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officer from the highest to the lowest rank to handle large masses of men. The increase of men under an officer's control tests his ability and quickly shows the line at which he ceases to be an effective commander. The manoeuvres were largely devised for the purpose of bringing officers face to face with conditions involving handling of large bodies of men, and the results achieved indicate that certain officers are qualified for advancement while some command as many men as they will ever be capable of handling. They were of especial value to the Commissary and Quartermaster's departments. The test was a severe one but proved that, with an occasional exception, these departments were commanded by efficient men. Although the manoeuvres were from the fourteenth to the twenty-first, many of the troops were on duty ten to fourteen days. The Ioth Cavalry left Fort Ethen Allen, Vt., on the tenth, the District of Columbia troops left on the eleventh, while Battery A, of Boston, and the New York troops, started on the twelfth. It was not until Friday, the 13th, that the invading force commenced to land at New Bedford. On the afternoon of that day the

United States army transport, Kilpatrick, loafed up Buzzards Bay at a fiveknot gait, felt her way up the Acushnet River and made fast to a pier at New Bedford, closely followed by the Puritan and Pilgrim. The city had been all “agog” for two day, as well she might, as the scenes were such as any American city seldom sees and New Bedford considered herself remarkably fortunate to be able to witness the spectacle. All the afternoon the moving troops filled the narrow streets, while bulky auto trucks of the quartermaster's department rumbled back and forth as they moved commissary supplies and ammunition to the front. Crowds stood in gaping wonder at the strange and interesting sights, windows and roofs were crowded, every available place from which a good sight of the soldier could be obtained was filled. Many had dreamed of such things but had never expected to see them, at any rate not in the staid old thoroughfare of their town. Somehow, order gradually came out of the chaos of boxes, stacked arms, cavalry horses and mixed companies cn the water front and shortly after three o'clock the troops began to move in



land. The route of march led through the northern end of the town and out into the country, and finally, bit by bit, the long line of infantry, cavalry and artillery was broken into segments and sent into various fields for temporary camps, and when the sun came up on Saturday morning, General Bliss's Red Army was ready for its advance on Boston. It also found General Pew and his Blue Army on its way to the front and when night came its line of defence extended from Taunton to Plymouth, over seventeen miles. On the extreme left was the 9th infantry then the 8th and 5th, forming the 1st Brigade at Halifax; then came the Provisional Brigade at Division headquarters, including the 1st and 2nd Corps of Cadets, Troop A, Batteries A, C and D at Robin Pond. The 1st Brigade, made up of the Coast Artillery Corps, 2nd Regiment and 6th Regiment at Paper Mill Village, near Bridgewater, with Troops A and D at Scotland. Saturday night was one of the coldest of the summer and the soldiers of botli armies were too cold to sleep much, but lay shivering all night, and were only too glad when reveille blew at four o'clock. On Sunday the Brigade camps were spread out, each sending a battalion of infantry several miles South. The battalion, in turn, sent squads and companies to patrol and reconoiterall roads. The 3rd battalion of the 8th Regiment, under the command of Major Perry, was advanced as far South as South Halifax. The movements of the invading Red Army on Sunday consisted of a simple advance and at night it camoed South of Lake Assawampsett and Long Pond. During the day miles of wire had been laid in advance toward Taunton and cavalry and bicycle scouts were sent off in that direction, giving every indication that General Bliss intended to strike the Blue Army's right flank. Waiting several hours the next morning, apparently with the idea of giving General Pew an opportunity to act upon the information which his scouts

brought in, General Bliss suddenly shifted his forces some ten miles East, sending his cavalry directly North to capture Middleboro. The cavalry scouts ran into the point of the advance guard of the 8th Regiment about a mile North of Middleboro at eleven o'clock and were fired upon. They did not realize at the time that the Commander-in-Chief of the Blue Army, Gov. Draper, was in the saddle within a short distance on his way to town, or, possibly, they would have attempted to have captured him. As is was, both parties made a hasty retreat. The shcts, however, brought up the 1st battalion of the 8th Regiment, who entrenched on Pratt's Hill, just out of the town, which they held until nearly one o'clock, when the Ioth U. S. Cavalry charged the hill, re-enforced by the New Jersev Cavalry and the Connecticut bicycle squad. It was almost history repeating itself. There was San Juan again, even to Richard Harding Davis, who arrived just at the essential moment and continued to be in the thick of all the battles during the entire week. Of course, the battalion of the 8th was driven back, but they retired in good order with small loss. At night the invading army had advanced about seven miles. Its advance force was in possession of Middleboro and its main army was located at Rock, about eight miles South of the city. General Bliss stated that he had suddenly changed his plans and advanced on the right flank because General Pew had gone to the trouble of blowing up several bridges in the path. As night closed in the drizzling rain which had been coming down from time to time during the day turned into a downpour and added to the discomfort of the preceding nights of chilly atmosphere. During the evening the streets and hotels of Middleboro were crowded with soldiers, sightseers and war correspondents, the latter really forming a third army; every paper in Boston and New York having from two to fifteen men representing it. They were here, there and everywhere, some went into battle in automobiles, others in the saddle or a carriage and many others walked. Wet or dry, hot or cold, they were never absent, and even the soldiers themselves realized before the week was out what the men with red and blue bands about their arms did in order that their friends at home might hear of the manoeuvres. There was no rowdyism or ill feeling between soldiers and citizens. The natives of the district through which the soldiers marched extended cordial greetings. Flags were displayed from nearly every farm house and both armies were cheered all along their marches. The kind acts shown were too many to mention. All night long the rain came down in sheets. When the two armies pitched their camps, green soldiers lay down to sleep in pools of water and sentries had hard work lifting their feet in waterlogged shoes.


The next morning more than one soldier repeated Sherman's famous aphorism as he pulled himself together and fell into line at four o'clock, with a north-easter, the worst for many a month, threatening to blow away the camp. Shortly after five the Red Army advanced with a screen of cavalry thrown out on its left. This cavalry soon encountered a Blue force at “The Green,” two miles north of Middleboro, which finally fell back on the rise outside of the little hamlet of Eddyville. Here for three hours Colonel Sweetzer's regiment, the 8th lay in the slanting drive of the rain and fired from behind solid stone walls and mossy headstones of the old graveyard on the hill, and held at bay the entire strength of the Red Army. Just as the 8th was about to retreat before the fierce attack of the 7th New York, the Battery. A machine guns got into action. This required the Red Army to hold up until its field artillery could be brought up and put the machine guns out of business. After this there was nothing to do but retreat in good order and at one o'clock the Red Army had an advance of eight miles to its credit. As night approached it found the men of both armies drenched to the skin and facing a tough proposition. Not a dry spot in or near the camps was to be found and, in most cases, the blankets, that the soldiers were to throw over them, were as wet as was their clothing. The weather was cold and it was still raining in torrents. However, the men were pretty well exhausted after the long march in the rain with water-soaked coats on, Pup tents and blankets rolled horse collar about their necks and so slept in spite of the existing conditions. For two days and a night it had rained without let up. All the roads had been converted into quagmires and the camping places of the troops had become really unfit for the pasture of horses. The men themselves were not only wet and tired but they were bruised and footsore and, in many cases, actually suffered. The Red Army camped between Plympton and North Carver and the outlook for General Pew was bad. It seemed as though the Red Army had got the jump on him, but he was cleverly concentrating his army without taking the press into his confidence. On Wednesday morning the rain was still falling, but after a while the sun came out, only to be followed by more rain. Although the men from both sides had a bad night they appeared contented even though they were still , wet to the skin. There were repeated skirmishes as the Reds advanced. General Bliss's main body was marching directly North over the road which leads from Plympton to Bryantville, by way of Monponset Pond, while on a parallel road he had a line of defence from which a cavalry screen was thrown out. His idea was to engage the Blue Army at every cross road with his defence, and under the impression that


it was the advance of his main body, hold them until his real main force had got a good advance. It was a clever scheme and worked beautifully at first and General Bliss in this way really succeeded in getting around the Blue's left flank. The Red Army won most of the skirmishes during the morning and would have won the battle of Halifax at noon but for the timely arrival of Colonel Thomas Talbot and the 1st and 2nd Corps of Cadets, which was just enough of a re-enforcement to check the advance, and at one o'clock, which was the time hostilities ceased, each day, General Pew's army was holding its own. The Blue Army had been scattered over twenty to thirty miles of defensive line owing to the uncertainty of where the attack would be made, and on Wednesday night few expected that General Pew could rally his forces in time, and the press of the country announced in headlines that it was defeated and Boston, theoretically, was captured. They did not know General Pew, nor foresee the masterful way in which he was to concentrate his forces. It took long and fast marches which astounded the Red Army. Even the regular army officers and the foreign attaches were amazed when, on Thursday morning, they found the Blue Division Headquarters at South Hanson, with its entire army massed about it. ... For four days the Blue Army had given way against the on-slaughtering

of the enemy, and for four days they

had been credited with defeat. They were not defeated; it was part of their game to fall back until their army was ready. They were now realiy and instead of waiting to be attacked they made the advance. At six o'clock in the morning the battle of Bryantville took place. As on previous days, General Bliss sent a force at the Blue Line while his main army proceeded North. The 1st and 2nd District of Columbia Infantry turned into Bryantville with instructions to hold their ground, if possible, until eight o'clock, at which time the

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