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Names of Cases.

Stoesiger v. S. E. Ry. Co., 3 E. & B. 549; 23 L.
F. (Q. B.) 293
Storm v. Stirling, 3 E. & B. 832; 25 L. F, (Q.
B.) 300; in error 6 E. & B. 333
Stuart v. Murrow, 8 Moo. P. C. 267
Sturtevant v. Ford, 4 M. & Gr. 101
Suffell v. Bank of England, 7 Q. B. D. 270
Sugan Chund Shivdos v. Mulchand Johari Mull,
12 Bom. H. C. R. 113

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Summers v. City Bank, L. R. 9 C. P. 580
Suse v. Pompe, 8 C. B. (N. S.) 538; 30 L. J. (C.
P.) 75
Swan ex parte, L. R. 6 Eq. 344
Swan v. N. British Austr. Co, 7 H. & N. 603; 2
H. & C. 175; 32 L. J. (Ex.) 277

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Taylor v. Croker, 4 Esp. 187
Thakur Doss v. Futteh Mull, 7 Beng. L. R. 275...
Thomas v. Bishop, 2 Stra. 955
Tikamdas Javakindas v. Gunga Mathurdas, II

Bom. H. C. R. 203

Wackerbath, ex parte. 5 Ves. 574
Walker v. Atwood, 11 Mod. 190

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Tindal v. Brown, 1 T. R. 167; 2 T. R. 186
Tinson v. Francis, I Camp. 19
Trapp v. Spearman, 3 Esp. 57
Trecothick v. Edwin, 1 Stark. 468
Treuttel v. Barandon, 8 Taunt. 100; 1 Moore 543
Triggs v. Newnham, 10 Moore 259
Trimbey v. Vignier...
Turner v. Leach, 4 B. & Ald. 451
v. Samson, 2 Q. B. D. 23

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Uncovenanted Service Bank v. Duffin, 3 N. W.

P. H. C. R. 99

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v. Barnes, 5 Taunt. 240 v. Hamilton, D. F. & F. 602 ... v. McDonald, 2 Exch. 527; (Ex.) 377... Walpole v. Pulteney, Doug. 249 Walter v. Haynes, Ry. & M. 149

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17 L. J.

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Warrington v. Early, 2 E. & B. 763 ; 23 L. J. (Q.

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B.) 47 v. Furbor, 8 East. 245 Warwick v. Rogers, 5 M. & Gr. 340

Names of Cases.

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Watson v. Russell, 3 B. & S. 40
Webb v. Fairmauer, 3 M. & W. 473
Webb v. Hewitt, 3 K. & F, 438
Wegersloffe v. Keene, 1 Stra. 214
Whistler v. Forster, 9 M. & W. 309; 14 C. B.

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(Q B.) 41 Wookey v. Pole, 4 B. & Ad.

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B.) 202 Woods v. Dean, 3 B. & S. 101; 32 L. Woodward v. Pell, L. R. 4

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(N. S.) 248; 32 L. J. (C. P.) 161 Whitaker v. Bk. of England, 1 C. M. & R. 744.. Wiffen v. Roberts, 1 Esp. 261 Wilders v. Stevens, 15 M. & W. 208; 15 L. J. (Ex.) 108

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Wilkins v. Jadis, 2 B. & Ad. 188; 1 Moo. & R. 41
Wilkinson v. Johnson, 3 B. & C. 428; 5 D. &
Ry. 403
v. Unwin, 7 Q. B. D. 636; 29 W. R.
(Q. B. D.) 458
Wilks v. Jack, Peake, 202
Willans v. Ayers, 3 App. Cas. 133
Williams v. Germaine, 7 B. & C. 468; 1 Moo. &

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R. 394

445

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Yates, ex parte, 2 De G. & F.

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4 C. P. D. 204 Young v. Grote, 4 Bing. 253..

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v. James, 15 Q. B. 498 ; 19 L. J. (Q. B.)

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v. Jarrett, 5 B. & Ad. 32
v. Waring, 10 B. & C. 2
Swabey, I Stark, 34

Wilson v.
Windle v. Andrews, 2 B. & Ald. 696
Winter v. Round, 1 M. H. C. R. 202
Wirth v. Austen, L. R. 10 C. P. 689
Wood v. Mytton, 10 Q. B. 805
Woodcock v. Houldsworth, 16 M. & W. 124; 16

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L. J. (Ex.) 49 Woodlands v. Fear, 7 E. & B. 519; 26 L. J. (Q

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J. (Q. B.) I Q. B. 55; 37 L. J.

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Yates v. Nash, 8 C. B. (N. S.) 581; 306

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Yglesias v. River Plate Bank, 3 C. P. D. 60,330. Yorkshire Banking Co. v. Beatson, 5 C. P. D. 109;

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191; 25 L. J.

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29 L. J. (C. P.)

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5 to note 3, add S. C. 17 Suth. W. R., 442.

13 note 3 for 11 A. & E. 213 read 11 Ad. & E., 213.

14 to note 1, add Manick Churd v. Jomoona Doss, I. L. R., 8 Cal., 645.

to note 4, add S. C. 42 L. J. (Q. B.) 183.

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15 in note 4 for L. R. 2 H. L. 143, read L. R. 2. H. L., 127.

16 to note 1, add Muttu Chetti v. Muttan Chetti, I. L. R., 4 Mad., 296.

20 to line 17 from bottom of page, add as a reference Carlon v. Kinealy, 12 M.

& W,

139.

25 to note 1, add S. C. 36 L. J. (Ex.) 94.

in note 4 instead of Moreland read Moulard,

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26 in line 15 from top for 7, read 61.

46 transpose the notes.

48 in note 2 after 3 E. & B. 549, add S. C. 23 L J. (Q. B.,) 293.

51 in side note to s. 24 for "months," read "days."

54 after note 2 in line 7 from top, insert, these two statutes are repealed by 45 & 46 Vict. c. 75.

56 in note 4 after Bankruptcy Court, insert but see Lynch, ex-parte, 2 Ch. D., 227.

59 in note 3 for 3 B. & A. 1, read 3 B. & Ad., 1.

61 in note 2 for 5 C. B. 563, read 5 C. B., 583.

62 in note 1, add I. L. R., 4 Mad., 375.

in note 3 for at p. 463, read at p. 643.

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63 in note 3 after 5 C. P. D. 109, add S. C. 4 C. P. D., 204.

68 in note 3 for 19 Q. B. read 16 Q. B.

74 to note 4, add S. C. 5 Dowl. 460.

88 to note line 2 between L, R. and P. C., add 3.

96 in note 3 after at p. 639, add S. C. 29 W. R. (Q. B. D.,) 458.

101 to note 2, add Commundeen Mohideen Saib v. Oree Meerah Saib, 7 M. H.

C. R. 275; Van Ingen v. Dhunna Lall, I. L. R. 5 Mad- 108.

103 to note 1, add S. C. 37 L. J. (Q. B.) 41.

110 in note 5 for 5 C. B. (N. S.) 214, read 9 C. B. (N. S.,) 214.

125 to note 3, add S. C. 19 L. J. (Ex.) 34.

135 in note 2 for L. R. 3 Q. B. 593, read L. R. 3 Q. B., 573,

in note 5 line 3 after 'reversed' insert, 9 Q. B. D. 555.

140 in note 2 after S. C. 14 M. & W. 831, insert S. C. 19 L. J. (Ex.) 34. ·

143 in note 1 before T. R., insert 1.

145 in note 1 for 2 Q. B. D. 21, read 2 Q. B. D., 23.

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in note 3 for 3 A. & E. 193, read 3 Ad. & E., 193.

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147 to note 4, add S. C. 17 Suth. W. R., 442.

150 in note 3 after 2 Q. B. 388, add S. C. 11 L. J. (Q. B.) 121'; 2 G. & D.,

116.

155 in note 1 after 8 B. & C. 610, add S. C. Moo. & R., 23.

175 in note 3 for 8 C. B. at p. 166, read 8 C. B. (N. S.) 538.

177 to note 1, add S. C., P. & D. 408

181 in note 1 for 455, read 251,

THE

NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS ACT,

1881.

An Act to define and amend the law relating to
Promissory Notes, Bills of Exchange and Cheques.

WHEREAS it is expedient to define and amend the Preamble. law relating to promissory notes, bills of exchange and cheques; It is hereby enacted as follows:

CHAPTER I.

PRELIMINARY.

1. This Act may be called "The Negotiable Short title. Instruments Act, 1881:"

usages relating

It extends to the whole of British India; but Local extent. nothing herein contained affects the Indian Paper Currency Act, 1871, section twenty-one, or affects Saving of any local usage relating to any instrument in an to hundis, &c. oriental language: Provided that such usages may be excluded by any words in the body of the instrument, which indicate an intention that the legal relations of the parties thereto shall be governed by this Act;

Commence. ment.

and it shall come into force on the first day of March 1882.

This is a reservation of Sec. 92 prov. (5) of the Evidence Act I of 1872, whereby any usage or custom by which incidents, not expressly mentioned, in a contract are usually annexed to contracts of that description may be proved. The Proviso would seem to relate to express contracts, and of course all instruments in any European language will come within the provisions of the Act.

Nothing in the Transfer of Property Act (IV of 1882, Sec. 139) is applicable to negotiable instruments.

The following is a lucid account of what a hundi is, and points out in clear language in what it differs from a bill of exchange— it is taken from a Judgment of Arnould J., in the Bombay High Court. "The documents on which the moneys were sought to "be recovered in the suit were paid, were hundis made payable "to Shah Shah Jogi and such hundis differ from bills of exchange "in one very material circumstance, amongst others, that, as a 'general rule, the acceptance of the drawee is not written across

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them, so as thereby to give them an additional degree of mer"cantile credit, and to that extent to make it just to impose an "additional degree of liability on the acceptor; but as a rule the

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particulars are only entered in the drawee's books. It may be "added also as a general rule, that hundis are very frequently "not presented for acceptance, before they are presented for pay

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ment, that is before they are either due or over-due."

The general process is this:- "The Shah' or person who has "bought or holds the hundi, and whose name must always be in"dorsed on it before it is presented, sends one of his men to the "shop of the drawee, whose Killidar, after referring to the par"ticulars of advices relating to the hundi, which have in due σε course been previously entered in the Chitti nond, or bill book, "and finding it correspond therewith, thereupon enters in the

1 Shah means responsible, respectable: a man of worth and substance, known in the bazaar. A hundi payable to Shah is paid on the responsibility of the Shah, Davlatram v. Bulakidas, 6 Bom. H. C. R., at p. 28.

Foog Fogi is equivalent to payee, the person who has the right to be paid; Thakar Das v. Futteh Mull, 7 Beng. L, R, at

p. 302.

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