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(a) "Having walked to Rome, I bought a horse ;

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(b) "Balbus, having promised to come, built a wall;

which will be rendered

(a) Quum ambulavissem Romam, emi equum.

(6) Balbus, quum promisisset se esse venturum, ædificavit murum.

Quum with the Subj. will also be necessary, when the Lat. Verb used has no Supine. E.g.,

(c) "Having feared the dragon's voice, I ran to my camp." Quum timuissem vocem draconis cucurri ad castra


This construction also is to be preferred, when the Past Part. Pass. is very rare, e.g. in the case of tenere, to hold.


(a) "My sister and I, being frightened at the dragons' voices, were hoping that we should not be seen.'

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I and my sister having been frightened by the voices of the dragons, we were hoping ourselves not to be about to be


Ego et soror mea, territi vocibus draconum, sperabamus nos non visum iri.

(b) "Having heard the lions I ran to Caius's house."

The lions having been heard, I ran, &c.

Leonibus auditis cucurri ad domum Caii.

(c) "My soldiers, having conquered Cæsar's cavalry, were returning."

Milites mei, equitatu Cæsaris victo, redibant.

(d) "I have heard that Portia, having advised you not to come, promised to give your sister a horse."

I have heard Portia, when she had advised you lest you might come, to have promised herself to be about to give a horse to your sister.

Audivi Portiam, quum monuisset te ne venires, promisisse se esse daturam equu msorori tuæ.



129. The Latin for "this" is Hic, which is thus

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130. The Latin for the Pronoun "that" is Ille,

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131. These are called Demonstrative Pronouns, and they agree with the Noun (expressed or understood) to which they refer, in Number, Gender, and Case. Thus

(a) "This girl built those walls."

Hæc puella ædificavit illos muros.

(b) These boys' sister gave that judge a rose."
The sister of these boys gave a rose to that judge.

Soror horum puerorum dedit rosam illi judici,

132. These Demonstrative Pronouns when used to refer to some Noun just mentioned are often equivalent to the Personal Pronouns " "he," "she," "it," &c. E.g.,

Balbus est bonus. Laudavi illum

means "Balbus is good. I praised him.”

Here illum agrees with Balbum understood:- "I praised that Balbus."


133. The Latin for the Relative Pronoun "Who " "Which" is Qui. It is declined thus:

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This Pronoun must agree in Gender and Number with the Noun or Pronoun to which it refers, but its Case depends upon the clause in which it occurs. E.g.,

(a) "The girl, whom you saw, is my sister."

Puella, quam vidisti, est soror mea.

Here the Acc. quam is used because vidisti governs it, just as it would govern illam in “


you saw her."

"The boys, whose voices you heard, are good."
The boys, of whom you heard the voices, are good.
Pueri, quorum audivisti voces, sunt boni.

(c) "Have you seen the letters which were written by
Portia ?"

Vidistine epistolas, quæ scriptæ sunt à Portiā?

Here quæ is Nom. to the Verb scriptæ sunt.

134. The Relative is often omitted in English, but it must always be expressed in Latin. Thus

(d) "The wall we saw is small,"

must be declared into

The wall which we saw is small.”

Murus, quem vidimus, est parvus.

The Masc. quem is used here (though the English word "wall" is Neuter), because murus is Masc.


(a) "That girl, having avoided this dragon, ran to this camp" That girl, this dragon having been avoided, ran, &c.

Illa puella, hoc dracone vitato, cucurrit ad hæc


(b) "The father of this girl and of those boys has given this queen those dragons."

Pater hujus puellæ et illorum puerorum dedit illos dracones huic reginæ.

(c) "The boy whose father saw us is the brother of the girls to whom you gave this book and those roses.

Puer, cujus pater vidit nos, est frater puellarum, quibus dedisti hunc librum et illas rosas.

(d) "The girl you saw is the sister of those women who saw this body."

Puella, quam vidisti, est soror illarum mulierum, quæ viderunt hoc corpus.

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