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in London, but his goods were ordered 1601, acted as its chief agent at Banto be seized upon arrival. “Thus," says tam from 1605 to 1008, and commanded the editor of his diary, "in disgrace and various ships at different times. In broken in health, Cocks went on board 1614 he married the widow of Captain the Ann Royal, and on the 24th of William Hawkins, an Armenian whom February (1624) sailed for England. Hawkins had married at Agra, in 1009, But he was not to see his country at the suggestion of the Grand Mogul. again. A month later, on the 27th of Her mother subsequently married "a March, he died at sea, and was buried Dutchman, from Antwerp, called Abra‘linder a discharge of ordnance.'” ham de Duyts, a diamond polisher, a
The subsequent services of Richard great friend of the Prince Sultan Khurliudson with the East India Company ram (son of the Grand Mogul) in were to be in India.
whose service he was." The year alter
his marriage, Towerson applied to the Katharine Hudson in India, 1617-1619 was refused. In this situation, being
Company to be again employed, but It would seem a reasonable assump- doubtless in need of employment, his tion that a woman who had lost a thoughts naturally turned to his fatherhusband and one son in the cause of in-law, and it was in the hope of proexploration, and who had sent another moting his interests at the Indian court son (perhaps the only one remaining, that he prevailed upon the Company to to far-off Japan, had made sacrifices allow himself and wife a passage. enough to the adventurous spirit of the Richard Steel, “a young man of Brisage. It appears, however, that the tol," who had been in Persia, had conatmosphere of adventure, in which she ceived a hare-brained project for buildhad lived so many years, was more ing water-works for the city of Agra, powerful with Mrs. Hudson than such and prevailed upon the Company to considerations as these. 'Nearly three allow him to take out in the fleet a years after her son's departure from number of workmen for that purpose. England, fired with ambition to do Before sailing, he had secretly married some adventuring on her own account, Miss Webbe, and they took passage on she obtained leave of the Company to different ships; but her condition upon go to India on one of its ships.
arrival at the Cape caused a scandal The fleet of the year 1617 consisted and obliged him to acknowledge her of five ships, all under the command and to go on board the Gift. Captain of Martin Pring,—the same Pring who, Salmon wrote the Company, from in 1603, was the first European captain Saldania, concerning this, in lively to sail into Massachusetts Bay. Mrs. Style: Hudson was a passenger on the New Year's Gift, Nathaniel Salmon, captain. "But before I pass the equinocOn the same ship were Captain Gabriel tial, I am to acquaint your HonTowerson, his wife, and Francis ours and Worships with a strange Webb, a young woman whom Mrs. accident which hath happened conTowerson had leave to take along as trary, I do think, to any of your her lady-in-waiting. This group of peo expectations; and that is that one ple were closely associated with Mrs. of the gentlewomen which came Iludson and merit brief notice.
with Captain Towerson and his Towerson was probably a son of the wife is great with child William Towerson, who was a "mer but the best is she hath a father for chant adventurer," made a voyage to it in the fleet, yet none aboard of Guinea about 1555, and was interested the Gift (where haply it might be in the voyages to the northeast of Fen judged, were not the contrary ton and Davis. It is also possible that known) but aboard the Anne; the he was related to the Hudsons. He arty, Mr. Richard Steele, who was in the Company's first voyage, in was married unto her before our
coming forth and since the ack book are given in Churchill's Voyages, nowledgment of it hath been which give a picture of the English resident aboard our ship. Cap factory at Surat, very nearly as it extain Towerson and his wife isted at the time of Mrs. Hudson's were ignorant of it until it was visit. : publicly known; only it was Mas Glad as they were to welcome the ter Steele's project at home to get fleet, the coming of Towerson and them to entertain her, and so had Sieel with the women in their party thought it should have been kept was an unpleasant surprise to the facsecret till they had come to tors at Surat. The factory building Suratt."
properly, without inconvenience to the The fleet reached the Cape at the factors. A letter from Edward Monos cnd of June and the Comoro Islands to the Company shows how they felt in the middle of August. The Gift about it: captured on the way a Portuguese tiader, carrying gold and ivory from “Mrs. Steele shortly after her Mozambique to Diu, worth between sea travel travailed on shore, and cight and nine thousand pounds. The brought forth, to the no small jcy same ship, with the aid of the Bee, of her husband, a goodly young also rescued a Mogul ship from two son, of whom you may hope one Finglish freebooters, just before reach day to have as good service as ing port and, giving chase, took thein as from his father; but in the meanprizes. They reached Suwali, the out time you must be content to suffer port of Surat, on September 20th, and want of due service from some Capt. Towerson and his party took up whom would be glad to extheir quarters in the English factory press their duty therein, which ai the latter place.
for want of convenient room The city of Surat, former site of the they could not perform, the house presidency for the East India Com being so pestered with them and pany, is the chief city and administra Captain Towerson and their retive headquarters of Surat District, tinue that for my own part Bombay. It lies on the south bank of during my abode there I had no the river Tapti, ten miles from the sea. chamber to lie in nor place to Farly travellers describe it as populous write in, which caused me unwiliand wealthy, and it is still an im ingly to omit duties which, otherportant town, although most of its wise, I should have performed; tiade has long since been transfered to notwithstanding Mr. Kerridge had Bombay. Both the English and the been plain enough divers times Dutch had their principal factories both with Captain Towerson and there in the early days of their trade, the rest, who could not or would and the French also had a small settle not find a house in all the town o ment. It was the custom for trading serve his turn; but I cannot greatships to dispose of only a part of their ly blane him, for it eased his purse cargoes at Surat, in exchange for in well. But hy great importunity, a digo, and then to sail to Acheen and little before my departure, he was Bantam, where they exchanged the persuaded to take a house (though remainder of their European goods, not to his liking); so I hope before as well as the Gujarat cottons taken on this time he is removed. But at Surat, for spices for the home mar what he intends to do, I think, no ket. In 1638 a young gentleman of man knows, no, not himself; for Fiolstein, Albert de Mandelslo, paid a while they were at sea all their visit to Surat and left an interesting talk was in going to Agra, but account of it, which was published at since their landing, from that I.ondon in 1669. Extracts from this course quite altered. I fear of a
bootless errand he is come out promptly before Roe and to ask for and of a sleeveless one lie must re instructions. The coming of the party turn home; but I much doubt you with their demands for special priviwill find it had been better you leges, gave Sir Thomas much annoyhad given him £500 than his pas arce; but he was a man of firmness sage forth and home in your end did not shrink from his duty. He
replied promptly and fully, ieaving the
factors no room for doubt as to his The son born to Mrs. Steel was the views. He refused to permit Towerscond child born of English parents son or Steel to endanger the lives of in India.
the women in their party by travelling The factors at Surat were three in without a proper escort; while urging number: Thomas Kerridge, Thomas them to send the women home, he Rastell, and Giles James. Over them strove with kind words to attach them was Sir Thomas Roe, who had been to the Company's service; private sent as an ambassador to the Grand trade in cotton goods he would allow, Mogul, Jahangir, charged with the under certain conditions ; but as to the duty of negotiating a treaty. His Jour- clief commodity, indigo, he positively nal, published in part of Purchas and forbade it. He insisted that Towerson more fully in Churchill's Voyages, gives and Steel must bear their own an entertaining account of his adven- penses and reproved the factors for tures. At the time of the arrival of permitting the latter to use some oi Pring's fleet he was at Mundu, where the Company's funds. "Captain TowJahangir then resided, awaiting the erson and his wife will be welcome outcome of his negotiations.
hither; but if the king continue his purMrs. Hudson took with her the sum fose, it will ease them much to meet of £100, which she wished to invest us at Amadavaz (Ahmedabad). Comin private trade. The Surat factors mend me to them; they shall find the were careful to lay this matter, as well Company's respect in me.” as Towerson's and Steel's desires, , Late in October the imperial court
left Mandu and moved by slow stages toward Ahmedabad. Roe left the former place on the 29th and overtook the royal cortege two days later; on the ad of the following month he was joined by Steel, who brought some pearls which Roe had promised the Mogul's minister. After an interview with Steel, Roe wrote the factors:
"I have dealt with Mi. Steel very fairly and clearly, and opened his mind. He gives me satisfaction in his promises, and I doult not to accommodate all so well as we may live like friends. The principal difference will be about his wife. For both their misfortunes I am sorry; but we must all endeavor to mend and not to make the worst or take advantage of errors. To this purpose I have dealt freely with him, to let him sec the inconvenience that will follow to us, the charge to him, the displeasure of the Company, all which may be recured by a good course, to persuade her to return home, which I have prevailed so far in as that his own reason hath drawn his consent, and to that end hath promised his endeavor to satisfy the gentlewoman, whom I am sorry for. But this cannot be so well effected except you join with him to discourage Captain Toweison from purpose to stay. His father (father-in-law) will do little, nor is able; his mother-inlaw poor, at Agra, and he will be consumed if he fal! to travel on his own purse, and from the king can expect nothing but penny for penny at best; his wife's aunt promised in marriage to Frans Swares, the predigal Portugall; and finally notlıthing before him but consumption. I write this plainly for good will, if he so accept it. Therefore he shall do most discreetly to return in a fair ship; for his wife cannot have any English women in company with her, with our safety. This at large I have discoursed to Mr. Steel .. For
Mr. Steel, perhaps some mistaking in him at first might move discontent and some roughness to him occasion it. I had myself some exceptions against him, but I have passed them. I desire you to do the like. By private letters of recommendations I find him well respected at home, and, therefore, we must not be too rigid here, as long as he offereth his employ ments and endeavors so fairly. He hath taken pains and travaii; and if some of his projects are yet doubtful, some in my judgment irfeasible, yet we must not disgrace them without trial, lest we incur the same censure of rashness which by it we would cast upon him. Therefore, I desire you ne may be fairly used, admitted as a second man into your consultations, for that he is to bide here and those for Bantam more strangers to this business than he can be. I doubt not, his professions are so fair, he will every way be conformable to the service of the Company, and by all industry assist your business. Therefore, I shall likewise hope you will use him with courtesy, forgetting of all sides past passions. Thus the business proceedings, and he prevailing with his wife for her return, I desire he may return to me with the presents, bringing with them his artificers as a guard; for, the court settling at Amadavaz, we will make full trial what may be effected, that we answer upon judgment the Company's expectation, etc.”
It is clear from this that there had been dissension between Steel and the Surat factors, and that they had refused to admit him to their councils. Five days later, while still upon the road in Mogul's train, Roe wrote the factors:
"If I find any fault it is at you. that you will suffer Mr. Steele to run out at beginning, to take the Company's money to lay out for
a house, or to waste in his expense any way. If he will be vain, let him do it at his own cost; for, roundly, I will not allow any extra ordinary charge for his wife, and therefore I pray reckon with him. If she return and he stay, I will do him all kindness according to his desert, and recommend her to the Company's care. Excuse what is past, but let not them smart for it that are innocent. You that have the Company's purse must order it. Money is dear ware in India. I would have you use her
your and my advice may be favored.
· His (Steel's) wife will be ruled and return; and therefore consider her sex. Use her lovingly, assist her and lend her all fit comforts. I hope the house kept apart is at their own charge, for I perceive not the Company intended to keep their families. You have done as much as is necessary to Capt. Towerson. He will be deceived in Court and in his wife's friends. If he will not see it, let him run his fortune, so the other women return.
and Captain Towerson with courtesy, but not to live upon you, lest they stay too long."
His next letter was written in "The Woods, 30 course (koss, about 60 miles) short of Amadavaz," on Decemter 6th; and discusses Mrs. Hudson's wishes:
"For private trade you know my orders, and I the
the Company's pleasure. The prime commodity (indigo) no man, I hope, will deal in under any pretence; cloth, if they do, and consent to acquaint the factors with it and remit it to their masters, it may pass, and by
I received Mrs. Hudson's desires from herself. And for indicoes, she pleads Sir Thomas Smith's consent; which, if in writing, private or public I had yielded to; now I cannot. Her demand is like Martin's, to have the Company's (indigo) for money, or to invest it for her. Your answer must be as mine; the first is unreasonable and cannot be answered; the second is too late and cannot be fulfilled. If she desires it in cloth (that takes small bulk), though these sums are very great, yet for her £100 you may admit, consign it to the Company, and