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ment is the law of love, as it re- This commandment is frequents spects our neighbour's reputa- ly violated by authors. tion ; though, in the connexion slander is far worse when prints of human affairs, the violation of ed, than when only spoken. Reit may likewise affect his proper ligious controversy is often disty and life; and bearing false graced by the most abominable witness in a court of justice a- calumnies; for bigots of all par. mong us, may be perjury, rob- ties agree in mistating the acbery, and murder, as well as ca- tions, misquoting the writings, lumny. In such important con- and misrepresenting the words cerns we should attest nothing of their opponents. All lies are of which we have not the fullest a violation of this law. They assurance ; and every human are in every possible case passion should be watched, that abuse of speech, and of our our evidence may not be warped neighbour's confidence, and a by any of them. We should be derogation from the value of exact to a word in reporting what truth; and almost always injuwe know, and in speaking the rious to mankind. Even injuri. truth, and no more than the ous thoughts, groundless suspitruth. Equal caution is required cions, and secret prejudices, or in juries, and in the judge who envy of the praises which others decides the cause. The mali- receive, consist not with the spirs cious invention and circulation it of this precept, which requires of slanderous reports, to the in- sincerity, truth, fidelity, candour, jury of a man's character, is a and caution in all our conversa. heinous violation of this com: tion and conduct, and a disposimandment. To do this in sport tion to honour in every man what is an imitation of the madman, is honourable, to commend who“ throws about arrows, fire, what is commendable, to vindibrands and death” for his diver- cate and excuse what can be vinsion. To spread such stories as dicated and excused, and to con others have framed to the dis- ceal what may lawfully be con credit of our neighour, when we çealed ; and in every respect to suspect them to be false or ag consult his reputation, and even gravated ; or even if we suppose to rejoice in his credit and reor know them to be true, when nown, as we should were it our there is no real occasion for it, own, and might reasonably deis prohibited by this law; for the sire he also should. In our own practice results from pride, self- case we all feel the reasonable. preference, malevolence, or con: ness and excellence of the preceited affectation of wit and hu- cept in its strictest sense. We

Severe censures, bitter value, and are tender of our own sarcasms, ridicule, harsh judg- reputation ; we expect to be ments, ascribing good actions to treated with candour, respect, bad motives, innuendos, misrep- and sincerity; and we are greatly resentations, collecting and vend- pained and affronted, when we ing family anecdotes, and various are imposed upon, or held forth other practices of the same na- to scorn, ridicule, and censure, ture, can never consist with it. by the tongues or pens of others,


But through the exorbitancy of strange, that any professors of self love and want of love to oth- Christianity should allow themers, we are prone in an amazing selves to speak evil of others ? degree to violate the same rules And more strange still, that doing with respect to our neighbour, so should constitute a material without much remorse, or sense part of their religious character ? of guilt. Nor can words express Such mistake the nature of the how heinously this reasonable religion of Christ, and do more commandment is every day injury to his cause, than the transgressed in almost every most open enemies. If any man company, and among persons of seem to be religious, and bridlech all characters.*

not his tongue, that man's religWith the ninth commandment ion is vain. in view, does it not appear





For the Panoplist. ly true, that the Welch is a

branch of the same stock ; for AFFINITY BETWEEN

to this day many words in the THE LANGUAGES OF EUROPE

Welch are Hebrew, with very AND ASIA.

little alteration. It has been often asserted by Within a few years past, etylearned philologists, that the mological inquiries, which had scripture account of the origin been long neglected and held in of all mankind from a single pair little estimation, have been reis strongly supported by the affin- vived by some of the most learnity, which exists between the ed men in Europe ; new and imlanguages of Europe and Asia. portant discoveries have been This opinion is doubtless just, made ; and new light thrown and has received no small sup- upon the origin of languages, port from the inquiries of the which of course illuminates the Asiatic Society in India ; it be obscure pages of ancient history. ing found that the Persic and the It is probable that important disancient language of India, the coveries are yet to be made ; for, Sanscrit, had a common origin notwithstanding most of the with the Hebrew. It is well learned, as well as unlearned are known, that the Hebrew is the satisfied with the researches of most ancient language, of which other men, and employ their we have any knowledge, and that time and talents in reading and the Greek, Latin, and all the Teu: retailing the beauties of classical tonic dialects sprung from the authors ; yet there are a few inHebrew,or from the same origin- vestigating minds, like the late al stock with the Hebrew, Arabic, Sir William Jones, which look Chaldaic, and Coptic. It is equal for truth beyond the surface of

things and received opinions. * Scott's Commentary,

The following exhibition of ray of light on the affinity bethe Personal Pronouns, in a num- tween them, and gratify some of ber of languages, may throw a your readers.

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anu ,אנו" anechnu ,אנהנו" nechnu ,נהנו*

em ,הס



Plu. We

ye, you


Mas. Enx, atem Mas. 1797, eme
Fem. lnx, aten,


, *,

Fem. 1727, ene, , ep I thou he

ye, you

they Welch. mi or vi tit evt


chuit uynt Greek.



Gen. ou, I neus υμείς εφεις. αυτη ego


emeis ymeis spheis autoi Latin. Ego tut


ii-ex-ea Gothic. Ik thut is, si, ita weis


eis, iyos, iya Saxon. Ic thut he, hio, hit we, woe ge hi-hig, hio German. Ich

er, sie and es wir ibr

sie Dutch. Ik gy hu, zy, het wy gylieden zy-zylieden English. I thout he, she, it we

ye, you they Italian. lo tut elli, egli, ella noi voi eglino-elleno French.

il-elle, il nous*

yous eux, ils, elles Spanish. Yo tut el-ella, ello nosotros* vos vosotros ellos, ellas Portuguese. Eu tut el-ella, isso


elles, ellas

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In this exhibition or collection person of the Hebrew ati. The of the pronouns, the words, which third person of the Hebrew eme are obviously derived directly and em are preserved in the Teu. from the Hebrew, are designat. tonic article dem and the English ed by the same character. Thus them. This word was formerly the second and third person sin- an article or pronominal adjece gular, and the first person plu- tive in the Saxon, as it is still in ral, in several of the languages, the German. In dem himelen in bear unequivocal marks, in their them or the heavens—is the Ger orthography, of a direcț descent man use of the word. In Saxon from the Hebrew. The less ob- it was used in the genitive and vious resemblances are not de- dative cases, in the same manner, signated; but several other de and in the singular number as rivations, though less obvious, well as plural, “ innan tham are equally certain. Thus the watere-in the or them water, first person of the Greek, Latin, was correct primitive English. and Teutonic dialects, Ego, Ik, Our common people retain the are doubtless from the Hebrew original use of this pronoun, with ani, which probably was pro- some variation; they use it in the nounced in a different manner nominative as well, as in the ob: from what we should suppose lique cases, of the plural, but from the letters. The Greek never in the singular number, $u and the Latin tu are mere dia- Their practice, except as to the lectical variations of the second use of the word in the nomina:

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tive, is warranted by the original drawn. In order to arrive at a construction of the language, just view of the subject at the but has long been discountenanc- present time, it may be useful to ed by authors.

trace the changes, which, within It will be observed, that the the course of a few years, the first person of the pronoun in the general taste has experienced. Welch is mi or vi ; m and v be- One important alteration has ing cognate and convertible let- taken place, by exploding that ters. This word mi, pronounced false, but highly flattering docme, in the nominative, seems to trine, that all men were speedihave given rise to the French ly to become learned. This was moi, in the nominative, but cor- sedulously taught, greedily emresponds with the accusative case braced, and warmly extolled, of the word in Greek, Latin, and about the beginning of the English. Mi is the nominative French revolution, when such a case also in the Cornish and flood of ungodliness burst upon Armoric dialects of the Celtic. the world, laying waste the laIn the Teutonic dialects the bours and the hopes of man, and affinity is very 'obvious ; the threatening to overwhelm every harsh guttural sounds of Ego and thing desirable in complete deIk, being softened only in the struction. It was inculcated and southern pronunciation of I, je, believed, that information alone yo and eu.

was necessary to reform mankind; and what was still more captivating, that all men could

almost instinctively, and by the For the Panoplist. native energy of their minds, ON THE STATE OP LITERATURE

acquire this information ; that

learning had, till that happy era, IN NEW ENGLAND.

been confined to a few men, who This subject may lead to some were possessed of some talents, profitable reflections on the indeed, but were neither warmcauses, which tend to enlighten ed with philanthropy, nor or obscure, elevate or debase the dowed with minds sufficiently human mind. I am well aware comprehensive to fit them to bethat this is a subject sometimes come the instructors of manhandled, and frequently glanced kind; that the human powers ať ; but the field here entered had been unaccountably held in cannot be presented to the eye chains, and that the time was arat a single view.

rived, when the latent energies The first inquiry, which nat- of man were to display themurally offers itself, is; What selves, and liberate their unconis the present condition of lite- scious possessors from the rature, in this part of our coun- thraldom of ignorance and prejutry? In reply, it might seem dice; when every barrier of supresumptuous and dogmatical to perstition was to be broken attempt an exact representation down, and every strong hold of of every minute feature in the injustice demolished; when general character. Some traits, truth was to become omnipohowever, may be faithfully tent, and the blaze of science to


dispel all the darkness in which to do, (if, indeed, any Creator the world was involved. The were acknowledged,) was resolve causes of this wonderful change, ed with as little hesitation, and and more especially the manner as little reverence, as are exhibin which the philanthropists ited in the ordinary transactions were to produce it, were forgot- of life. The result of this selften to be explained. However, confidence was, that all became the enchantment took effect. teachers, and the relation of

How unfounded soever these learner scarcely existed but in pretensions were, they had at name. And although these inleast the influence to make mul- structors elashed with each othtitudes of the common people er, or with themselves, each one think themselves surprisingly regarded himself as an oracle, enlightened. The most difficult uttering truths under the direcand abstruse opinions, those tion of infallible reason. The which had undergone the most empire of science was overrun thorough examination of the with a swarm of poets and phiablest men, and the decision of losophers, naturalists, historians, which was yet sub judice, were and dramatists, numerous as the determined by all descriptions of locusts of Egypt. Innovation persons. To mention a com- succeeded innovation, and sysmon instance ; it was thought a tem was demolished after sysmatter almost too easy to re- tem. Sir Isaac Newton was apquire a moment's consideration, prehended in danger from the to direct what form of govern- puny efforts of St. Pierre, till sement was the best at all times, rious men stood wondering what and in all places, throughout the would be the issue, and when world. The duty of legislators, the impetuous tide would cease judges, and executive officers, in to rise. Nothing was thought all the boundless variety of cir- easier than to assume the chair cumstances, was perfectly evi- of philosophy, and become an indent, as soon as the subject was structor of mankind. It was alnamed. The decisions of Mi- most forgotten that prudence and nos were not received by the modesty were commendable traits Cretans with inore implicit hom- in the human character. The age, than each man thought due time was preeminently arrived, to his own. If any one had the when the child was to behave audacity to question their cor- himself proudly against the anrectness, submission was de. cient, and the base against the manded with the peremptori- honoursble.” ness of a papal bull, and the ob- But there is one happy jector was set down for a man circumstance attending all visof a narrow and bigotted mind, ionary schemes with respect and a selfish heart. The same to the things of common life and was the case with respect to re- daily observation. Though for ligion and morals, and every sub- a time they may dazzle and alject important to man. What it lure, yet experience will detect would be right, and what wrong, their fallacy and expose their abwhat wise, and what foolish for surdity. Thus the doctrine the Creator of heaven and earth which has been mentioned, has

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