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112. The Student will notice that in each of these Declensions the Rules given in Arts. 91, 19 hold good, viz., that the Dat. and Abl. Plu, are alike, and the Gen. Plu. ends in

113. The Vocative Case of Nouns, used in addressing persons or things (as “Come here, boys and girls !") is the same as the Nom. in Latin, except in the Sing. of Nouns of the 2nd Declension whieh end in us.

Of these, if Nom. ends in -ius, Voc. ends in -i, but if Nom. does not end in -ius, Voc. ends in Thus, “ Come here, Balbus and Julius !” will be Venite huc, Balbe et Juli!

114. Besides Masc. and Fem. Nouns, there are Nouns of no Gender, which are called Neuter. These are chiefly of the 2nd and 3rd Declensions, and are declined like other Nouns of those Declensions, except that (a) Their Acc. Sing. is always the same as Nom. Sing. (6) Their Nom. and Acc. Plu, always end in -a.

115. Neuters of the 2nd Declension are all those (and those only) whose Nom. Sing. ends in —um.

116. Neuters of the 3rd, whose Nom. Sing. ends in --l, have -ia for the ending of their Nom. and Acc. Plu.

117. Adjectives of the 1st and 2nd Declension have a Neuter form ending in --um in Nom. Sing., and therefore declined like 2nd Declension.

118. Adjectives of the 3rd Declension generally have their Neuter Plu. (Nom. and Acc ) formed by adding -ia to the Root, as felicia from felia ; and those whose Nom. Sing. ends in --is for Masc. and

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Fem. have a Neut. form for the Nom. and Acc. Sing., ending in -e, as triste from tristis.

119. It will thus be seen that the Gen., Dat. and Abl. cases of all Adjectives are the same for the Neut. as for the Masc.

120. The Participles of Verbs follow the same rules as Adjectives for formation of the Neut. Thus 16 the bodies were seen

will be corpora visa sunt. 121. The Verb ire “to go,” and its compounds, as redire “to return,” are irregular, in the Tenses with Root of Pres., except, of course, the Imp. Subj. (see Art. 72. These Tenses of ire are as follows:

Pres. Ind. eo, is, it, imus, ītis, eunt.
Imp. Ind. ibam, ības, ībat, &c,
Fut. Ind. ibo, ibis, ibit, &c.

Pres. Subj. eam, eas, eat, &c. 122. Redire is conjugated like ire, with redo for Root of Pres. Thus redeamus, we may return”; redirent " they might return”; redibatis, "ye were returning," &c. 123. Castra, “a camp

is a Neut. Plu, Noun of the 2nd Decln., with a Singular meaning. Thus castrorum is “ of a camp.' Any Adj. or Verb agreeing with it must of course be put in the Plu., as Castra mea visa sunt, “my camp was seen.”

124. The Ablative is used to denote the time when a thing happens, as die quarto, “on the fourth day.” EXAMPLES :-(a) “Give beautiful arms, Portia, to the cavalry and the fourth

division." Da arma pulchra equitatui, Portia, et aciei quartæ.


() “The ugly body was brought by the cavalry and the fourth

division." Corpus turpe portatum est ab equitatu et acie

quartā. (C) “I shall return to my camp on the fourth day in order to

give arms to the armies.” Redibo ad mea castra die quarto ut dem arma

exercitibus. (d) Return to your camp, Balbus and Lavinius, and fear the

terrible arms of your generals ! ” Redīte ad castra vestra, Balbe et Lavini, et timēte

arma terribilia ducum vestrorum ! (e) “On the sad march I never spoke a happy word to the army.”

In itinere tristi nunquam dixi verbum felix


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N.B.Exercises No. 20 are miscellaneous, upon the

subjects of Nos. 16, 17, 18, and 19.


125. The Past Participle Passive has been introduced in speaking of Compound Tenses, Passive. It is very frequently used in its proper sense as a Participle, agreeing with one or more Nouns or Pronouns, expressed or understood ; thus, (a) “ Caius, being conquered by the Gauls, returned to Rome.” i.e. Caius, having been conquered by, &c. or, Caius, conquered by, dc.

Caius, victus a Gallis, redivit Romam. Here victus is made to agree with Caius, because “having been conquered ” refers to Caius : again(6) “ I believe that Portia, being frightened at your voice, ran

to my house." I believe Portia, having been frightened by your voice, to

have run, &c. Credo Portiam, territam voce tuā, cucurrisse ad

domum meam. Here territam agrees with Portiam, the word to which it refers. (c) “You and I, being heard by the judge, were running,” &c.

Ego et tu, auditi a judice, currebamus. Here auditi agrees with nos, to which Ego et tu is equivalent.

“Give arms, generals, to the soldiers taken by Balbus !"

Date arma, duces, militibus captis a Balbo. (e) “ The arms of the soldiers taken by Balbus are beautiful.”

Arma militum captorum a Balbo sunt pulchra,


126. There is no Past Participle Active in Lat., therefore such expressions as “having come,” “ having written," &c., cannot be translated literally. They are, when possible, declared into a Passive form ; as, for example, (a) “ Caius, having written a letter, returned.”

Caius, a letter being written, returned. (6) “I believe that Cæsar, having conquered the Gauls, is

returning.” I believe Cæsar, the Gauls being conquered, to be returning. And then the Participial clauses (which always form a sort of parenthesis and are bounded by commas) are written in the Ablative Case. This construction is called the Ablative Absolute, and is extremely frequent in Latin. The Lat. for the above sentences will thus be

(a) Caius, epistolâ scriptâ, redivit.

(6) Credo Cæsarem, Gallis victis, redire. 127. Another way of declaring the English Past Participle Active is by turning it into the Conjunction “ when," followed by the Pluperfect Tense. Thus “ Balbus having written a letter” might be declared into Balbus, when he had written a letter.” In this case the Latin Conjunction quum must be used, and the Verb must be put in the Subjunctive Mood. The Plup. Subj. (which we have called the Plup. Potential, when its sign in English was “ would have ”') will therefore be used and the above clause will be rendered by Balbus, quum scripsisset epistolam.

128. This construction must be used when the English Participial clause is incapable of being turned into the Passive. Thus, e.g., in such sentences as

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