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States Inf.; Light Battery E, 1st United States Art.; 7th United States Art.; Hospital Corps, U. S. A., making a total of 40 officers and 1450 men.
Warren (formerly Scandia) left San Francisco April 20, 1899, and arrived at Manila May 18, 1899, carrying the following officers and men: Brigadier-General E. B. Williston, U. S. V.; Maj. G. L. Edie, Surgeon U. S. V.; 1st Lieut. W. J. Calvert, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. A.; 1st Lieut. E. H. Hartness, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. A.; 1st Lieut. P. C. March, 5th United States Art., Aide-de-Camp to Major-General MacArthur; Acting Assistant Surgeon E. E. Persons, U.S. A.; Acting Assistant Surgeon W. P. Benta, U. S. A.; 6th United States Art.; 3d United States Art.; 4th United States Cav.; 3d United States Inf.; 9th United States Inf.; 12th United States Inf.; 14th United States Inf.; 17th United States Inf.; 20th United States Inf.; 22d United States Inf.; Hospital Corps, making a total of 28 officers and 1182 men.
Newport left San Francisco April 20, 1899, and arrived at Manila May 23, 1899, carrying the following officers and men: Acting Assistant Surgeon E. F. Robinson, U. S. A.; Acting Assistant Surgeon H. L. Coffin; 1st United States Art.; Light Battery F, 4th United States Art.; Light Battery F, 5th United States Art.; General Staff; Hospital Corps, making a total of 11 officers, 224 men and also 15 officers, 258 enlisted men, Marine Corps; 6 government female nurses, 8 Red Cross female nurses, 2 women and 4 civilians.
Morgan City left San Francisco April 25, 1899, and arrived at Manila May 27, 1899, carrying the following officers and men: Acting Assistant Surgeon J. G. Reifsnydeer, U. S. A.; Acting Assistant Surgeon J. M. Williams, U. S. A.; 4th United States Cav.; 6th United States Art.; 9th United States Inf.; 12th United States Inf.; 14th United States Inf.; 18th United States Inf.; 21st United States Inf.; 22d United States Inf.; 23d United States Inf.; Signal Corps, U. S. A.; Hospital Corps, U. S. A., making a total of 10 officers and 606 men.
Ohio left San Francisco April 27, 1899, and arrived at Manila May 29, 1899, carrying the following officers and men: Acting Assistant Surgeon P. W. Beckman, U. S. A.; Acting Assistant Surgeon H. E. Stafford, U. S. A.; 13th United States Inf., Companies B, D, E, K, L and M; recruits; Signal Corps, U. S. A.; Hospital Corps, U. S. A ; Commissary Sergeants; making a total of 15 officers and 763 men.
Senator left San Francisco April 27, 1899, and arrived at Manila May 29, 1899, carrying the following officers and men: Maj. H. I. Raymond, Surgeon U. S. A.; Acting Assistant Surgeon G. W. Roberts, U. S. A.; Acting Assistant Surgeon C. B. Mittelstaedt; 13th United States Inf., Headquarters and Companies A, C, F, G, H and I; recruits Hospital Corps, U. S. A.; 9th United States Inf.; 14th United States Inf., making a total of 19 officers and 679 men.
Sherman left San Francisco May 22, 1899, and arrived at Manila June 18, 1899, carrying the following officers and men: Brigadier-General J. C. Bates, U. S. V.; Brigadier-General F. D. Grant, C. S. V.; Capt. S. E. Smiley, 15th United States Inf., Aide-de-Camp to General Bates; 1st Lieut. C. W. Fenton, 5th United States Cav., Aide-de-Camp to General Grant; Maj. B. Halloway, Additional Paymaster, U. S. V.; Maj. J. A. Canby, Additional Paymaster, U.S. V.; Capt. J. Baxter, Jr., Assistant Quartermaster, U. S. A.; Capt. J. A. Randolph, Post Char'ain, U. S. A.; Capt. and Assistant Surgeon C. Lynch, L. S. A.; Acting Assistant Surgeon H. E. Manage, C. S. A.; Acting Assistant Surgeon B. F. Van Meter, C. S. A.; Acting Assistant Surgeon W. L. Whittington, U, S. A.; Acting Assistant Surgeon J. T. Halsell, V. S. A.; 4th United States Cav.; 3d United States Art.; 6th United States Art.; 3d United States Inf.; 4th United States Inf.; 6th United States Inf.; 9th United States Inf.; 12th United States Inf.; 13th United States Inf.; 14th United States Inf.; 17th United States Inf.; 18th United States Inf.; 20th United States Inf.; 21st United States Inf.; 23d United States Inf.; Company A Engineer Battalion, U. S. A.; Signal Corps, U S. A.; Hospital Corps, U. S. A.; Commissary Sergeant, U. S. A., making a total of 46 officers, 1743 men and 5 civilian employees.
Grant left San Francisco May 30, 1899, and arrived at Manila June 26, 1899, carrying the following officers and men: Maj. Henry S. T. Harris, Brigade Surgeon, U. S. V.; Acting Assistant Surgeon W. H. Dade, U. S. A.; Acting Assistant Surgeon C. D. Lloyd, U. S. A; Acting Assistant Surgeon S. Richmond, U. S. A.; Capt. M. M. McMillan, Acting Quartermaster, U. S. V., Capt. Walter Marvine, Post Chaplain, U. S. A.; 16th United States Inf.; 1st United States Art.; 6th United States Art.; 9th United States Inf.; 12th United States Inf.; 18th United States Inf.; 21st United States Inf.; 13th Minnesota Inf.; Signal Corps, U. S. A.; Hospital Corps; Post Quartermaster Sergeant; recruits, making a total of 42 officers and 1655 men.
VESSELS SAILED FROM SAN FRANCISCO SINCE JUNE 1, 1899. June 22, Zealandia; June 24, Sheridan; June 28, Valencia. July 1, Pennsylvania; July 3, Wyefield, freight and 140 horses; July 11, Covenaugh, freight and 300 horses; July 13, City of Para; July 21, Tarter; July 26, New York; July 27, Ohio; July 27, (Ship) Tacoma, 260 horses. August 10, Indiana; August 10, Morgan City; August 14, St. Pauli August 15, Senator; August 18, City of Sidney; August 19, Siam, 373 horses and freight; August 29, City of Puebla; August 29, Leelanaw, 260 horses and freight. September 2, Warren; September 8, Columbia; September 10, Aztec, 364 horses and freight; September 16, Belgian k'ing.
THE CAPTURE OF MANILA.
HE arrival of the first detachment of American troops on June
30, 1898, found Dewey in possession of Manila Bay and of all the shore fortifications from Corregidor to Malate. The Filipinos had possession of all the interior of Luzon Island, and the Spanish forces, numbering about 5600 men, under Governor-General Augustin, were hemmed in Manila.
With the American fleet in possession of the bay and the Filipinos holding the interior, there was but one possible outcome of the siege, and yet the Spanish position in the city
was by no means weak. If well defended by a force sufficient to man the fortifications, it was well nigh impregnable to troops unsupported by heavy artillery. The defenses consisted of two walls surrounding the old town, known as the “Walled City," and numerous outlying works. The attack of the American forces was directed against the fortifications on the south and east of the city, and a description of these will serve for a description of the whole.
THE FORTIFICATIONS OF MANILA.
The west wall was built to ward off a sea attack; the south and east an attack by land. The total length of the south and east wall is 4900 feet, the south wall being 3300 and the east wall 1600 feet long. There are two of these walls, known as the inner and the outer wall. The outer wall is 15 feet high, on an incline from the top to the bottom on the outside, and the inner wall has a height of 25 feet, and is so arranged that firing is done over the heads of those occupying the outer wall. These walls are built of heavy masonry and are from 15 to 25 feet in width on the top, and so arranged that a large force can occupy them and be sheltered from a front fire. For instance, on the top of the inner wall there is a space about 20 feet in width which the troops occupy in action. In front of them is a stone wall 6 feet high, through which are loopholes. There is a moat surrounding the outer wall 100 feet wide, now nearly filled with debris and offal, in which water stands the year round. Between the walls is another moat varying in width from 125 to 150 feet, in a condition like the outer inoat. In this inside moat are three bastions, built in the same manner as the walls and connected with the inner wall by foot bridges. All these bastions and walls are surmounted by guns, some modern and heavy, others ancient and comparatively useless in modern warfare.
THE SPANISH DUNGEONS. Beneath these walls and covering their length underground are the “dungeons.” They are built in three apartments, the first 50 by 25 feet, the other two 30 by 25 feet. All are connected by stone causeways and built of solid masonry.
The guard-room to these is a little structure 8 by 12 feet. From this is an entrance to dungeon No. 1 by a series of stone steps, and the end of this descent is the gate of entrance, 2 feet high and 142 feet wide. The exit to the next dungeon
was of the same size SPANISH TRENCHES AT CAVITE.
and kind, and here another descent of a number of stone steps through a stone causeway and the same kind of entrance to dungeon No. 2. From dungeon No. 2 was a like causeway and descent to No. 3, which was located below sea level. There was a gate with iron grates opening from the third dungeon, which, when raised, would permit the water from the sea or Pasig River to flow into the dungeon. In this last dungeon it was the habit of the Spanish authorities to keep the Filipino prisoners, and when they failed to die of starvation or become too numerous, they could raise the gates. When the Spanish sought diversion in their executions they would take out the prisoners and publicly shoot them by the score. Two places were specially appropriated for this. One at the northwest corner of the wall, near the barracks and arsenal, and another across the street, south of the moat. Here most of the civilians were shot.
THE GATES, FORTS AND BARRICADES. There are six gates leading into the walled city, one of these being in the south wall mentioned, another in the east wall, and the remainder opening upon the bay or river. Nearly opposite the south gate and a little west of Luneta barracks is another fort similar in construction to the old wall, with moat and double walls. It covers nearly an acre of ground, and is 900 feet inland from the shore. Here was a powder magazine. At the place called Ermita, 1500 feet south of the city wall, were strong earthworks mounting a battery of Krupp guns, built as a defense against naval attack. Through this place extended the street or Calle Real from the wall southward to Malate, a distance of one mile. It runs nearly parallel to the shore and distant therefrom 200 to 500 feet. Here, extending across the street, was a strong barricade. It was 6 feet high and 6 feet wide at the top, with substantial buildings at either end, with openings between the sandbags on the top. At different places between this and Fort San Antonio, Abad, or Fort Malate, were three of these street barricades. In this suburb of Malate, all the streets or roads were crossed with these barricades. All through this section, also, were such barricades in the open, covering all approaches to the city. Twenty-four hundred feet south along the Calle Real Road, was another trench, commencing at the beach and extending eastward 700 feet. This barricaded the approach to Malate, the last suburb of the city south. The beach formed the west flank of this trench, and an impassable swamp the east flank. Five hundred feet south from this trench, is Fort Malate. This was a stone fort, built of solid masonry and mounted with modern guns. Instead, however, of a moat in front, there was a slough or waterway, 100 feet wide and varying in depth, depending upon tide and rain. The slough approached the fort from the east, thence deflected southward, and thence westward into the bay. The approaches to this were swamps and brush. A stone bridge crosses this stream by the fort on the Calle Real Road, and the approaches to this bridge were covered by strong stone walls. Connecting with this stone bridge and the fort, was a strong line of trenches. They extended from the fort to the beach, west, a distance of 200 feet, and from the fort eastward, a distance of 3000 feet to block-house No. 14, which was flanked on the east by an impassable swamp, and by the bay on the west.
THE SPANISH BLOCK-HOUSES. All over the country wherever the Spaniards had outposts, is found the blockhouse. They are all on the same plan, although of different material. Some are of stone, some stone in part and partly wood, and some are all of wood. Blockhouse No. 14 was the kind known as the wooden block-house. It was thirty feet square, two stories high, built on raised ground, sloping from the base outward at an incline of about fifty degrees. At the corners are ten-inch timbers to which heavy planks are nailed, extending from one corner to the other, both on the inside and outside, making a double wall of plank. The space between these walls is filled with a mixture of earth and stone, forming a kind of cement or macadam, though not hardened. Each story has loopholes suitable for rifle firing; the holes are six inches in
SPANISH BARRICADED STREET IN MALATE. diameter, have an incline of thirty-five degrees, the bottom of which is steellined, so that a shot entering the hole would strike the steel plate and glance upward above the heads of the men behind the guns. There was a trench around