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Hotels, Cafés and Restaurants..
113, 115, 117, 119, 121, 124, 127
136, 139, 142, 144, 147
15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, 180
.8, 18, 28, 38, 42, 50, 58, 66, 74
94, 104, 114, 125, 138, 145, 155
The following suggestions are offered with the hope that they may lead to a more intelligent and careful study of the lessons.
Webster's International Dictionary has been the standard for pronunciation, syllabication and orthography of this work, although the Century, Standard and other dictionaries have been consulted. Capitals have been used where required, words divided into syllables, and correct pronunciation and accent marked. Compound words are separated by a hyphen. When a word has more than one spelling, the preferable form is given.
The Key to Pronunciation, if carefully studied, will aid the pupil in giving the proper sound and accent to words which are so essential in learning to spell. In fact, correct pronunciation is essential to correct spelling.
The Lessons are arranged as Miscellaneous, Classified, Synonyms and Antonyms, Dictation and Reviews, with several lessons on American and foreign cities. The Classified lessons are distributed throughout the work to relieve the sameness, while the order is all that can be desired. Every fifteenth lesson is a review, but we would suggest that reviews be more frequent at the discretion of the teacher.
The Methods of teaching spelling are many. Some teachers pursue the plan of pronouncing a lesson at random and then require the pupils to study the misspelled words for the next lesson. The author has found the following a good plan: Assign twenty-five words for the succeeding day's work which the pupil is expected to prepare together with the definitions. A careful study of the definitions will help the students to an intelligent comprehension of the words and an enrichment of their vocabulary, as well as giving them a better command of language. After the teacher pronounces the words to be spelled and defined, the pupils are allowed to exchange books and correct each other's work, checking all misspelled words as indicated in the diagram below while the teacher is pronouncing, spelling and defining the words correctly. There are other ways for checking the work, but we believe this is the least burdensome to the teacher. It is sometimes advisable to allow the pupils to take turns in pronouncing, spelling and defining the lessons in making corrections, as this stimulates their interest in the work. Mistakes of every kind should be carefully noted. The lesson fails of its complete purpose unless some method is employed to fix upon the mind of the pupil the correct spelling of the misspelled words. All such should be carefully reviewed at the succeeding lesson. A careful record of each pupil's standing should be kept in a book for this purpose, so that it may be examined when desired.
Spelling Blanks or books prepared for the purpose should be used for all the lessons. The reasons are obvious. Below is given a specimen page of a convenient form, showing a written lesson, corrected. LESSON
Some teachers prefer to assign two lessons, pronouncing only twenty-five of the most difficult words. This method may be advisable for advanced classes.
Those who do not care to have pupils learn definitions may use the extra column for the writing of another lesson.
RULES FOR SPELLING
Nearly all rules for spelling have exceptions to them, but the few given here, and in lessons 5 and 29, may be helpful if carefully applied.
1. Monosyllables, and polysyllables accented on the last syllable, ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, double the final consonant on taking another syllable beginning with a vowel; as, bag, baggage; man, manned; fat, fatter; refer, referred, referring; begin, beginning.
2. Words ending in final silent e, except ce or ge, drop the final e when suffixes are added beginning with a vowel; as, hope, hoping; debate, debating: write, writing.
3. Final e is sometimes retained to preserve the identity of a word in pronunciation; as, arrange, arrangement; singe, singeing. Before a suffix beginning with a consonant, final e is also retained; as, spite, spiteful; move, movement.
4. Words ending in y preceded by a consonant, change y into i on taking another syllable beginning with any other letter than i; as, fancy, fanciful; easy, easily; speedy, speedily; deny, denying; busy, busying; signify, signifying.
5. In words like siege, deceive, etc., if the sound is ee, use e after c, and i after other letters; as, receive, believe. Exceptions: neither, sheik, weird, weirs.
6. The plural of nouns ending in o, if the final o is preceded by a vowel, adds s; as, folio, folios. If it is preceded by a consonant, add es; as, hero, heroes; cargo, cargoes. Exceptions: juntos, solos, cantos, duodecimos, octavos, quartos.
7. Nouns ending in y, preceded by a vowel, form their plurals by adding s; as, money, moneys; but if y is preceded by a consonant, it is changed to ies in the plural; as, bounty, bounties.
8. Words of one syllable ending in a consonant, with a single vowel before it, double that consonant in derivatives; as, slip, slipping, etc. But if ending in a consonant, with a double vowel before it, they do not double the consonant in derivatives : as, troop, troopers, etc.
9. Words ending in l, double that letter in the termination ly; as, beautiful, beautifully, etc.
The following rules for the use of capital letters will prove helpful to every writer:
1. Every sentence, or every expression which stands for a sentence, should begin with a capital.
2. Names of persons, including the surname or family name, as well as the baptismal or Christian name, should begin with a capital.
3. Names of places should begin with a capital. If the name consists of more than one word, each word should begin with a capital.
4. Names of nations should begin with a capital. Also words derived from the names of nations; as, Americanize, Roman, etc.
5. Names of rivers, mountains, oceans, etc., should begin with a capital.
6. Names of sects or denominations should begin with a capital. The word “Church," when part of the name, should begin with a capital. When it does not refer to a particular denomination, or when it means a house of worship, it should begin with a small letter.
7. Names of political parties should begin with a capital.
8. Names of associations, fraternities, societies, etc., should begin with a capital. Each word in these titles, as in proper names, comes under the same rule.
9. Names of months, days and festal times should begin with a capital. The names of the seasons, as spring, summer, etc., should not begin with capitals, except where they begin sentences or are personified.
10. Titles of respect or honor, as Mr., Miss, Mrs., Master, Prof., Rev., Dr., Esq., etc., should begin with a capital. When these words are not used as titles or as abbreviations of titles, they should commence with small letters.
11. Titles of books, and all the important words in such titles, should begin with a capital. Titles of essays, or newspaper articles, come under the same rule.
12. Titles of endearment or relationship, when used before the names to which they refer should begin with capitals. When used as introductory in letters, they should begin with capitals.