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A like judgment may be pronounced on both to the man of science and the histothe etchings : they are not quite equal to rical inquirer, as facilitating their reLandseer's, though certainly clever; but searches either with respect to the natural the distorted attitudes, and the hats and phenomena of past ages, or the transaccoats in which the animals are disguised, tions of bygone generations of the human will be rather puzzling than pleasing to family. We need only say in its praise children. They are, however, brilliantly that it has received the approbation of coloured ; and in all respects the publisher Mr. De Morgan, Mr. Davies, and other has done his best to make the little book learned professors. When seen it will attractive.
recommend itself. If the calculation be
limited to months, as for bills of exchange, "A Commercial Perpetual Almanac, &c. we can equally recommend Mr. Mayand Table for Verifying Dates, by Samuel NARD's Desk Almanac, which has an ac. Maynard, editor of the works of Keith and cessory table of the Old Style, for Russian Bonnycastle,” cannot fail to be acceptable letters, &c.
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
Col. Edward Sabine, Foreign Secretary. Nov. 30. At the anniversary meeting,
Other members of the Council :~*Tho. the Marquess of Northampton, President, mas Bell, esq. *Robert Brown, esq. *Sir took the chair, and delivered his annual James Clark, Bart., Samuel Cooper, esq. address, giving an outline of the progress Sir Henry De la Beche, Edward Forbes, of science during the last twelve months, esq. *John P. Gassiot, esq. *Thomas Graand obituary notices of the most eminent ham, esq. *John Thomas Graves, esq. Fellows deceased. The medals were then *Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., Wil. awarded as follows :—The Copley Medal liam Hopkins, esq. *Sir Robert H. Inglis, to Sir John Herschel, Bart., for his work Bart., *Charles Lyell, esq. *The Duke entitled, “ Results of Astronomical Ob- of Northumberland, George Richardson servations made at the Cape of Good Porter, esq. and Lieut.-Col. Sykes. Hope, &c." One of the Royal Medals to Dr. Roget, the Secretary, announced his W. R. Grove, esq. for his papers pub- intention of retiring, at the next anniverlished in the Philosophical Transactions, sary, from the office he has so long held “ On the Gas Voltaic Battery, or certain in the Society, having succeeded to Sir Phenomena of Voltaic Ignition ;" and John Herschel in the year 1827. He “On the Decomposition of Water into its alleged as his reasons the continually iuConstituent Elements by Heat;" and the creasing labour which had devolved upon second Royal Medal to Professor Fownes, him in consequence of the numerous for bis papers published in the Philoso- changes that had taken place in the mode phical Transactions, “ On the Artificial of conducting the business of the Society Formation of a Vegeto-Alkali,” and “ On and of the Council. He wished to retire Benzoline.” The Fellows then proceeded while his strength was yet unimpaired, to the election of officers and council for and that he might dedicate his time to the ensuing year. The following noble- the pursuits of science, with which the men and gentlemen were declared to be labours and cares of office have seriously elected :-The Marquess of Northampton, interfered. President ; George Renoie, esq. Trea- [The Fellows whose names in the presurer ; Peter Mark Roget, M.D., Samuel ceding list are marked with asterisks, Hunter Christie, esq. Secretaries; Lieut.- were not members of the last Council.)
ARCHITECTURE. OXTORD ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. in the year 1010; he then proceeded to
Nov. 3. The first meeting this term trace the remains of the earliest and most was held, the Rev. W. B. Heathcote in curious portions of the building, referring the chair.
at the same time for collateral evidence as Mr. E. H. Lechmere, of Christ church, to date, &c. to the few monuments which read the first part of a paper, illustrated still survive the general wreck of the arby plans and drawings, “ On the Archi- chives once belonging to the cathedral. tectural Antiquities of the cathedral of The cathedral, which is dedicated to the Basle." Mr. Lechmere commenced by Virgin, and, as is usual, built in the form of briefly enumerating the leading events in a Latin cross, consists of a nave, (decidedly the early history of the cathedral, which the earliest portion of the edifice,) two was founded by the Emperor Henry II., aisles on each side, two transepts, or
cross aisles, and two towers at the west ger of fire which they are found to involve,
gested that an arched wire covering might
Trinity college, was anxious to learn
mental chimney into Merton college, and
massively bound and ribbed in steel.
be no doubt that the middle-age writers
they supposed they saw in the sky, and He pointed out the mode by which a small did not invent the accounts given in their portion of truth of a kind which would works.
It was probable that most of appear incredible in ignorant ages was these prodigies were to be explained by used as the foundation of a legend, in
natural causes, such as Professor Corrie other respects totally devoid of truth; had pointed out.
Professor Willis made and instanced the case of a goat, belonging some remarks on a Clock, found in an to St. Patrick, which was taught to carry old house near Royston, but now in the water, as a true foundation of a legend of Museum of the Society, for which it had later times,--that this goat having been been purchased by the private subscription killed, was heard bleating in the stomach of a few of the members. He considered of the killer, and all his descendants bad it to have been made the time of Henry goat's beards, &c.
He then proceeded to VIII., but not in England. The works read an account of an aurora, seen at York having an escapement and pendulum, by Professor Phillips, and compared it could not be of that date, since a penduwith a prodigy recorded in the Annus lum is believed to have been first applied Mirabilis, of figures of animals and ar- to clocks in the year 1678. The case is mies seen in the sky,from which it appeareal in the form of a tower, with corner pinthat the latter was undoubtedly an aurora. nacles. The parapet of the sides is orna
mented with what is termed flamboyant failure of his attempt to persuade the tracery, formed of "pierced work." On King of Denmark to betray the Dutch, each side of the face is a pile of buttresses, he excused his conduct by saying, "all supporting an ogee arch inclosing the means were lawful to humble an insolent clock-face, the space between which and and ungrateful enemy." Among the methe arch is filled up by a mass of most dals struck by the Dutch at this period, beautiful “stumped' tracery. As stumped and referred to by Mr. Haggard, was tracery was not used in England or France, one to record a tax upon hearths to enthe Professor supposed the clock was made able the Dutch to carry on the war against in Germany, probably at Nuremburg. England, inscribed "By the fire which He dates it at about the year 1500. He comes from the hearths of Holland they remarked that this case, being ornamented damped the warlike ardour of Great Bri. with true Gothic mouldings, arches, and tain." pinnacles, disproved Mr. Pugin's statement,—that architectural forms were not THE RECENT EXCAVATIONS AT POMPEII. to be applied to small domestic objects. In the magnificent street leading from
the ancient sea-shore, in the neighbourNUMISMATIC SOCIETY.
hood of the theatres, to the so-called Nov. 25. W. D. Haggard, esq. Presi- crossway of the Fortuna, and thence in a dent, in the chair. Mr. Cuff exhibited a direct line to the northern city wall, there gold British coin found in Hampshire, has been excavated a house that surpasses reading on the obverse comp in a label, in richness and elegance all that has been and on the reverse vir above a horse ; it discovered previously. The space of the resembles one found on the Sussex coast court-yard is open, has a mosaic pavea few years since. Mr. Cuff also exhi. ment, and at the walls fantastic pictures bited a remarkable gold coin which bore a of the richest and most tasteful style. At strong affinity in the design on the obverse the sides of the atrium (court-yard) are (a rude head and cross, with letters) to small sleeping rooms, with the following the early Saxon silver coins termed sce- wall paintings :- Polyphemus who reatte; the reverse being an obvious copy ceives a letter from Galathea by an amo. of Victory crowning two seated figures, a rino riding upon a dolphin ; Venus occudesign of frequent occurrence on the By. pied with fishing ; a Narcissus ; a few zantine coins. It was stated to have been swimming gods of Love; a Victoria upon found near London.
a cart; and several landscapes. In the A paper by the President was then read, background of the atrium opens a tabliin explanation of some fine silver medals num, the reception hall, with chequered struck by the Dutch in commemoration marble pavement. At the walls of this of the repulse of the fleet of Charles the room there must have been wood paint. Second, in the attack of the port of Bern ings, the spaces which they once filled are gen, in Norway. The obverse has a spi- still plainly seen, as also the charcoal rerited representation of the engagement. mains of those paintings. They were, The reverse of one is inscribed :-“On perhaps, from the hands of those celethe robbery of Charles the Second, com. brated masters who, according to Pliny, mitted the tenth of August, 1665. It is preferred painting upon wood. At the thus that the pride of the Englishman is side of the reception hall is a dining-room, stopped who extends his robberies even to where are seen three large paintings of his friends, and who, in insulting the forts full-sized figures. They represent Herof Norway, violated the rights of the ports cules and Omphale holding his club, and of King Frederick ; but, as a reward for wrapped in the skin of the Nemæan lion. his audacity, he sees his ships sunk by the Next, Bacchus as a boy, and arm-in-arm thundering bullets of the Dutch." Other with Silenus, on a cart drawn by two medals state that the fleet was com. oxen, and followed by Bacchantines. manded by the Earl of Sandwich, and Thirdly, a Bacchanal procession of triconsisted of fifteen men-of-war, four umph with a Victoria, who engraves into smaller vessels, and two fire-ships, and a shield the exploits of the victorious god. that the Dutch force comprised ten East Here were also the Triclinian or reposing India ships, and some other merchant sofas, the feet of which are richly adorned vessels, assisted by the fortifications of with silver. Behind the reception hall Bergen. Mr. Haggard gave a review of there appears the garden, with a magnifi. the events recorded by these medals, which cent fountain at the end, adorned with reflect strongly upon the treacherous and much mosaic and a little marble statue of base conduct of Charles towards the Silenus. In the middle is the water reDutch, the only people on the Continent servoir, adorned round about with elegant who had expressed any friendship or civi. and rich marble sculptures, such as a lity towards him. On the occasion of the small Faunus drawing out a thorn from
the foot of a goat, a beardy, satyr, a stag, adult size, but the other bones are very
TOMBS AT JERUSALEM.
The new Pasha is said to have a taste for
price, and obtains pieces of ancient sculpOn Friday, Nov. 19th, the men employed ture from all parts of his government for in excavating for the branch line from the the purpose of enriching the museum now railway station at Gloucester to the docks forming at Constantinople. One beautiful found a very large leaden coffin, about two piece of sculpture in his possession has feet below the surface of the ground, in a been seen by Mr. Finn, representing a field the property of Mr. G. Goodyer, sleeping female, near a cavern, about to immediately opposite “Regnium style" be attacked by a serpent, at which a man field, and about 200 yards from Burton- is in the act of hurling a stone. Another street turnpike. The dimensions of the man stands in surprise at the beauty of coffin are 6 feet 6 inches in length, 2 feet
A goat, a sheep, and a 6 inches wide, and 1 foot 3 inches deep. sphinx form part of the group. It is formed of lead, and of a great thickness, from a quarter of an inch in the thinner to half an inch in the thicker parts, A letter from Copenhagen, the 26th Its construction is rude and clumsy, and Sept., informs us of the destruction, the of the shape of an elongated parallelogram,
same morning, by fire, of the rich and having no increase of width at the should- valuable library of the Royal Society of ers, and without any appearance of having Icelandic Literature in that capital. The borne any inscription. From having been loss is distressing, inasmuch as this library long under ground, the lid, although so contained more than 2,000 unpublished massive, can easily be broken with the
MSS., and a numerous collection of single fingers. The contents of the coffin were copies of ancient Icelandic works. The a skull, a few decayed bones, and a quan- destruction of this library recals to mind tity of dirt, partly, no doubt, the remains that of the Arna-Magnæan Institution, of mortality, and partly some of the soil composed of more than 40,000 Icelandic which had found its way into the re- manuscripts, which was burnt during the ceptacle through the opening made by the famous bombardment of Copenhagen by workmen's pickaxes. The skull is of the the English in 1807.
LEADEN COFFIN AT GLOUCESTER.
PROCEEDINGS IN PARLIAMENT.
HOUSE OF LORDS.
kill game, or licensed by the Lord LieuDec. 2. The Marquess of Lansdowne
tenant to carry arms for their own defence. moved for the appointment of a Select Com
The arms taken away, in case they were mittee, “ to inquire into the causes of the found, would be forfeited at once to the recent COMMERCIAL DISTRESS, and how
Crown. All persons in a proclaimed disfar it had been affected by the laws for trict, not included within the enumerated regulating the issue of Bank-notes payable exceptions, would be required to deliver
them on demaud."- On the suggestion of Lord
up, by a day named in the notice, Stanley, the words “ commercial distress'
at the nearest police station or any other were altered to those used
in her Majesty's place therein mentioned. He further proSpeech, and the committee was then agreed posed that the justices and constables of to.
any district in which a murder was com
mitted should be empowered to call on all HOUSE OF COMMONS.
males between the ages of 16 and 60 to Nov. 26. The Chancellor of the Ex- assist in the pursuit of the murderers; and chequer obtained leave to bring in a Bill that any one refusing to assist should be to extend the time for the purchase of land deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and be and the completion of works by Railway liable to be imprisoned with or without Companies. He likewise moved for a com- hard labour for any term not exceeding mittee on Railway Bills of this session. two years.—Mr. Wakley moved as an He rested his motion on the ground that amendment, “ That it is not just to enact the increased demand for capital on the any Bill of a coercive character for Ireland part of railways had been one and a ma- without enacting other Bills for its relief." terial cause of the recent commercial pres- The house divided,-For the amendment, sure, and that it would be wise to let loose 18; against it, 224 ; majority 206. The into the channels of commerce that capital house again divided on the original mo. which would otherwise be absorbed in those tion, when the numbers were-Ayes, 233 ; undertakings.
Noes, 20. Nov. 29. After having moved that so Nov. 30. The Chancellor of the Exchemuch of ber Majesty's Speech as referred quer moved the appointment of a Select to the state of IRELAND should be read, Sir Committee to inquire into the causes of George Grey described the present state the late COMMERCIAL DISTRESS, and of crime in that country, and stated that how far it had been affected by the law for her Majesty's Ministers had determined to regulating the issue of Bank-notes pay. introduce a Bill, applicable to all such dis- able on demand. He attributed the pres. tricts as the Lord Lieutenant upon his dis- sure recently, and still felt, to these cir. cretion should proclaim disturbed. The cumstances—that there began in the sumLord Lieutenant would also be empowered mer of 1846 a drain of our available capi. to increase the constabulary force of any tal, partly owing to the importation of district to any extent which he might foreign corn and partly owing to the conthink fit, out of the reserve force at Dublin, struction of railroads, and that that drain which would be increased from 400 to 600 acted upon a state of credit for which men. The increased force would be paid, the capital employed was inadequate.in the first instance, out of the Consolidated Mr. J. Wilson admitted the necessity of Pund, but, ultimately, out of the district appointing the committee, but moved to which it was sent to protect. He next erase nearly all the words of the motion. described the regulations intended for the and to insert in lieu of them words which purpose of restraining the use of firearms. would limit the inquiry to this point, “how Any persons carrying arms after proclama. far the recent commercial distress has been tion made would be guilty of misdemeanor. affected by the laws for regulating the issue and would be liable to imprisonment for of Bank-notes payable on demand.”—The a term not exceeding three years. The debate was continued for three nights, exceptions would include all justices of the when it was closed with a speech from Sir peace, persons in the army, navy, revenue, R. Peel, who cordially approved of the coast-guard, police, or constabulary, spe- course pursued by the Government, and cial constables, and all parties licensed to considered they were quite right in not