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of Paul. No one has written on the subject with finer insight and discrimination. The brilliant treatise of Professor Ménégoz, entitled Le Péché et la Rédemption d'après St. Paul, has afforded me many useful suggestions. With none of these writers, however, have I been able in all respects to agree. Especially do I dissent from the interpretations given by Wendt and Beyschlag to those portions of the New Testament which relate to the person and work of Christ, and from the presuppositions on which Holtzmann's construction and estimate of New Testament history and theology rest.

Appended to the volume will be found a select bibliography which comprises the most important recent literature of the subject. Articles and brochures on minor topics in Biblical Theology, which would be likely to interest only the specialist, have not been included. In accordance with its somewhat general purpose the list is limited to more comprehensive works. A much fuller bibliography, arranged on a different principle, is prefixed to Holtzmann's Lehrbuch.

As respects its aim the present work is not apologetic or controversial. It seeks to expound, not to defend. It also recognizes the boundaries between the explicit teachings of the New Testament and inferences which may be drawn from them, however natural or apparently necessary such inferences may seem to be. The limitations of space which were prescribed for the volume have rendered it necessary to bestow careful attention upon the question of proportion and to present the various subjects which are discussed as succinctly as possible. Every chapter has involved a study in condensation.

The reader will observe that while much importance is attached to the influence of current ideas upon the teaching of Christ and the apostles, I do not believe that Christianity is a mere product of the age in which it arose. I hold to the unique and distinctive originality of Jesus and to the supernatural origin of his gospel. The truths and facts which constitute this gospel are, indeed, historically conditioned, and of these historical conditions the Biblical theologian must take full and careful account. But that movement of God in human life and history which we call Christianity transcends its historical relations and limitations, and can be justly estimated only by recognizing its divine origin and singularity. This view of the Christian religion is not merely an assumption which is carried into the present study, but equally a conclusion which is established by the study itself.

GEORGE BARKER STEVENS.

YALE UNIVERSITY,

January, 1899.

PREFACE

The aim of this volume is to set forth, in systematic form, the doctrinal contents of the New Testament according to its natural divisions. The general method pursued is that which is now common in this branch of theological science. Brief explanations of the mode of treating certain portions of the New Testament, with respect to which important critical differences exist among scholars, are given in the chapters introductory to the several parts of the work.

My indebtedness to other writers has been acknowledged by means of references to the literature of the subject in the footnotes. But all such acknowledgments must, of necessity, be very partial. I wish especially to express my obligations to the writings of my teachers in earlier years, Professors Weiss and Pfleiderer. Wendt's Teaching of Jesus has been very helpful, especially in its treatment of critical and historical considerations bearing upon interpretation. Beyschlag's New Testament Theology has been read with interest and profit. Holtzmann's Lehrbuch der neutestamentlichen Theologie is a valuable encyclopædia for the student of the subject. Its summaries of the results of critical exegesis and its copious citations from the most recent literature render it a work of great value for reference. Professor Bruce's writings have been of real service, especially his volume on the theology

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of Paul. No one has written on the subject with finer insight and discrimination. The brilliant treatise of Professor Ménégoz, entitled Le Péché et la Rédemption d'après St. Paul, has afforded me many useful suggestions. With none of these writers, however, have I been able in all respects to agree. Especially do I dissent from the interpretations given by Wendt and Beyschlag to those portions of the New Testament which relate to the person and work of Christ, and from the presuppositions on which Holtzmann's construction and estimate of New Testament history and theology rest.

Appended to the volume will be found a select bibliography which comprises the most important recent literature of the subject. Articles and brochures on minor topics in Biblical Theology, which would be likely to interest only the specialist, have not been included. In accordance with its somewhat general purpose the list is limited to more comprehensive works. A much fuller bibliography, arranged on a different principle, is prefixed to Holtzmann's Lehrbuch.

As respects its aim the present work is not apologetic or controversial. It seeks to expound, not to defend. It also recognizes the boundaries between the explicit teachings of the New Testament and inferences which may be drawn from them, however natural or apparently necessary such inferences may seem to be. The limitations of space which were prescribed for the volume have rendered it necessary to bestow careful attention upon the question of proportion and to present the various subjects which are discussed as succinctly as possible. Every chapter has involved a study in condensation.

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