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INSTRUCTION FOR EXERCISES No. 4.
17. The Genitive Case. A Noun is said to be in the Genitive (or Possessive) Case, in English, when of goes before it: thus, in “ The Queen of England,” the Noun 66
England ” is in the Genitive Case; in “my brother's wife,” the Noun “brother” is in the Genitive Case, because the words mean “ the wife of my brother.”
18. The Genitive Sing. of Latin Nouns may be formed by adding to the Root (that is, to the part which does not change), In 1st Decln., Q, as menso,
66 of a table."
" of a judge.” 19. The Genitive Plural always ends in um. It is formed by adding to the Root, In the 1st Decln., arum, 2nd
; um, sometimes ium. Thus we shall have
“Of tables," mensarum,
“ Of foxes," vulpium. 20. The pupil must be practised in “declaring," or altering the English to the Latin idiom, as in the following
EXAMPLES : (a) “The judge's son was laughing at the king's brothers.” i.e. The son of-the-judge he-was-laughing-at the brothers of-the-king. Filius judicis ridebat
fratres regis (6) "The girls' brother is not afraid of Balbus's dragon.” i.e. The brother of the girls he fears not the dragon of Balbus.
Frater puellarum non timet draconem Balbi. (c) “ The foxes' and lions' voices frighten you and Caius's
daughter." i.e. The voices of the foxes and of the lions they-are-frightening
you and the daughter of Caius.
Voces vulpium et leonum terrent te et filiam Caii. (d) “The sisters of the masters and judges will see Portia's
roses, and praise the husbandmen's gardens. i.e. The sisters of-the-masters and of-the-judges they-will-see the
1 oses of Portia, and they-will-praise the gardens of-the
husbandmen. Sorores magistrorum et judicum videbunt rosas
Portiæ, et laudabunt hortos agricolarum.
N.B.-Exercises No. 5 are miscellaneous, upon the
subjects of Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4.
INSTRUCTION FOR EXERCISES No. 6.
21. Adjectives. Let the meaning of an "Adjective" be thoroughly taught first, with many examples in English, of different kinds, corresponding to different human senses, &c., as pretty," " large," "hard," “sweet," " loud," "sour," good," "wise," "funny," &c.
22. Latin Adjectives are declined like Nouns of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Declensions.
23. One very large class of Adjectives has the Nom. Sing. ending in us if the Adjective is used to describe a Masculine Noun, that is a he-Noun; but ending in a if the Adjective describes a Feminine or she-Noun. Thus a good boy” is puer bonus ; but “a good girl” is puella bona. An Adjective of this kind is declined like the 2nd Declension when it describes a Masculine Noun, and like the 1st Declension wben it describes a Feminine Noun.
24. Many Nouns are Masculine or Feminine in Latin, which are names of things without life. Thus
a wall” is Masculine, and mensa table” is Feminine. Generally speaking, Nouns of the 2nd Decln. are Masc.
Fem. But if a Noun of the 1st Decln. means a man, it is Masculine, as agricola, “a husbandman."
25. An Adjective must always be made to agres with the Noun it describes : that is, it must be written in the same Number, Case, and Gender. Thus,
“ The good judge sees the good girl.”
Judex bonus videt puellam bonam.
Soror mala terrebat pueros bonos. 26. Some Adjectives have their Masc. declined like Puer,
a boy.” The Nom. Sing. Fem. of these is formed by adding a to the Masc., and then the Fem. is declined like the 1st Declension : thus,
Nom. a wretched robber” is latro miser.
27. Some Adjectives have their Masc. declined like Magister, a master.” The Fem. of these is formed in the Nom. Sing. by changing the final er into ra, and then it is declined like the 1st Declension : thus,
Nom. a black slave" is servus niger.
Gen. “ of a black girl” -puello nigro. 28. Some Adjectives are declined like the 3rd Declension. These have the Masc. and Fem. alike. Thus, from tristis (trist-), “ sad,” and felix (felic—), “happy," we have
“Of a sad boy "-pueri tristis.
“Of happy girls "-puellarum felicium. N.B.- The Genitive Plural of Adjectives which end in is, ends in -ium.
29. The Adjective Pronouns, meus, "my"; tuus, “your,” or “thy"; suus,“ his own,” or “her own," or
their own"; are declined like bonus ; thus,
“My sister was praising your brother.”
Soror mea laudabat fratrem tuum.
Frater tuus videbit filiam suam,
Filii mei rident sororem suam. EXAMPLES :(a) “My sisters' good sons were afraid of the great lions' voices."
The good sons of my sisters they-were-fearing the voices of
the great lions. Filii boni sororum mearum timebant voces leonum
magnorum. “ The good husbandman's bad son does not see his sister." i.e. The bad son of the good husbandman he sees not his sister.
Filius malus agricolæ boni non videt sororem suam. (c) “ Our mother's sad sisters will praise their sons' black slaves." i.e. The sad sisters of our mother they will praise the black
slaves of their sons. Sorores tristes matris nostræ laudabunt seryos nigros
filiorum suorum. (d) Wretched Portia is afraid of her father's great voice.
Portia misera timet vocem magnam patris sui.