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99. The 2nd Sing. of the Non-Compd. Tenses Pass. may be formed from the 3rd Sing. by changing the final tur into ris. Thus, audīris,“ you are being heard," vincēris,“ you will be conquered" : but --itur must be changed into ēris ; thus, moneběris, you will be advised; duceris, “ you are being led.” (The 3rd Sing. Pres. Ind. Pass. of verbs of the 4th conjn. is the only form which ends in itur).

100. The 1st Plu. may be formed by changing the tur into mur, as monebāmur, we were being advised”; laudemur, "we may be praised."

101. The 2nd Plu. may be formed by changing the tur into mini, as amāběmžni, “ye will be loved”; vincěrēmīni, “ye might be conquered."

102. The 1st Sing. may be formed from the corresponding part of the Act. Voice, by changing the final m into r, or, if the final letter is not m, by adding r. Thus we shall have audārer, “ I might be heard”; monēbor, " I shall be advised,” &c.

103. The Pres. Inf. Pass. is formed by adding to the Root of the Pres., In 1st Conjn. —āri, as laudāri, “ to be (being) praised.” 2nd -ēri, as monēri, “to be being) advised."

( 3rd i, as scribi, “to be (being) written.” 4th -īri, as audiri, “to be being heard."

() 104. The Perf Inf. Pass. is formed by compounding Esse itself with the Past Participle Passive, (making this

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Part. of course agree with the subject in Gender, Number and Case), as in the following Examples : (a) “I believe that Balbus was conquered by the Gauls.”

I believe Balbus to-have-been-conquered by the Gauls.

Credo Balbum victum esse a Gallis. (6) “Did you say your sisters had been praised by the kings ?"

Did you declare your sisters to-have-been-praised ? &c.

Dixistine sorores tuas laudatas esse a regibus ? 105. Care must be taken to distinguish between the Pres, and Perf. Tenses of the Inf. Pass. E.g.“ to be conquered ” may be, and often is Perf., not, as it seems at first, Pres., for it may mean “ to have been conquered.” It will be useful to declare the Pres. Inf. Pass. into to be being conquered,” if possible. Thus, “I believe the Gauls are being conquered,” will be declared into “I believe the Gauls to be being conquered,” i.e. to be “in the act of” being conquered, and vinci will be the Lat. word; but “I believe the Gauls are conquered," is "I believe the Gauls to have been conquered,” where victos esse will be required.

106. The Future Infinitive Passive, strictly speaking, does not exist in Latin, but it can be expressed by certain phrases, of which the easiest to remember, though not the best, is the Supine of the Verb (which is indeclinable) followed by the word iri : thus scriptum iri, “ to be about to be written ;” laudatum iri, “ to be about to be praised."

N.B.--This Supine is formed by adding -um to the “ Root of the Supine,” and by itself it has an active meaning, somewhat equivalent to “so as to," write, praise, &c. It is used only with Verbs which imply motion, as veni huc emptum equos, “I came here so as to buy horses," i.e., “ I came here to buy horses.” Iri is the

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Pres. Inf. Pass. of the Irregular Verb ire, “ to go; therefore means literally " to be being gone" (by things

“ ( in general). Hence credo epistolas scriptum iri is literally “I believe it to be being gone by things so as to write letters," i.e., “I believe matters are proceeding which will cause letters to be written ”;-i.e., “ I believe letters will be written."

It should be pointed out to young pupils that the Acc. epistolas in such a sentence as the above is governed by the Supine, not by the previous Verb. They may, however, at first be allowed to “ declare " such a sentence thus :

I believe the letters to-be-about-to-be-written, by which means they will obtain the right Latin

Credo epistolas scriptum iri.

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(a) “I thought you were being brought here to be seen by us.”

I thought you to be being brought here that you might be seen.

Putavi te portari huc, ut vidērēris a nobis. (6) They say we shall be led to the city to be heard by the king.” They declare us to be about to be led

that we may be heard Dicunt nos ductum iri ad urbem, ut audiamur a rege.


My sister said she and Portia had been led here to be

seen by us." My sister declared herself and P. to have been led here that

they might be, &c. Soror mea dixit se et Portiam ductas esse huc ut

vidērenter a nobis.

(d) “Caius and I were expecting to be brought here to be

heard by you." I and Caius we were expecting ourselves to be about to be

brought here that we might be heard by you. Ego et Caius expectabamus nos portatum iri huc

ut audiremur a te. (e) “ You will be seen, heard, blamed, and conquered.”

Vidēbēris, audiēris, culpaběris, vincēris.


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107. The Imperative Mood is used in commanding, as “ Come!

" Go!” &c. 108. The 2nd Person Sing. of the Imperative Mood, Active, of Verbs may be formed from the Infin. Act. by omitting the two last letters re, thus laudā, praise ! scribě, write!” tenē,

“ hold !" &c. 109. The 2nd Plu. is formed by adding te to the 2nd Sing., as laudāte, tenēte, audīte ; but in the 3rd Conjn. it ends in šte (not ēte), as scribăte.

110. Nouns of the 4th Decln. are those whose Nom. Sing. ends in –ús, and Gen. Sing. in —ūs. They are Masc., and are declined as follows :


Nom. exercitus, exercitūs.
Acc. exercitum, exercitūs.
Gen. exercitūs, exercituum.
Dat. exercitui, exercitibus.

exercitu exercitibus.
The Dat, and Abl. Plu. is also written exercitubus.

111. Nouns of the 5th Declension are those whose Nom. Sing, ends in -es, and Gen. Sing. in -ei. They are Feminine, and are declined as follows:

Sing. Plu.
Nom. facies, facies.
Acc. faciem, facies.
Gen. faciei, facierum.
Dat. faciei, faciebus.
Abl. facie, faciebus.

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