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45. The Latin for “to be” is esse. It is irregular. The Root of its Perfect is fum, Therefore “to have been” is fuisse.

46. A most important Rule, both in English and in Latin, is this :--that the Verb “to be takes the same case after it as before it.

Thus, we say,

" Who is he"? not " Who is him"? I am she," not "I am her”; “ He supposed them to be us," not“ He supposed them to be we.

Hence the Accusative Case will very commonly be used with the Infinitive Mood of esse in Latin, as

(a) “He said he was Balbus.”
i.e. He declared himself to be Balbus.

esse Balbum.
(6) Caius says his sister was sad.”
i.e. Caius declares his sister to have been sad.

Caius dicit sororem suam fuisse tristem. 47. The pronoun se is always reflective, i.e., it must be used to denote the same subject as the Nom. of the Verb which governs it, e.g. :(a) “Balbus declared himself to be my brother.” Balbus dixit

esse fratrem meum. (6) My sisters thought themselves to be wretched.”

Sorores meæ putaverunt se esse miseras. 48. Beginners should practise the “declaration ” of sentences in English, before they begin to put them into Latin. And it would be well for them to practise the use of the Present and Perfect Tenses of the Infinitive Mood before they learn the use of the Future. The first four Exercises, No. 9, i.e., as far as 9 D inclusive, are entirely upon the Present and Perfect,



49. When the pupil is somewhat familiar with the declaration of sentences involving the Present and Perfect Infinitive, let him proceed to learn the Future Infinitive and its use.

50. A Verb is said to be in the Future Infinitive when it means to be about to do so and so ; as “to be about to write” (but this does not necessarily mean to be about to do a thing immediately). In Latin it is expressed by esse "to be," with the Future Participle Active.

51. This Future Participle Active is a sort of Adjective, and agrees in Number, Gender, and Case with the Noun to which it refers, or which it describes. Its Nom. Sing. is formed by adding urus for the Masc., or ura for the Fem. to the “Root of the Supine,” i.e., the 3rd Root of the Verb (the second of the two Roots given in a Parenthesis in the Vocabularies).

52. Thus, the Root of the Supine of scribere is script--; hence scripturus means “about to write," and such a sentence as

(a) “Caius says he shall write a letter," will be declared into

Caius declarcs himself to be about-to-write a letter.

Caius dicit se esse scripturum epistolam. (6) "Balbus thought my sister would come,” would be declared thus :

Balbus thought my sister to-be about-to-come.

Balbus putavit sororem meam esse venturam. 53. In Example (a) above it must be noticed that epistolam is in the Accusative Case, because the Fut. Part., like the rest of the Active Voice, governs the Acc.

54. It has sometimes been a help to beginners to declare the Fut. Part. into “a-man-about-to-come,” or “a-woman-about-to-come,” according as the Noun referred to is Masc. or Fem. By this means mistakes in gender are often avoided.

It may also be mentioned here that the Masc. is to be preferred to the Fem. where there is any doubt as to the Gender ; e.g.

“ Caius said his brother and sister would come,” will be Caius dixit fratrem suum esse venturos (not venturas).

55. Negare, “ to deny,” is used for “to say not.” Hence “He said he had not seen you,” must be declared thus : “He denied himself to have seen you.(Lat.) “Negavit se vidisse te."



(a) “He had said that he was coming."

He had declared himself to be coming.

Dixerat se venire.
(6) My sisters will think that you are foolish.”

My sisters will think you to-be foolish.

Sorores meæ putabunt te esse stultum. (c) “ Caius will say he frightened you.”

Caius will declare himself to have frightened you.

Caius dicet se terruisse te.
(d) “ Portia says she did not hear your voice.”

Portia denies herself to have heard your voice.

Portia negat se audivisse vocem tuam.
(e) “My brother believes that you are come.”

My brother believes you to have come.
Frater meus credit te venisse,

(f) “ Our sister promised to come.”

Our sister promised herself to-be about-to-come.

Soror nostra promisit se esse venturam. (9) “ Caius hopes that I shall praise Portia.”

Caius hopes me to-be about to praise Portia.

Caius sperat me esse laudaturum Portiam. (h) “They thought I said you were come.”

They thought me to be declaring you to have come.
Putaverunt me dicere te venisse.

N.B.Exercises No. 10 are miscellaneous, upon the

subjects of Nos. 6, 7, 8, and 9.



56. The Second Person Singular, or you-word, of the Tenses of Verbs, is that whose Nom, is the Personal Pronoun tu, “ thou" you,” expressed or understood ; and in all Tenses of the Active Voice, except the Perf. Ind., it is formed from the 3rd Sing., or he-word, by changing the final --t into --S. Thus, scribit, “he writes"; scribis, "you write”; monebit," he will advise"; monebis, "you will advise."

57. The Second Person Plural, or ye-word, is that whose Nom., expressed or understood, is vos, "ye,” i.e. the Plu. of tu, 6 thou.” In all Tenses of the Act., except the Perf. Ind., it is formed by adding —is to the he-word, as scribitis, "ye write"; audītis, “ye hear"; monebitis, "ye will advise.”

58. In the Perf. Ind. the you-word is formed by adding —isti, and the ye-word by adding -istis, to the Root of the Perfect. Thus, scripsisti, "you wrote"

; vicistis, " ye conquered."

59. The Acc. of tu is te, and the Acc. of vos is vos. These Accusatives are used, not only in sentences where the “declaring" is such as “They thought you to be good”: or “ Balbus declares you to be his sons”; but also in sentences where “ you

* is declared into “ yourself,” or “yourselves," following and governed by a Verb in the Second Person. (a) “ You said you were Portia's brother."

You declared yourself to be the brother of Portia.
Dixisti te esse fratrem Portiæ.

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