the home of the International permanent Committee. This Committee however, is only maintained as a bond of unity between the national committees, which are entirely independent
The United States was very slow in giving its adhesion to the movement. In 1864, during our Civil War, the “Sanitary Commission” was successfully doing its work, and it was not, at the time, thought best to commit the government to any other movement. Subsequently, in 1877, a letter from the President of the International Committee sent through Miss Clara Burton, to President Hayes, does not seem even to have elicited a reply. Later, however, in 1881, a copy of the same letter presented by Miss Barton to President Garfield, received prompt attention, and as a result, the American Association of the Red Cross was immediately organized, and the United States, in 1882, agreed to the convention of Geneva, being the thirty-second nation to do so.
The American National Society has its auxiliaries in all parts of the United States. Its organization is permanent, and it pursues its work of mercy, not only in war, but at all times when sudden emergencies arise. It seeks to be constantly ready for duty, both as to material and personnel. Its badge has become familiar wherever there is great trouble. Miss Clara Barton, as is well known, has been at the head of the American Society ever since its organization.
The American Red Cross had been active in Cuba, previous to the breaking out of the war, and immediately upon that event, and coincident with the raising of volunteer troops, Red Cross Societies, with or without formal connection with the National Society, sprang into existence everywhere. The headquarters of the National Society are at Washington, but its greatest center of work is in New York, where, at the beginning of the war, a powerful Relief Committee was organized, under the Presidency of Bishop H. C. Potter, which had received, up to March 17, 1899, over $320,000 to be applied to the work. To “Auxiliary No. 3," at New York, of which Mrs. James Speyer is President, was assigned the duty of caring for the soldiers in the Philippines, and nurses and supplies went forward by the first transport sailing from New York.
Iminediately upon the call for volunteers a meeting of patriotic ladies and gentlemen was called in San Francisco and met at the California Hotel, on April 23d, Mrs. W. B. Harrington presiding Other meetings were held in rapid succession in other cities of the State, and the result was the organization of a California State Red Cross Society of which Mrs. W. B. Harrington has been President, and which has been remarkable for its effectiveness and for the personal devotion of its officers and members. At first the main thought was for provision for the California soldiers, and the natural official affiliation of the society was with the California National Guard. There was no time to seek instructions from the National Society, and apparently no necessity, the proposed duty being mainly the proper equipment and care of the California Volunteers; but with Dewey's victory, and the American occupation of the Philippines, all this was changed. San Francisco would evidently be the post of departure for the troops for the Orient. Soldiers from many States would be for weeks in camp here, and later would be returning, in both cases needing such care as no government ever did or ever can supply. How nobly the women of California rose to the unexpected opportunity has been told in emphatic language from the lips of every soldier who has passed through San Francisco. Originally organized to aid the soldiers of California, the charity and loving care of the society has known no bounds. Soldiers have been cared for regardless of State bounds. Although a local society it has been doing a national work. It has not only cared for soldiers in San Francisco, but has sent nurses, agents and supplies to the Philippines for the succor, not only of Californians, but of all in distress. It has had the aid of more than one hundred local auxiliaries, of which that of San Francisco, under the presidency of Mrs. John F. Merrill, has naturally been the largest. Large sums of money have been expended by the State, San Francisco and Oakland societies. It is not yet possible to give the aggregate of the disbursements of the California Red Cross Societies, but the State Society alone expended $22,494 during the year ending October 17, 1899. The money was expended for the support of nurses and supplies sent to the Philippines, and employed in San Francisco, where a convalescent hospital was maintained. Indentification medals were supplied to all soldiers, and nearly all organizations, passing through San Francisco, were met and fed on arrival. The Society acted as bankers for soldiers paid off, and distributed literature and stationery in great quantities.
THE SIGNAL CORPS. The Signal Corps is the staff department which is charged with the duty of maintaining communications between commanding generals and their subordinates in the field, by means of telegraphs, telephones, flag signals, balloons, carrier pigeons or whatever other means of communication may be found practicable. The head of the department is a Brigadier General, at Washington, and there are signal officers attached to all armies in the field according to their requirements for the time being. The enlisted force consists of Sergeants, Corporals and Privates, as in the line. In the reorganized regular army there are six companies, fully officered, the aggregate enlisted force being about 750 men. There is a school of instruction maintained on the Atlantic Coast where men are trained for their duties. In time of war the service is rapidly recruited, mainly from telegraph operators and others accustomed to electrical work, and whereever an army moves the Signal Corps men go with it, the telegraph lines being kept as close as necessary to the firing line, so that the commanding general is kept in constant touch with
Division and Brigade Headquarters. It is a laborious and hazardous service, as no point is more eagerly sought for attack than the communications of an enemy. The lines are often put up and inaintained under fire, and during the Philippine campaign many acts of heroism have been performed by the men of this corps who freely exposed themselves to sharpshooters in climbing poles and trees while stringing the telegraph lines. Lieutenant-Colonel R. E. Thompson has been Chief Signal Officer upon the staff of the Corps Commander, during the operations of our armies in the Philippines.
THE CHAPLAINS IN THE ARMY. (According to army regulations, there is attached to each regiment a Chaplain whose duty is to conduct religious services when possible, and otherwise to minister to the regiments in the field as he would to a congregation at home. Being non-combatants, they are not necessarily exposed to the fire of the enemy, but to the credit of our Chaplains be it said, that where there was a soldier needing their attentions, there they were to be found, whether on the firing line or elsewhere. It has not been found possible to procure any complete record of the services of the Chaplains in the Philippines, and it has seemed best to give in full the following personal narrative, which includes merely a record of a few incidents coming under the personal observation of the writer, but illustrates better than any more formal statement, the life and work of the Chaplains in the army. It is proper to say that the writer of the following was a Press Correspondent who is also a congregational clergyman, who was himself several times wounded, and who was as active and helpful in ministering to the soldiers, as those whose services he chronicles).
“ The Chaplain is the true knight of the battlefield. His high duty it is to march with the soldiers, assist the weak, succor the wounded, administer to the dying, and bring the consolation of God to the dripping edges of the battlefield.
“ There were not wanting in our army in the Philippines splendid and heroic Ministers of various denominations and creeds of Christianity, who abandoned their homes and their work in order to be of use and blessing to the soldiers fighting in the distant land. I have seen these Chaplains on the firing line, with the Hospital Corps, the Military Reserve Hospitals, and beside the soldier's grave. No class of men behave with more gentleness and chivalry than these devoted Soldiers of the Cross. It would be invidious to select from so able and perfect a body of men any particular members for special praise or consideration, but I was fortunate enough to meet and campaign with several of them, while I was not able to see them all on the battlefield. Among the very best and most heroic of these men was Rev. Father W. D. McKinnon, Chaplain of the 1st California. He it was, who entered Manila under the fire of the Spaniards, walking along the shore near old Malate, in order to interview the Archbishop and to ask him if Manila could not be surrendered without loss of life. He told me himself that in this expedition he received a wound in the fleshy part of the leg, which he tried to treat himself, and which after a couple of days gangrened, giving hina considerable trouble. He was not a spectacular man, Father McKinnon, but did his work in a kind, gentle and modest way which attracted to him the hearts of all who met him. Among all the regiments I think no Chaplain was more sincerely loved by inen of all denominations and creeds than Father McKinnon. Together we trudged along dusty roads, through the rice-fields and through the cane-brakes on the torrid, dusty battlefields between Caloocan and Malolos.
“I remember one morning, as we came along the railroad beyond Bocaue, how we found a poor Filipino lying with his leg broken at the thigh. He must have been running and fell into one of the deep ravines, for his clothes were saturated with water, and his hands and feet were all pale and white. Two soldiers had brought him from the swamp and laid him on the dry ground beside the railway. I was very much touched at the way in which Father McKinnon, with the aid of Mr. Waage, of the California Red Cross, worked over the restoration of this poor man. The Padre went across the scorching rice-fields to get some branches of bamboo to shade the man withal, while Mr. Waage, from his medical kit, gave restoratives and hypodermic injections to the sufferer.
" Again on the Santa Cruz expedition, I met Father McKinnon and Mr. Waage. There was no duty too menial, no work too hard, and no task too perilous for the Chaplain to undertake. He would walk by the side of a soldier and encourage him in a kindly way and help him