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(6) “ You say that you are good girls.”

Ye declare yourselves to be good girls.

Dicitis vos esse puellas bonas. 60. The Nom. Case of Personal Pronouns is generally not espressed, but “understood.” It must however be expressed when it is emphatic, or if there is another Nom. in the same sentence, from which it must be distinguished. Thus, (a) Caius was walking, but you were running."

Caius ambulabat, sed tu currebas. (6) “You and Portia had seen the king.”

You and Portia, ye-had-seen the king.

Tu et Portia vīderātis regem. 61. A direct Question is expressed in Latin either by writing the particle an before the first word, or by affixing the “enclitic --ne, (which is not a word, but an ending), to the first word. Thus, (a) “Is Caius writing a letter ?”

An Caius scribit epistolam ?
or, Caiusne scribit epistolam ?
(6) Shall ye say that I am come ?”

Shall ye declare me to have come ?
An dicētis me vēnisse ?

Dicētisne me vēnisse ? If there is a “not” in the question, non must stand first with ne affixed to it. Thus, (c) “ Has not Portia come ?"

Nonne Portia vēnit ?
(d) “Don't you and Caius hope to see the judge ?”

Do not you and Caius hope yourselves to be about to see

the judge ? Nonne tu et Caius sperātis vos esse visuros

judicem?

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62. A few Rules must be given for the pronunciation of the ye-words ; that is, as to the quantity, whether “long or “short,” of the last vowel but one, or penultimate (immediately preceding the final —tis). (i.) If the penult. vowel is a or e, it is long; as

amātis, monuerātis, timētis, audiētis. (ii.) If the penult vowel is i, it is short, except in

the Pres. of the 4th Conjugation ; Thus,

laudābitis, dicitis ; but audītis, vēnītis. The penult. of the Fut. Perf. is said to be

doubtful : thus, either vēněrītis or vēněrītis. EXAMPLES :(a) “ You thought we should blame you.”

You thought us to be about to blame you.

Putavisti nos esse culpaturos te.
(6) “ You and your son would have said I was wise.”

You and your son ye would have declared me to be wise.

Tu et filius tuus dixissetis me esse sapientem. (C) “ Did you believe I had promised to come ?Did you believe me to have promised myself to be about

to come ? Credidistine me promisisse me esse venturum ? (d) “ You know that we have seen Caius."

Novisti nos vidisse Caium.

(literally, You have learned, &c.)
(e) “Did you not know that I was come ?"

Nonne noveras me venisse.
(literally, Had not you learned, &c. ?)

INSTRUCTION FOR EXERCISES No. 12.

mus.

we should

63. The First Person Plural, or we-word, of the Tenses of Verbs, is that whose Nom. (generally “understood " in Latin ; see Art. 60) is the Pronoun nos, 6 we.

It is always formed, in the Active Voice, by changing the final -t of the he-word into Thus scribimus, we write;" monuissēmus, have advised."

64. The Rules given in Art. 62 for the “quantity' of the penult. vowel of the ye-words, hold good for the we-words also. Thus we have laudāmus, dicēbāmus, těnēmus, scribēmus, scripsimus, scribimus, audīmus.

65. The First Person Singular, or I-word, of the Tenses of Verbs, is that whose Nom. (generally understood in Latin ; see Art. 60) is the Pronoun Ego, “ I.” It ends differently in different Tenses, and no general Rule can be given for its formation. Its endings in the three Tenses hitherto learned, which have the Root of the Present, are as follows, in the four Conjugations : 1st

2nd 3rd 4th
Pres.
-eo,

-io,
Imp. —abam, „ -ebam, ---ebam, -iebam,
Fut. —abo, —ebo, -am,

-iam. 66. Let the Pupil notice an anomaly in the I-word of the Fut. Simp. in the 3rd and 4th Conjugations, viz., that it ends in -am, whereas e is the final vowel of all the other words of that Tense in those two Conjugations.

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-ero.

67. The First Persons Singular of the Tenses which have the Root of the Perfect, end as follows, in all Conjugations (see Art. 36). Perf.

; Pluperf. --eram ; Plup. Pot. -issem ; Fut. Perf.

68. The ending of the I-word of the Perf Ind. may be remembered by recalling Cæsar's famous despatch, Veni, vidi, vici, “I came, saw, and conquered," which is also a good example of another Rule, viz., that where more than two words are joined together in English by the conjunction "and," no conjunction is required in Latin.

69. As was said before (Art. 12), the Acc. of Ego, i.e. the Latin for us me,” is me, and the Acc. of nos,

is nos, “ us : and these Accusatives are to be used where myself” or " ourselves

declaring,” following and governed by a Verb in the First Person : e.g. in such sentences as the following EXAMPLES :(a) “ I said I should come.”

I declared myself to be about to come.

Dixi me esse venturum. (6) “Caius and I hope to see your son.”

I and Caius, we hope ourselves to be about to see your son.

Ego et Caius speramus nos esse visuros filium tuum. (c) “Did not you and I say we had seen Portia ? "

I and you, did not we declare ourselves to have seen Portia ?
Nonne ego et tu diximus nos vidisse Portiam ?

we

appears in the INSTRUCTION FOR EXERCISES No. 13.

70. When the word " to " introduces a purpose, as “I came here to see you,” or “We will ask Portia to come,” the sentence requires to be “ declared ;" for the Pres. Inf. videre, “ to see,” or venire, “ to come,” cannot be used in such cases.

71. A common way of declaring such sentences is to introduce the Conjunction ut, “ that," meaning in-orderthat, followed by a “ may-Tense” or “might-Tense": thus the above sentences will be declared into “ I came here that I-might-see you": and “We will ask Portia that she-may-come."

72. The " might-Tense," or Imperfect Subjunctive, is easily learned, for, without any exception, its “heword” can be formed by adding -t to the verb itself, as scriběret, he might write;" audīret," he might hear." 73. The 6" he-word" of the 66

may-Tense" or Present Subjunctive, is formed by adding to the Root of the Present,

In 1st Conj. -et, as laudet, “he may praise.” 2nd

--eat, as moneat," he may advise.” 3rd -at, as scribat, “ he may write.”

4th --iat, as audiat, “he may hear.” The other Persons of the Sing, and the three Persons of the Plu. of these two Tenses are formed regularly from the “he-words,” the “ I-word" of each ending in -m, as moneam, scriberem.

74. The Pupil must carefully distinguish between the " to " which introduces a purpose, the " to " of the

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