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In the case of very young pupils it is well to teach the Verbs by themselves at first, without the Nouns. After being well catechised they should write some of the Preliminary Exercises, and, if these are insufficient, some of the Exercises No. 1, omitting the Nouns.
No pupil should begin the Exercises No. 2, until he can translate vivá voce and in writing such sentences as those in Exercises No. 1, with readiness and accuracy, both from English to Latin and back again.
will avoid the slave."
(c) " The husbandman blames Caius."
INSTRUCTION FOR EXERCISES No. 2.
9. Some Verbs (said to be of the Second Conjugation) end in ēre (rhyming to "weary"). as ridere,
to laugh. To form the three Tenses, as they are called, of these Verbs, which have been learned of the Verbs in are, we must change ēre, in the Present, or is-Tense, into et, as ridet," he is
laughing"; in the Imperfect, or was-Tense, into ēbat, as ridēbat," he
was laughing"; in the Future, or will-Tense, into ēbit, as ridēbit, “ he
10. It may be mentioned here that the terms “isTense," &c., have been found a help to young pupils ; and it is recommended that the technical terms in Grammar be not much used at first. There will be little difficulty in teaching them at a later stage, when the practical use is familiarly known of the Tenses, &c., which they designate. In accordance with this principle the terms “ he-word” and “they-word” have been found useful, instead of “the 3rd Person Singular" and “ the 3rd Person Plural."
11. Some Nouns whose Acc. ends in em are said to be of the Third Declension. Their Nominatives end in many different ways, but a Noun of this Declension has what is called a stem or root, and it is to this root that the em is added to form the Accusative. Thus, “a lion" is leo in the Nom., and the root of the other Cases of leo is leon, Hence the Acc. is leonem. These roots are
always given in Dictionaries, and the pupil must at first not expect to know any rule by which to find them, but must learn them along with the Nom. Case of Nouns of this Third Declension.
12. The Latin for 56 is the same, me: and the Latin for “ you" or " thee," which is the Acc. of
you thou,” is te. The Nominatives of these Pronouns will be learned hereafter. Non, “not," goes before the Verb.
"The king is-laughing-at the fox."
Latro non timebit draconem.
Vox terrebat te et me.
INSTRUCTION FOR EXERCISES No. 3.
13. Let the Pupil now learn the difference between Singular and Plural. He has hitherto learned inflexions of Nouns and Verbs in the Singular Number only. The corresponding Plurals will be easily learned, if attention is carefully paid to the following rules.
14. In Verbs, the they-word is generally formed from the he-word by putting the letter n before the final t: as," he praises," laudat ; "they praise," t
“ laudant; "he was holding," tenebat ; "they-wereholding," tenebant.
But in the will-Tense the bit is changed into bunt, for the they-word : as, “ he will praise," laudabit ; "they will praise," laudabunt ; "he will fear,” timebit ; "they will fear,” timebunt.
15. Of Nouns (except Neuters, which are not to be learned yet), the Acc. Plural always ends in s : and
may in the 1st and 3rd Declensions be formed by changing the final m of the Acc. Sing. into s. Acc. Sing.
16. The Nom. Plu. may be formed from the Acc. Plu., by changing,
In the 1st Decln., as into ce,
i. In the 3rd Decln. the Nom. Plu, is the same as the Acc. Plu.
Thus we shall have
(a) “The husbandmen were avoiding the lions."
Agricola vitabant leones.
Servi tenebunt dracones et mensas. (c) “The robbers blame and fear the boys and the judge.” i.e. The robbers they-are-blaming and they-are-fearing the
boys and the judge.
Latrones culpant et timent pueros et judicem. (d)
“The boy and the girl will build walls."