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made gaps in their ranks, which will be noted in passing. The first mention of young Hudson by Cocks is under date of April 20, 1616, when he seems to have been temporarily residing at Osaka and to have sent a letter by Eaton:

“I received a letter from Ric. Hudson, with 2 others, 1 from Capt. Adames sonne, and the other from our hostes at Miaco and Osakay, he of Miaco sending me 2 pewter basons for a present, and the other of Osakay 1o pewter pottage dishes.”

In the summer of this year the old Shogun, Iyeyasu, died and was succeeded by his son, Hidetada. It was, therefore, necessary to send a representative to the court of the new ruler, to petition for the confirmation of the English trading privileges. The ships Thomas and Advice arriving from England at this juncture, the visit became doubly necessary. Cocks assembled the presents and set out, on the 30th of July, and was absent till December 4th. He was accompanied by Captain Adams, who had just returned from Siam, also by Eaton and Richard Hudson. It was his intention to leave the latter at Miaco to be taught the Japanese tongue; but Hidetada was of a different mind from his father and this privilege, as well as the others sued for, was denied. Cocks says, in a letter to John Browne, at Patani:

“Yet we have had much trouble (in) these parts per means of the death of Ogosho Samma, the old Emperor, in whose place Shongo Samme, his son, succeeds. So that (I) was forced to go to his court to get our privileges renewed which voyage I was above four months before I returned to Firando, which was but ten or twelve days past. And yet, do what I could, our privileges are curtailed and we restrained to have trade only at this town of Firando and Langasaque. So that we are forced to withdraw our factories

from Edo, Miaco, Osakay and Sackay, not without great hindrance to the present sale or despatch of our commodities. In fine, I might not be suffered to leave an English boy (Richard Hudson) behind me to learn the Japon tongue, it is so strictly looked into.”

In a letter to the Company, Cocks wrote further concerning this:

“And it is to be noted that at my retorne to Miaco, haveingdonne such busynes as I had theare, I would have left Richard Hudson, a boy, your Wor. servant, to have learnd to write the Japans; but might not be suffered to doe it, the Emperour haveing geven order to the contrary.”

Before his return to Firando, Cocks visited the estate of Captain Adams and greatly admired its material advantages and Adams' power over it. He says:

“This Phebe (Hemi) is a lordshipp geven to Capt. Adames per the ould Emperor, to hym and his (heirs) for eaver, and confermed to his sonne called Joseph. There is above Ioo farmes or howsholds upon it, bisids others under them, all which are his vassals, and he hath power of life and death over them, they being his slaves, and he as absolute authoritie over them as any tomo (or king) in Japon hath over his vassales.”

Captain Adams' term of service with the Company had expired, but he continued to make himself useful at the factory and elsewhere.

With their trading privileges curtailed, the life at Firando was contracted within narrow limits. 'The good Captain rambles amiably along in his diary, entering trivialities and complaints in the most painstaking manner, and recording the quarrels among the members in a helpless kind of way. On March 8, 1618, “Ric. Hoodson paid Georg Durons (a member of the Dutch factory) for sope and candelles, viz:—



ta [els] m [as] Co [candareens] For 18 cakes sope...... I O O For 128 tallo cannelles. I 6 O

and the following day: “Ric. Hudson paid I tay 3 mas for a vyne tree to be carid to Firando.”

But if the records are scanty, it is not to be inferred that nothing of interest transpired. Wickham left Japan early in 1618, and went to Java, where he died soon after his arrival, leaving an estate of £5000 or £6000, made in private trading. Travelling visitors arrived and departed, Englishmen, Dutchmen, Spaniards, Portuguese, captains, merchants, men-o’-war's-men, missionaries, and so forth. They seem to have been a hardy lot of swashbucklers, equally ready to fight, drink, or go adventuring, and some of them caused the peace-loving cape-merchant much trouble.

One cause alone—their rivalries and troubles with the Dutch—kept the little

band in a state of agitation and at one time brought them into grave danger. Cocks disliked and distrusted his Dutch neighbors from the first, and was at no pains to conceal his feelings, while the Dutch seem to have been in much the same state of mind. Instead of being allies against the Spanish and Portuguese, as was originally hoped, the Dutch proved themselves formidable rivals, who undersold the English and, in the end, starved them out. The dissensions between the rival factories form a large part of the burden of Cocks' diary, throughout the whole period of his stay. After the curtailment of the English privileges, the altered state of feeling at Yedo was reflected in the conduct of the local Japanese officials, and especially by the Dutch neighbors, until there ensued a state of almost open warfare. In August, 1618, to the intense indignation of the English, a Dutch ship brought in as a prize the English ship Attendance, which had been captured in the Moluccas. Remonstrance to the Dutch producing no result, a journey to court was made and a written protest enteled, but this proved equally fruitless. From January 14, 1619, to December 5, 1620, the diary is missing, and the only record of events is in Cocks' letters to the Company. In the early part of this period the Dutch were masters of the sea and the little band of Englishmen were completely cut off. During this period the Dutch made a determined attack upon the English factory. and the lives of the members would doubtless have been lost had not the Japanese interfered and protected them. Cocks writes that the Dutch, “by sound of trumpet aboard all their ships in the harbour of Firando, proclaimed open war against our English nation, both by sea and land, with fire and sword, to take our ships and goods and destroy our persons to the utmost of their power, as to their mortal enemies.” The unimaginative Cocks, who set down so many trifles, failed to say anything about the bearing of the different members of the factory in this crisis. Let us trust that Richard Hudson bore himself like a worthy son of a heroic father. The year 1620 was eventful both for good and evil. Early in the year, permision was granted to include Na


gasaki in the English trade concessions, and a little later the English and Dutch East India Companies formed an alliance, and it was arranged for the fleets of the two nations to combine against the Spanish and Portuguese in Eastern waters.

In March, William Nealson died, “being wasted away with a consumption,” and “our good friend, Capt. William Adames, whoe was soe longe before us in Japon, departed out of this world the xvith of May.” Notwithstanding Adams' rather hasty temper, he had rendered the Company faithful service. He was buried, at a spot which he himself had chosen, on the summit of a hill overlooking the bay of Yedo and the surrounding landscape, where his tomb may still be seen. One of the streets of Yedo was named for him, Anjin Cho (Pilot Street), and, it is said, the inhabitants of that city hold an annual celebration in his honor.

In 1621, apparently believing that, owing to their improved relations with the Dutch, trade would begin to prosper, the English began new works on a large scale, including a warehouse and wharves. But the animosities between the rival factories were too deeply rooted, and it was not long before dissensions again broke out; and they continued to the end, without, however, again reaching the stage of actual warfare.

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personality with its hopeful confidence. She smiled even as she replied, rather dolefully, “But we was to be married.” “So we was, so we be yet—ain't we? Will you marry me anyhow, Pernilla? It may all be clear through with in less than four weeks. What if I’m free by the weddin'-day?” “Then I'll marry you,” Pernilla, eagerly. “God bless you! But if—if they manage to send me off like a thief?” “Well, you ain't one, and if they send you off like one—well, my white dress’ll keep till you come back. I must go—just now.” She pinned up her hair in a twisted coil, and he guided her down the ladder. “Good-by-by-by-by-by,” he softly called, as the old boat pushed off. Back she hurried along the lane, brushing off fragrant drifts of Juneberry blossoms, and catching her dress on mischievous blackberry vines ever on the alert. As she reached home, Cassiopea hung low over the bluffs. Tintings of pink and blue beyond the Mississippi boded the far lustre of dawn. The trial came on and the country around was there, men and women. The old clergyman sat by Rosengren, being probably the sternest judge present. To Pernilla, the buzz, faces, and all were a vague, oppressive dream, and what she or anyone else said she did not know. When her part was over, she went out and walked home the six miles, wondering when she would again see her lover.

I' was impossible to resist his warm


What testimony there was, was certainly against John Erick, and though is was indecisive the crowd felt anxious. John Erick thought of but one thing, that glorious vision of Pernilla in the moonlight, holding the Bible for him to swear by. Would she marry him? Would her white dress “keep?” The testimony he did not care for, it had nothing to do with him. But Pernilla— Undeniably, all were much more influenced by the fact that John Erick voluntarily came back to the jail after his brief freedom to face it out than by the run of evidence, so when it was all over, ready for the verdict, the public were jubilant to receive, without unnecessaly delay, the acquittal of the prisoner. People went home to weed their gardens, to kill potato-bugs, to wonder who stole Rosengren's money, and what Pernilla would do with her fine clothes. The next day Pernilla knelt before the big green chest with its massive iron handles, many a counterpart of which, to this very day, arrives at Castle Garden. Unlocking the heavy padlock that guarded her treasures, Pernilla threw up the heavy lid. There were towels, sheets, and pillow-cases of her own make, and two table-cloths brought from Sweden. There was a real American patchwork quilt, so far superior to her other eighteen, and, indeed, to every other one in the settlement, that she never kept it with the rest. No other girl had had skill and patience to work out the elaborate “Texas Rising Sun” pattern, or to quilt anything one-half so closely as this was quilted. There was

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