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súb' sti tūte, to put in the place of sån däunt' ed, fearless. another.

vē' hē měnçe, force; impetuosity. sým' bol, a type; emblem.

vi çin' i ty, nearness; adjacent territriv' i al, of little importance.




The teacher may illustrate the further use of these rules by giving the pupils additional words.

Drop final e before appending ing, er, est, but retain it before able, ous, and suffixes beginning with a consonant; as, care, caring; eye, eying; tithe, tithing; clothe, clothing; peace, peaceable; courage, courageous; agree, agreeable; free, freer, freest, freeing; mile, mileage; acre, acreage; move, movement.

Exception 1.--Hoe, toe, shoe; dye, singe, springe, swinge and tinge retain e before ing.

Exception 2.-Before adding a suffix, drop e from due, awe, true, whole, nurse, accrue, wise, abridge, argue, acknowledge, judge, lodge, and from able, cable, noble, and other words ending in le.

Put ie for y before s, d, r or st, and i for y before al; as, cry, cried, crier, criest; fly, fier, fliest; try, tried, trier, triest, trial.

Illustrate the use of the following words in sentences:




springe accept




“What stubbing, plowing, digging and harrowing are to land-thinking, reflecting and examining are to the mind."

chilled (child), hardened, said of cast-fēr' ti li zer, an implement for sowiron; as, chilled plows.

ing fertilizing preparations. col' ter, a knife or cutter, attached to hăr' row, an implement for breaking the beam of a plow.

or smoothing land. eŭl' ti vā tõr, an implement to loosen här' věst er, a machine for cutting

the ground and kill the weeds. and gathering grain. drill, an implement for making holes hělve, an ax handle.

in the ground and sowing grain. hõe, a tool for digging, weeding, etc.


grass, etc.

îm' ple ment, an instrument; tool or siekle, a reaping instrument for hand

utensil. load' er, an implement for loading snăth, the handle of a scythe. hay, etc.

sůlk' y-rāke, a rake drawn by horses, mow' er (mo), a machine for cutting having a seat for a driver.

swath (swộth), the whole sweep cut phos' phate, a salt of phosphoric acid by a scythe or mowing machine. used for fertilizing.

těd' der, an implement that spreads plow, an implement for turning or and turns newly-mown hay. breaking up the soil.

thrăsh' ing-ma chïne', a machine for rēap' er, a machine for cutting grain. separating grain from straw. scythe, an instrument for mowing wēed' er, a tool for freeing the soil grass, etc., by hand.

from weeds. sēed' er, an implement which sows or whēel' băr row, a one-wheeled handplants seeds.





åġ' i tāte, to rouse; to stir up. cū' po là, a roof having a rounded ăn nỉ vẽ' sa tỷ, a day annually celebrated.

dis bē liêf', the act of disbelieving. åp prox' i mate, to bring or come ē quā' tõr, an imaginary great circle near to.

around the earth. boy' eštt, to withhold trade.

ěx' eå vāte, to hollow out. bul' wark (-wŭrk), a defensive wall. fil' ial (-yal), befitting a child. eăm pāign', (-pāne'), the time an fós' sil, antiquated; petrified vegeta

army keeps the field; any organ- ble or animal matter. ized political, social or commercial gěn til' i ty, good breeding; refinecontest.

ment of manners. çît' i zen, a townsman.

quid' ance, direction; a leading. eon' sům māte (or eðn săm'-), to bring hậugh' ty, proud and disdainful; arto completion.

rogant. eo te riē' (-rē'), a clique; a social or hôr' ti eŭl ture, cultivation of a garliterary circle.

den or orchard. erē' māte, to burn.

hū māne', merciful; kind.

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The second word in each pair is opposite in meaning to that of the first.

åb' sti něnçe, abstaining; self-denial. | făb' ū loňs, not real; incredible.. in důl' ġěnçe, gratification.

ąu thěn' tie, genuine; true; credible. åd mo ni' tion, reproof; warning. fi' nal, last; decisive. åp prov' al, commendation; sanction. in cip' i ent, initial; commencing. å vỉd' i ty, eagerness; eager relish. flex' i ble, easily bent; pliable. åp' å thy, indifference; unconcern. toŭgh, firm; inelastic; hard. brěv' i ty, conciseness; shortness. jū di' çious, wise; prudent. ex těn' sion, protraction; elongation. im pru' dent, indiscreet; impolitic. co' pi ous, plentiful; abundant. out rā' ġeous (-jůs), atrocious. de fi' cient, lacking; imperfect. jús' ti fi á ble, excusable; defensible.

com mo' di ous, large; spacious. stěr'île, barren; unproductive. în còn vē' nient, unfit; ill-contrived. fēr' tile, fruitful; rich.



àq'ue dủet, an artificial channel for bål' eo ny, a projecting gallery from conveying water.

the wall of a building. ärch, a curved or vaulted structure băl' us trāde, a row of balusters,

to support weight above an opening. topped by a rail. awn' ing, a roof-like cover, usually băp' tỉs trý, part of a church containof canvas.

ing a font for baptismal services.

băt' tle ment, a notched parapet or Co rin' thi an, a style of architecture wall; a breastwork.

invented by the Greeks. běl' frý, a bell tower.

cór' ri dor, a gallery or passageway brăek'et, a decorative projection, or in a building.

support attached to a wall or pier. Dór' ie, the oldest and simplest style bắt' tress, a projecting support to the of Grecian architecture. outside of a wall or arch.

dôr' mer, an upright window in the çînque' foil (sink'-), a five- leaved roof of a house.

rosette used in windows, panels, etc. draughts' man, (drafts'-) one who clēar-stò' ry, upper story of the nave draws or makes plans. of a church.

es eitch' eon, (-ẵn) a shield around a clēat, a strip of wood or iron.

keyhole. eěl on nāde', a series of columns at få çāde', the front of a building.

certain distances from each other. Góth' ie, a style of architecture, with col' umn, a kind of pillar.

pointed arches, steep roofs, etc. eom pos' ite, a style of architecture I on' ie, a style of architecture which composed of Ionic and Corinthian. has a capital with a spiral scroll.


ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING jămb, side piece of a fire-place, door, på gõ' då, an oriental idol, temple, or or window.

coin. kēy' stone, the middle stone of an på vil' ion, a covering; a canopy. arch.

pěd' es tal, the base or foot of a lăt' tỉçe, a kind of network of cross- column, statue, vase, etc. bars.

pěnd' ant, a hanging ornament on lĩn' těl, upper horizontal part of a roof, ceiling, etc. door-frame, etc.

pỉ ăz' zá, an arcaded and roofed galmăn' tel, finish round a fireplace; a lery; a veranda. shelf above a fireplace.

piēr, a projecting wharf; a support. Mõ résque' (-resk'), a style of archi- pil' lar, a column; a pier.

tecture or decoration; Moorish. porte co chêre' (pārt kā shâr'), a covmôr' tỉse, an opening or cut to receive ered carriage entrance attached to a a tenon.

house. nāve, body of a church; hub. stâirs, a series of steps. new' el, an upright post at the bot-trā' çer ý, ornamental work in architom a staircase.


trěl' lis, a structure of light crossbars. vī' å dŭet, a bridge, with arches, très'tle, framework for a bridge, etc. across a valley or river. Tủs' eăn, a style of architecture. wāin' seot, paneled boards on the vąult'ed, an arched roof; concave. walls of a room.



The best way of all to have time is to have the habit of regular work, not to work by fits and starts, but in definite hours of the day, and to work six days in the week-not five, and not seven.

or tail.

åb ēr rā' tion, a wandering of the pa lā' tial, like a palace; magnificent. mind; partial insanity.

plå teau' (-to'), a broad, level, elebreadth, width.

vated area of land. com' et, a star with a nebulous train prod' i ġy, a wonder; any surprising

thing. děs' uē tūde (-we-), disu se; discon- pshạw (shậw), an exclamation of continuance of practice, etc.

tempt. e măn' çi pāte, to set free.

pul' pit, a desk to preach or speak flēeçe, to defraud; the wool of one

from, sheep.

răn' dóm, course without definite găl' ler y, a kind of platform with direction; left to chance. seats on brackets or columns.

squēak, to creak. hor' rõr, excessive fear; dread; ter- suā' sion, the act of persuading.

sės pi' cion, distrust; to suspect. hợp' no tism, an artificial sleep. sýn' the sis, composition; a putting în' fi nite, unlimited; complete and together. absolute.

trough (trąwf), a long hollow vessel. mis' chỉef, harm; trouble.

tûr' ret, a small tower. op' po gíte, contrary; adverse; facing. vā' rý, to change.


What is the difference between: university and college

map and chart opera and theater

noted and notorious romance and novel

vacillate and oscillate

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