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With this number begins the Tenth Volume of the WISCONSIN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION. In every northern state, east of the Rocky Mountains, except Minnesota, is sustained an educational journal, and in some states two; and we are glad to know that in most states they are well supported by the educa. tional public. In one or two states, the journal seems to lead a sickly exis. tence, but generally, since the close of the war, educational interests have received a fresh impetus, the circulation of journals of education has been increased, and the journals reach us highly improved in paper, type, and matter. We have commenced the publication of this journal on our own responsibility, trusting that Superintendents and Teachers, alike, will do all in their power to establish this journal on a lasting basis. We all ought to feel a state pride in our journal, and do all in our power to make it an interesting and profitable journal. The publisher promises to make every exertion in his power to make it a success. The war is successfully brought to a close ; peace and plenty again reign. There never has been a time, since this state was first organized, when the educational public were better able to support & good journal, or when one was more needed. Teachers and superintendents have magnanimously hazarded their lives to support our government. Some of these have never returned, but have gone to answer to the muster-roll on high. To their memory we shed .our grateful tears. We hope those who have re. turned, aided by every teacher in the state, will deal as vigorous blows in the cause of education as they did in the cause of their government. We hope that General Ignorance and his forces will be scattered, and that General Knowledge will reign from the Atlantic to the Pacific, all over this glorious country. We send the JOURNAL to most of the old subscribers, trusting that the same generous motives, that influenced them before to aid in the support of the JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, still actuate them.
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JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.
Universal Eduoation. , Extract from an Address Delivered before the State Teachers. Association,
on Monday August 2d, 1865, by Hon. T. 0. Howe. Education must be more general. That is not enough. It must... bé universal. I mean absolutely universal.
There should not be an exception. Do you not comprehend what a sad spectacle is that of a full-grown man, busy with affairs, but who cannot read nor.write?" Doubtless you remember when men, who pretended they were farmers, raised animals which they pretended were swine, but whose snouts and bodies were so nearly of the same length and the same size that you never could exactly determine whether the snout was an appendage to the body, or the body an appendage to the snout. Would you not say that a farmer, who should produce such hogs now, was greatly mistaken? What then will you say of a state that raises men to act a part in these grandest and busiest of times, when God's hive seems actually swarming, but without the faculty of comprehending them, or filling his post, in them; which raises men to elect Presidents, but without the ability to read the name of a single candidate? That is not a mistake, that is a crime.
The State sends a citizen to State Prison who coins a counterfeit bank note and passes it for genuine. Where should a State be . sent which raises a blockhead and passes him for a man?
Education must be more general. It must also be more practicala. o to prac.
Teach the world not only to know more, but to do more; tice what they know."
Are not study and experiment too widely separated ? Is it not often that the Educator turns out a student, whose time he has engrossed from the age of four to twenty-one years—turns him out replete with the sciences, indeed, but so ignorant of the use to be made of them that upon being transferred to the pursuits of practical life, he droops as inevitably as the cabbage transplanted froia the hot-house to the garden?
It is not enough to teach one to write, unless you teach him what to write; or at least unless you teach him what not to write.
It is not enough to teach one to read, unless you teach him what to read. For God's sake, give us a generation which will not enable the editor of the New York Ledger to drive four-in-hand, whilo many an earnest and faithful clergyman lives on six hundred a year.
I know you will encounter some difficulties in attaining such results. It is easier to expound the necessity for public instruction than to supply it: I know you cannot furnish scholars and statesmen for the Republic, at your own cost. The Republic should furnish you houses, pupils, and compensation. None of these means do the communities seem to supply. That happens because the education of the last generation, and all preceding generations, was neglected. You have now two generations to educate at once. You must be at once Statesmen, Missionaries, and Professors.-You must comprehend the necessity for this education as a Statesman does; you must expound it as the Missionary expounds the other gospel to the heathen; you must supply it as the Professor supplies it.
The expenditure for educational purposes, even in Wisconsin, is so meagre as to be scandalous. The whole amount raised by taxation for educational purposes, during the year, ending in August, 1964, was $821,859 78. The whole number of children, between four and twenty years of age, to be educated, was 329,306. That was less than three dollars per child. It costs you twice that to raise a calf. If we expend twice as much per annum in raising calves as in raising statesmen, you must not be surprised if calves fill their places best in society.
As a rule, your school houses are 2 reproach. They should be
not only wholesome and commodious, but elegant. No district should permit the children of any inhabitant to be better housed at home than all are at school. The district is always more wealthy than
any inhabitant of it; and its school house should be more elegant than any private residence in it. Your school houses, returned last year, numbered a little more than four thousand. The highest valuation of any single house was $32,000. That is pretty well. The lowest valuation was returned at one cent. That is rather cheap. The aggregate valuation was a little more than $1,400,000, giving an average value of about $300. That will never do. So long as your billiard rooms and your drinking saloons are more elegantly fitted up than
your school houses, you must not wonder if children of elegant tastes, but immature judgments, seek the former rather than the latter.
But the communities not only furnish poor houses; they do not send their children to school. Of the whole number of children between four and twenty years of age in the State, only about two-thirds attended school at all. This attendance amounted to only fifty-eight per cent. of the year; while the attendance of the number entitled to school privileges was only thirty-three per cent. How much better will our successors meet their responsibilities than we do, if their opportunities for cultivation are neglected thus?
The newspapers inform us that Maximilian, a prince imported from Europe, and placed on the throne of Mexico by European arms, has recently issued a decree requiring free schools to be opened for all Mexican youth, and compelling all Mexican youth to attend upon the schools. If the fact be so, and he will adhere to that policy, I, for one, shall be very unwilling to see him driven from his throne. And if, contrary to my wish, he is driven therefrom, I shall desire to make him Superintendent of Instruction for the State of Wisconsin, notwithstanding I have the most exalted opinion of the merits of our present Superintendent. If an Austrian Prince will educate the rising generation of Mexico, he will do infinitely more than the Mexican people have ever done for any preceding generation. And such a generation once risen in Mexico, will effectually take care of her own institutions, and save us from all trouble about the Monroe doctrine, so far as that territory is concerned. And that is not the only service he will have rendered the United States. He will have enabled us then to run the boundary line between Mexican guerillas and Northern Allibusters, a line as dificult to trace now as is the dividing line between a blister of Spanish flies and the sore to which it is applied, twentyfour hours after the application...
I do not know what sort of instruction is furnished in our public schools. . I could almost hope it is poor. If good instruction is : furnished, it is stolen. Certainly it is not paid for. The same very able Report, from which I have already quoted, informs the world, and the angels too, that the average sum paid male teachers, during the winter months, is $30,02. Now that is just four dollars and niņety-eight cents less than I pay a man, per month, for taking care of my horses and garden.
The tendency of all this is to degrade and vulgarize the public ; : school. They are placed upon the footing of a public charity. In fact, the education of the State is no more: a charity than the legisłation of the State. The former is as much a prime necessity as the latter. :. There can be no wise legislation without education. The result of this narrow policy is to found innumerable private schools, leading to more and more indifference to the public schools, and imposing upon families who have the ability, the necessity of sending their children abroad to obtain, at great expense, special advantages which every neighborhood might furnish, and ought to , furnish, to all its youth at home.
I entreat you to reverse this whole policy; enlarge your houses,... adorn them, furnish them, fill them. : Pay your teachers such salaries as will command the best talent you have, ,
Let no man, tell me I am sighing for Utopia. I am not sighing at all; I am groaning. Not for the advent of the millennium, but for the advent of common sense.
I know it is not sensible to commit a ship and her rich cargo to the care of mariners who',know nothing of navigation. And I know it is not sensible to commit a State to the keeping of those who know nota law of her being.
I demand Education, not for the welfare of the individual or of the family alone, but for the security of the State: Let no man imagine that the child he carelessly passes on the street, in rags : and squalor, has no relation to himself. ; If he lives, his influence will be felt in the State for weal or for woe, according as he shall : be fashioned by the State. He may be fashioned into a vessel of . honor, or of dishonor.