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30. Verbs which end in ěre are said to be of the Third Conjugation; as scribere, " to write.” The pupil must be taught to distinguish between the pronunciation of this termination and that of Verbs of the Second Conjugation. The two last syllables of scriběre are pronounced like those of “ shrubbery."

31. The endings of the “he-words" in the 3rd Conjugation are as follows :Present Tense, it, as scribit, “he writes," or, “he is

writing.” Imperfect, ēbat, as scribēbat, “he was writing.” Future, et, as scribet, “ he will write."

32. The “they-word" in the Present is formed by changing it into unt; in the other two Tenses it is formed regularly : thus,

they write,' scribunt,
they were writing," scribēbant,

"they will write,"scribent. 33. Verbs ending in ire are said to be of the Fourth Conjugation; as audire, “ to hear,” (rhyming to “ wiry"). The he-words and they-words of the three Tenses in this Conjugation end exactly like those in the 3rd, except that the letter i is put before every ending, save that of the he-word of the Present Tense ; thus,

“ he hears,” audit,

they were hearing,” audiebant,
he will hear," audiet.
&c., &c.

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34. Let the Pupil notice carefully in what respects the endings in the 3rd and 4th Conjugations resemble or differ from those in the 1st and 2nd. Especially let him be well catechised in the Futures of all the Conjugations. EXAMPLES :(a) “ The terrible enemies hear my voice.”

Hostes terribiles audiunt vocem meam. (6)“ He is writing a long leter."

Scribit epistolam longam. (c) “My brother and your sister will come and conquer you.”

Frater meus et soror tua venient, et vincent te. (d) “ Balbus was running, but Caius was conquering the Gauls INSTRUCTION FOR EXERCISES No. 8.

and hearing us.' Balbus currebat, sed Caius vincebat Gallos et

audiebat nos.



Latin Verbs generally have three Roots. Hitherto the Pupil has heard of only one of these, viz., the “Root of the Present," which is the unchanging part of “the Verb itself,” e.g., laud, tim-, scrib, aud-, &c., &c.

The two other Roots of a Verb may be called the Root of the Perfect," and the “ Root of the Supine.” There is no universal rule by which they may be known. They are given in Dictionaries.

36 The Pupil may now learn something of four more Tenses, which have the “Root of the Perfect," and whose endings are the same for all Latin verbs, of whatever Conjugation, regular or irregular, without exception.

37. The Perfect Tense describes an action past and finished, either some time ago, as "he wrote," or quite lately, as “he has written.'

38. The pluperfect or “had-Tense" is known by the sign “ had," as “ he had written.” 39. The Future Perfect has the sign

« will have,” “ he will have written." 40. The Pluperfect Potential has the sign

" would have,” as “ he would have written."

41. To form these four Tenses in Latin, we must, for the he-word, add to the Root of the Perfect the following endings


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it, as scripsit, - he wrote.” Pluperfect, erat, as audivěrat, "he had heard.” Fut. Perf., ërit, as laudaverit, “he will have praised." Plup.Potent., isset, as tenuisset, "he would have held.”

The they-word is formed regularly, except in the Perfect, where it is changed into ērunt.

Thus we have

“They wrote," scripserunt.
They had heard," audivěrant,

They will have praised,” laudavěrint.

They would have held,” tenuissent. N.B.- The Root of the Perfect is the former of the two Roots given in a parenthesis in the Vocabularies. The other is the Root of the Supine. Thus from the Vocabularies it will be seen that vēn is the Root of the Perfect of venire, vīil that of vždēre, timu that of tžmēre, &c., &c.

It may also be observed that in the 1st Conjugation this Root may often be formed by adding av to the Root of the Present, and in the 2nd Conjugation, by adding U ; as amare, amāvą; terrēre, terru-. EXAMPLES : (a) “My sisters saw and praised you.”

Sorores meæ viderunt et laudavērunt te. (6) “He had feared and avoided your lions." i.e. He had feared and he had avoided your lions.

Timuěrat et vitavěrat leones tuos. (C) “They would have seen me and laughed at my dragon.” i.e. They would have seen me and they would have laughed at

my dragon.
Vidissent me et risissent draconem meum.

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42. The Infinitive Mood in English has three Tenses, viz. :

The Present, as to write," or to be writing.”
The Perfect, as to have written."
The Future, as “to be going to write,”

or “ to be about to write." 43. The Present Infinitive in Latin is the Verb itself, as given in the Vocabularies, ending in are, ēre, &c.; as scribere, “ to write."

The Perfect Infinitive is formed by adding isse to the Root of the Perfect, as monuisse, “to have advised”; vēnisse, “ to have come.”

44. In Latin the Infinitive is used, where in English the Conjunction “ that," meaning “ the fact that," is used or understood. Hence such a sentence as

(a) “ He said that he was writing a letter," must be changed, or " declared " into (a) He declared himself to be writing a letter.

So (6) “ Caius thinks I saw a lion,” must be 6 declared " into (6)

Caius thinks me to have seen a lion. Then they can be translated literally into Latin, thus

) (a) Dixit se scribere epistolam.

(6) Caius putat me vidisse leonem. It will be found convenient to change the word “say into “ declare."

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