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}-laudatus est;

86. The P.P. is compounded with the Pres. Ind, of Esse to form the Perf. Ind. Pass. of Verbs Imp. Ind.

Plup. Ind. Pass. Fut. Simp.

Fut. Perf. Pass. Imp. Subj.

Plup. Subj. Pass. and the Past Participle must always agree in Number and Gender with the Nom, to the Verb. Thus, “He was praised," Or “ He has been praised," - She had been advised," -monita erat ; “ The boys will have been heard,”—Pueri auditi erunt;

' “ The girls would have been seen,”—Puellæ visce essent.

87. The 3rd Persons of the other, or Non-Compound," Tenses of the Passive, are formed by adding -ur to the same part of the Act. Voice : thus, “ he praises,laudat ; “ he is being praised,laudātur," “they will advise," monebunt ; " they will be advised," monebuntur.

88. The Student must learn to distinguish between the meaning of the Imp. Ind. Pass. and the Perf. Ind. Pass. E.g. monitus est means sometimes “he has been advised,” and sometimes “ he was advised,” while monebatur means “ he was being advised.This will appear from the consideration

hat the two expressions, “I advised Balbus” and “ Balbus was advised by me mean really the same thing and are in the same Tense ; as are also the two expressions, “ I was advising Balbus" and “ Balbus was being advised by me.” 89. Passive Verbs, as well as Esse, do not govern

Thus “Balbus is thought (to be) wise" will be Balbus putatur (esse) sapiens, not sapientem.

90, The sign of the Ablative Case of Nouns and

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Adjectives in English is “by" or "with": as “He was conquered by his enemies ”; “I struck him with a stick."

91. In Lat. the Abl. Plu. is always the same as the Dat. Plu., and the Abl. Sing. is formed by adding to the Root, in 1st Decln.,-ā, as rosā,

66 with a rose

; in the 2nd, -0,

as muro,“ with a wall”; 3rd, e, as voce,

56 with a voice.” The Ablatives Sing. of ego and tu are the same as the Acc., viz., me and te.

92. Some Nouns and Adjectives of the 3rd Decln., especially all Adjectives whose Nom. Sing. ends in -is, have -i for the ending of the Abl. Sing. : thus voca tristi, “ with a sad voice.

93. When the Abl. is used to express the agent by whom anything is done, it must be governed by the Preposition a (or ab before a vowel or h), if that agent means a person or persons : thus ab hoste “ by an enemy,” but dracone “by a dragon”: the preposition need not be repeated if it governs more than one noun or pronoun: thus, " The robbers were seen by the slave and the husbandman.” Latrones visi sunt a servo et agricolā.

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(a) “ Caius was brought here by me, to be seen by Balbus.”

Caius portatus est huc a me, ut videretur a Balbo, (6) “The girls will be led here by the judge, to be praised by

the queens and kings.” Puellæ ducentur huc a judice, ut laudentur

a reginis et regibus.

(c) " Has my sister been brought here by you, to be heard by


Sororne mea portata est huc a te, ut audiatur a

nobis ? (d) “Portia is thought beautiful by our friends."

Portia putatur pulchra ab amicis nostris.




may be.'

we are."

94. The 1st and 2nd Persons of those Tenses of Esse which have the Root of the Perf., being formed quite regularly, need not be given here.

95. The 2nd Plu. of the other Tenses is formed regularly from the 3rd Sing. Thus estis, “ye are,” eržtis, "ye will be.”

96. The 2nd Sing. and 1st Plu, of the Imp. Ind., Fut. Simp., Pres. Subj., and Imp. Subj., are formed regularly, as eras, “ you were (being)”; simus,

we Those of the Pres. Ind. are es, “ you are,” and sumus, 97. The 1st Sings. are as follows :

Pres. Ind. sum, “I am."
Imp. Ind. eram, “I was (being)."
Fut. Simp. ero,

“ I shall be.”
Pres. Subj. sim, I may be.”

Imp. Subj. essem, “I might be." 98. The Tenses of Esse being now entirely known, the whole of the Compound Tenses of Verbs in the Passive can easily be found. Thus we shall have victi eramus,

had been conquered,” laudata essem ab uxore meo, "I should have been praised by my husband," &c., &c.




EXAMPLES :(a) “You and I were seen and heard by the terrible dragon."

Ego et tu visi sumus et auditi dracone terribili,

(6) “You and Portia would have been seen, heard, and praised

by your husbands." Tu et Portia visæ essetis, auditæ, laudatæ (see

Art. 67) ab uxoribus vestris. (c) “I have been advised to be good, wise, and happy."

Monitus sum ut sim bonus, sapiens, felix. (d) “We had been asked to be friends to you.”

Rogati eramus ut essemus amici tibi. (e) You were wretched then, but you will be a good girl

Tum eras misera, sed mox eris puella bona.

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