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weight and moment, an oath is warranted by the word of God, under the New Testament as well as under the Old ;e so a lawful oath being imposed by lawful authority, in such matters, ought to be taken.f
III. Whosoever taketh an oath, ought duly to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act, and therein to avouch nothing but what he is fully persuaded is the truth.g Neither may any man bind himself by oath to any thing but what is good and just, and what he believeth so to be, and what he is able and resolved to perform. Yet it is a sin to refuse an oath touching any thing that is good and just, being imposed by lawful authority.i
nay; for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil. James v. 12. But above all things, my brethren, swear not, neither by heaven, neither by the earth, neither by any other oath: but let your yea be yea, and your nay, nay; lest ye fall into condemnation.
e Heb. vi. 16. For men verily swear by the greater: and an oath for confirmation is to them an end of all strife. 2 Cor. i. 23. (See letter b.) Isa. Ixv. 16. That he who blesseth himself in the earth, shall bless himself in the God of truth; and he that sweareth in the earth, shall swear by the God of truth, because the former troubles are forgotten, and because they are hid from mine eyes.
f 1 Kings viii. 31. If any man trespass against his neighbour, and an oath be laid upon him to cause him to swear, and the oath come before thine altar in this house. Neh. xiii. 25. And I contended with them, and cursed them, and smote certain of them, and plucked off their hair, and made them swear by God, saying, Ye shall not give your daughters unto their sons, nor take their daughters unto your sons, or for yourselves. Ezra x. 5. Then arose Ezra, and made the chief priests, the Levites, and all Israel to swear, that they should do according to this word: and they sware.
III. g Exod. xx. 7. (See letter b.) Jer. iv. 2. And thou shalt swear The Lord liveth, in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness; and the nations shall bless themselves in him, and in him shall they glory.
h Gen. xxiv. 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9. And Abraham said unto his eldest servant of his house, that ruled over all that he had, Put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh: and I will make thee swear by the Lord, the God of heaven, and the God of the earth, that thou shalt not take a wife unto my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I dwell. And the servant said unto him, Peradventure the woman will not be willing to follow me unto this land: must I needs bring thy son again unto the land from whence thou camest? And Abraham said unto him, Beware thou, that thou bring not my son thither again. And if the woman will not be willing to follow thee, then thou shalt be clear from this my oath only bring not my son thither again. And the servant put his hand under the thigh of Abraham his master, and sware to him concerning that matter.
i Numb. v. 19, 21. And the priest shall charge her by an oath, and say unto the woman, If no man have lien with thee, and if thou hast not gone aside to uncleanness with another instead of thy husband, be thou free from this bitter water that causeth the curse. Then the
IV. An oath is to be taken in the plain and commen sense of the words, without equivocation or mental reservation. It cannot oblige to sin; but in any thing not sinful, being taken, it binds to performance, although to a man's own hurt; nor is it to be violated, although made to heretics or infidels.m
priest shall charge the woman with an oath of cursing, and the priest shall say unto the woman, The Lord make thee a curse, and an oath among the people, when the Lord doth make thy thigh to rot, and thy belly to swell. Neh. v. 12. Then said they, We will restore them, and will require nothing of them; so will we do as thou sayest. Then I called the priests, and took an oath of them that they should do according to this promise. Exod. xxii. 7 to 11. If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of the man's house; if the thief be found, let him pay double. If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges, to see whether he have put his hands unto his neighbour's goods. For all manner of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, which another challengeth to be his; the cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whom the judges shall condemn, he shall pay double unto his neighbour. If a man deliver unto his neighbour an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast to keep, and it die, or be hurt, or driven away, no man seeing it; then shall an oath of the Lord be between them both, that he hath not put his hand unto his neighbour's goods: and the owner of it shall accept thereof, and he shall not make it good.
IV. k Jer. iv. 2. (See letter g.) Psal. xxiv. 4. He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart: who hath not lift up his soul unto vanity, nor sworn deceitfully.
11 Sam. xxv. 22, 32, 33, 34. So and more also do God unto the enemies of David, if I leave of all that pertain to him, by the morninglight, any that pisseth against the wall. And David said to Abigail, Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, which sent thee this day to meet me: and blessed be thy advice, and blessed be thou, which hast kept me this day from coming to shed blood, and from avenging myself with mine own hand. For in very deed, as the Lord God of Israel liveth, which hath kept me back from hurting thee, except thou hadst hasted and come to meet me, surely there had not been left unto Nabal, by the morning-light, any that pisseth against the wall. Psal. xv. 4. In whose eyes a vile person is contemned: but he honoureth them that fear the Lord: he that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not.
m Ezek. xvii. 16, 18, 19. As I live, saith the Lord God, surely in the place where the king dwelleth that made him king, whose oath he despised, and whose covenant he brake, even with him, in the midst of Babylon he shall die. Seeing he despised the oath by breaking the covenant, (when lo, he had given his hand,) and hath done all these things, he shall not escape. Therefore, thus saith the Lord God, As I live, surely mine oath that he hath despised, and my covenant that he hath broken, even it will I recompense upon his own head. Josh. ix. 18, 19. And the children of Israel smote them not, because the princes of the congregation had sworn unto them by the
V. A vow is of the like nature with a promissory oath, and ought to be made with the like religious care, and to be performed with the like faithfulness."
VF. It is not to be made to any creature but to God alone; and that it may be accepted, it is to be made voluntarily, out of faith, and conscience of duty, in way of thankfulness for mercy received, or for obtaining of what we want; whereby we more strictly bind ourselves to necessary duties, or to other things, so far and so long as they may fitly conduce thereunto P
Lord, God of Israel; and all the congregation murmured against the princes. But all the princes said unto all the congregation, We have sworn unto them by the Lord, God of Israel: now, therefore, we may not touch them. With 2 Sam. xxi. 1. Then, there was a famine in the days of David three years, year after year; and David inquired of the Lord. And the Lord answered, It is for Saul, and for his bloody house, because he slew the Gibeonites.
V. n Isa. xix. 21. And the Lord shall be known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the Lord in that day, and shall do sacrifice and oblation; yea, they shall vow a vow unto the Lord, and perform it. Eccl. v. 4, 5, 6. When thou vowest a vow unto God, defer not to pay it: for he hath no pleasure in fools; pay that which thou hast vowed. Better is it that thou shouldst not vow, than that thou shouldst vow, and not pay. Suffer not thy mouth to cause thy flesh to sin, neither say thou before the angel, that it was an error: wherefore should God be angry at thy voice, and destroy the work of thine hands Psal. lxi. 8. So will I sing praise unto thy name for ever, that I may daily perform my vows. Psal. lxvi. 13, 14. I will go into thy house with burnt-offerings: I will pay thee my vows, which my lips have uttered, and my mouth hath spoken, when I was in trouble.
VI. o Psal. Ixxvi. 11. Vow, and pay unto the Lord, your God: Let all that be round about him bring presents unto him that ought to be feared. Jer. xliv. 25, 26. Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, saying, Ye and your wives have both spoken with your mouths, and fulfilled with your hand, saying, We will surely perform our vows that we have vowed, to burn incense to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink-offerings unto her: ye will surely accomplish your vows, and surely perform your vows. Therefore, hear ye the word of the Lord, all Judah that dwell in the land of Egypt, Behold, I have sworn by my great name, saith the Lord, that my name shall no more be named in the mouth of any man of Judah, in all the land of Egypt, saying the Lord, God liveth.
p Deut. xxiii. 21, 22, 23. When thou shalt vow a vow unto the Lord, thy God, thou shalt not slack to pay it: for the Lord, thy God, will surely require it of thee; and it would be sin in thee. But if thou shalt forbear to vow, it shall be no sin in thee. That which is gone out of thy lips, thou shalt keep and perform; even a free willoffering, according as thou hast vowed unto the Lord, thy God, which thou hast promised with thy mouth. Psal. 1. 14. Offer unto God thanksgiving, and pay thy vows unto the most High. Gen. xxviii. 20, 21, 22. And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give me
VII. No man may vow to do any thing forbidden in the word of God, or what would hinder any duty therein commanded, or which is not in his own power, and for the performance whereof he hath no promise or ability from God.9 In which respects, Popish monastical vows, of perpetual single life, professed poverty, and regular obedience, are so far from being degrees of higher perfection, that they are superstitious and sinful snares, in which no Christian may entangle himself."
bread to eat, and raiment to put on; so that I come again to my fa ther's house in peace; then shall the Lord be my God. And this stone, which I have set for a pillar, shall be God's house and of all that thou shalt give me, I will surely give the tenth unto thee. 1 Sam. i. 11. And she vowed a vow, and said, O Lord of hosts, if thou wilt indeed look on the affliction of thine hand-maid, and remember me, and not forget thine hand-maid, but will give unto thine hand-maid a man-child, then will I give him unto the Lord all the days of his life, and there shall no razor come upon his head. Psal. lxvi. 13, 14. (See letter n.) Psal. cxxxii. 2 to 5. How he sware unto the Lord, and vowed unto the mighty God of Jacob; surely I will not come into the tabernacle of my house, nor go up into my bed: I will not give sleep to mine eyes, or slumber to mine eye-lids, until I find out a place for the Lord, an habitation for the mighty God of Jacob.
Acts xxiii. 12, 14. And when it was day, certain of the Jews banded together, and bound themselves under a curse, saying, That they would neither eat nor drink till they had killed Paul. And they came to the chief priests and elders, and said, We have bound ourselves under a great curse, that we will eat nothing until we have slain Paul. Mark vi. 26. And the king was exceeding sorry, yet for his oath's sake, and for their sakes which sat with him, he would not reject her. Num. xxx. 5, 8, 12, 13. But if her father disallow her in the day that he heareth; not any of her vows or of her bonds, wherewith she hath bound her soul, shall stand: and the Lord shall forgive her, because her father disallowed her. But if her husband disallow her on the day that he heard it; then he shall make her vow which she vowed, and that which she uttered with her lips, wherewith she bound her soul, of none effect; and the Lord shall forgive her. But if her husband hath utterly made them void on the day he heard them; then whatsoever proceeded out of her lips, concerning her Vows, as concerning the bond of her soul, shall not stand: her husband hath made them void, and the Lord shall forgive her. Every vow, and every binding oath to afflict the soul, her husband may establish it, or her husband may make it void.
r Matth. xix. 11, 12. But he said unto them, All men cannot receive this saying, save they to whom it is given. For there are some eunuchs, which were so born from their mother's womb: and there are some eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of men and there be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake: he that is able to receive it, let him receive it. 1 Cor. vii. 2, 9. Nevertheless, to avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband. But if they cannot contain, let them marry: for it is better to marry than to burn.
OF THE CIVIL MAGISTRATE.
GOD, the Supreme Lord and King of all the world, hath ordained civil magistrates to be, under him, over the people, for his own glory, and the public good; and, to this end, hath armed them with the power of the sword, for the defence and encouragement of them that are good, and for the punishment of evil-doers.a
II. It is lawful for Christians to accept and execute the office of a magistrate, when called thereunto :b in the managing whereof, as they ought especially to maintain piety, justice, and peace, according to the wholesome laws of each commonwealth; so, for that end, they may lawfully, now
Eph. iv. 28. Let him that stole, steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth. 1 Pet. iv. 2. That he no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh, to the lusts of men, but to the will of God. 1 Cor. vii. 23. Ye are bought with a price, be not ye the servants of men.
I. a Rom. xiii. 1 to 4. Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be, are ordained of God. Whosoever, therefore, resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist, shall receive to themselves damnation. For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same. For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil. 1 Pet. ii. 13, 14. Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake whether it be to the king as supreme: or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evil-doers, and for the praise of them that do well.
II. b Prov. viii. 15, 16. By me kings reign, and princes decree justice. By me princes rule, and nobles, even all the judges of the earth. Rom. xiii. 1, 2, 4. (See in letter a.)
c Psal. ii. 10, 11, 12. Be wise now, therefore, O ye kings: be instructed, ye judges of the earth. Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little blessed are all they that put their trust in him. 1 Tim. ii. 2. For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty. Psal. lxxxii. 3, 4. Defend the poor and fatherless do justice to the afflicted and needy. Deliver the poor and needy: rid them out of the hand of the wicked. 2 Sam. xxiii. 3. The