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Infin., as “ to write is easy,” and the preposition “to” which implies motion, as “ I was walking to the city."
75. The Latin for the preposition “to" is ad. It governs the Acc. case. Thus “I was walking to the city,” is ambulabam ad urbem. But ad is omitted before the name of a town, as ambulo Romam, “ I am walking to Rome.
76. The declaring of “ the city of Rome” is “the city Rome," where
“ Rome is in the same case as Thus “ I saw the city of Rome” is “vidi urbem Romam."
77. When the conjunction “that," introducing a purpose, appears in the declaring, followed in the same clause by “not,” the Latin conjunction ne, lest," must be used instead of ut- -non”: and it will be better to declare with “lest” than with “ that
(a) “I advised Caius to write."
I advised Caius that he-might-write.
Monui Caium ut scriberet.
I shall walk to-Rome that I-may-buy a horse.
Ambulabo Romam ut emam equum.
I expected you to-be about-to-ask me lest I might walk-
We have advised Caius lest he may come.
(e) “Did you think I had advised Portia to say she should
come ? Did you think me to have advised Portia that she might INSTRUCTION FOR EXERCISES No. 14.
declare herself to be about to come ? Putavistine me monuisse Portiain ut diceret se
esse venturam ?
78. The Dative Case of Nouns has the sign “to.” This “to” is different from any of the three words “to” mentioned above (Art. 74): it is the " to " of giving : as, “I gave a horse to the boy." Here the Dative Case of Puer must be used. If the English is in this form, “I gave the boy a horse,” it must be declared into “I gave a horse to the boy."
79. The Datives of Nouns and Adjectives of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Declensions, may be formed by adding to the Roots,
-0, - 3rd
Thus we shall have
“ to the girl," puellæ ; “ to the girls," puellis. “ to the boy,” puero ;
" to the boys,” pueris. “to the king,” regi; “ to the kings,” regibus.
80. The Dative will follow credere, “ to believe,” when it means 66 to trust”: as Non credo Balbo "I do not believe Balbus,” i.e. I do not trust him. But “I do not believe that Balbus is wise,” will of course be Non credo Balbum esse sapientem.
81. The Datives of the Personal Pronouns are as follows:
66 to me,
Plu. "to us,"
nobis : to you,” tibi
“to you," vobis : to himself,
sibi: “to themselves," sibi. to herself, EXAMPLES :(a) “Portia promised to give Caius her horse."
Portia promised herself to-be about-to-give her horse to
Portia promisit se esse daturam equum suum Caio. (B) “The girls hope I shall give them my flowers.”
The girls hope me to-be about-to-give my howers to
Puellæ sperant me esse daturum flores meos sibi. (c) “Do you think that Portia believed you and the good
judges.” Do you thimk Portia to-have trusted you ? &c. Putasne Portiam credidisse tibi et judicibus bonis ?
N.B.--Exercises No. 15 are miscellaneous, upon the
subjects of Nos: 11, 12, 13, and 14.
INSTRUCTION FOR EXERCISES No. 16.
“ they are,"
82. Those Tenses of Esse, “ to be," which have the Root of the Perf. are, as is the case in all Latin Verbs, strictly regular. Thus we have fuerat," he had been"; fuerit, “ he will have been,” &c. The 3rd Persons of the other tenses are Pres. Ind. “he is,” est
"he will be,” erit ;
they will be,” erunt; Imp. Ind. "he was," erat; Pres. Subj, " he may be," sit ; “they were,” erant;
they may be," sint. The Imp. Subj. is formed regularly from the Pres. Inf (see Art. 72). Thus esset, “ he might be”; essent, “ they might be.”
83. The verb “to be” does not govern a case, either in Latin or in English. As in English it is correct to say “It is 1,” not “ It is me”; or “Caius was he,' not · Caius was him”; so in Latin we must say Puella est Portia,” not Puella est Portiam, for “ the girl is Portia”; Pueri erant boni, not Pueri erant bonos, for “ the boys were good.”
84. Those Tenses which in the Active Voice of Verbs are formed from the Root of the Perf. are formed in the Passive Voice by compounding the Tenses of Esse with the Past Participle Passive.
85. This Past Participle Passive is declined like an Adjective of the 1st and 2nd Declns., and is formed by adding -us for the Masc. and --a for the Fem. to the Root of the Supine. Thus scriptus, fem. scripta, is the P.P. of scribere ; monitus, fem. monita, of monere, &c.