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INSTRUCTION FOR EXERCISES No. 23.
135. The Verb facere, "to do," or to make," is what is called an "I-Verb" of the 3rd Conjn., i.e. a Verb of which the Tenses with the Root of the Pres. (except the Imp. Subj. which is never irregular) are formed as though the Verb were of the Fourth Conjugation. Thus faciebam "I was doing," faciam "I shall do," &c. In the Pres. Ind., however, the i is short in facimus, facitis, not long, as in audīmus, audītis.
The I-Verbs most frequently used are făcere, răpĕre, căpere, jacere, and their compounds, which end respectively in ―ficère, —rĭpĕre, —cĭpĕre, and --jicĕre.
136. Besides the Relative Pronoun "Who " or "Which," there is in English an Interrogative Pronoun "Who 66 or What," used in asking questions: e.g. "Who is that man ? "What did he say ?" The Latin for the Interrogative" Who" is Quis, and it differs from Qui only in its Nom. Sing., Masc. and Neut., which are Quis and Quid, and in its Acc. Sing. Neut., which is Quid.
137. Like Qui, Quis agrees in Numb. and Gend. with the Noun or Pronoun to which it refers; but its Case depends upon its own clause. Thus
(a) "Who are these girls?
What are they doing?"
Quæ sunt hæ puellæ ?
Here qua is Nom. to the Verb sunt; but quid is Acc. governed by faciunt. The Nom. to faciunt is illæ understood-"They are doing what?"
(b) "Whose horse are you holding? To whom shall you
Of whom are you holding the horse? To whom shall you give him?
Cujus equum tenes? Cui dabis illum?
138. Sentences are very often so constructed that one part depends upon another. E.g.,
(a) "Do you know what I am doing?
Here the clause "What I am doing" is said to "depend" upon the clause "Do you know." Similarly "What I am doing," might follow and depend upon many different clauses, such as the following:
In all these cases "What I am doing" is a Dependent clause," and in Latin the Verb in a Dependent clause, as "I am doing," is written in the Subjunctive Mood"quid faciam." This is a very important Rule. The same Tense is used as if the Verb were in the Indicative Mood; thus the Present for "I am doing," and the Imperfect (generally) for "I was doing," &c., &c.
139. If the Verb in the Dependent clause, is in the Perfect Tense, as "—what I said," and this clause depends upon another whose Verb is of Present or Future meaning; as
(a) "They are asking me,'
(b) "I have been asked " (lately),
then the Perfect Subjunctive Act. must be used. This Tense in Latin is exactly the same as the Fut. Perf. except that the 1st Sing. ends in --ĕrim instead of -ĕro. Thus, we shall have
(a) Rogant me quid dixerim.
(b) Rogatus sum, quid dixerim.
140. The Perfect Subj. Pass. is formed by compounding with the Pres. Subj. of Esse. Thus
(a) "Do you know by whom this was said?"
(b) "I have asked whose roses were bought?"
141. If the Dependent Verb is future, as in
I shall ask Balbus what he is about-to-do.
Rogabo Balbum quid sit facturus.
Here sit is used for "he is," because it is a Dependent Verb. Similarly where "should or "would
in a clause dependent on a Verb in a Past Tense, as in
(b) "They asked me what I should say," the sentence must be declared thus:
They asked me what I was about-to-say.
(a) "Do you know who these robbers are and what they did?' Novistine qui hi latrones sint et quid fecerint,
"Balbus and I were asked who we were and what we should do."
Ego et Balbus rogati sumus qui essemus et quid (essemus) facturi.
(c) "I asked him what he had said he would do."
Rogavi illum quid dixisset se esse facturum.
(d) "Caius is said to have been asked what he was writing." Caius dicitur rogatus esse quid scriberet.
(e) "I believed that Portia did not know where I was walking." I believed Portia to-know-not whither I was walking.
Credidi Portiam nescire quo ambularem.
(f) "I have been asked who I am and by whom I was blamed." Rogatus sum quis sim et a quo culpatus sim.
(g) "You will be asked who Caius was and what he said to you.” Rogaberis quis Caius fuerit et quid dixerit tibi.
(h) "I knew what you would say to this judge." Noveram quid esses dicturus huic judici.
INSTRUCTION FOR EXERCISES No. 24.
If we wish to translate such a sentence as "I have to build a wall," or "He had to hold a dragon," the Participle called the Gerundive may be used. This Participle is of the 1st and 2nd Declensions, and is formed by adding to the Root of the Pres.
In 1st Conjugation -andus, as laudandus.
-endus, as tenendus.
-endus, as dicendus.
-iendus, as audiendus.
143. The Gerundive Participles of ire, redire, &c., are eundum, redeundum, &c., and are only used in the Neut. (impersonally).
144. The meaning of laudandus is "fit to be praised," or, as we may call it, praise-able. The student will find it convenient to declare such sentences as "I have to build a wall"; "He had to hold a dragon," into A wall is buildable for me; A dragon was holdable for him. Thus the Latin will be—
(a) Murus est ædificandus mihi.
Thus we shall have
(c) "Caius said he had to write a letter."
Caius declared a letter to be write-able for himself.
(d) "I asked your sisters what they had had to do.”