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• Martin's Cash Store
is a place where you can get almost anything you desire. They keep for sale Dry Goods, Notions, Clothing for Men and Boys, Boots The State Normal School and Shoes, Groceries, Flour and Feed. When you need anything to eat or wear do not miss calling at our store, which is it the
Emporia, Kansas. OPERA HOUSE BLOCK
605 CommercialSt., Emporia, Kansas.
Junction City Floral Company,
... Wholesale and Retail Dealers in...
*Choice Flowers and Plants. North Washington St. P.O. Box 17. Telephone 22.
JUNCTION CITY, KANSAS.
Write, Telephone, or Telegraph.
JOSEPH, H HILL, Beginning Latin, Elementary Cæsar, Advanced
Cæsar, Cicero, Virgil.
OSCAR CHRISMAN, History of Education, School Law, or Political Economy, General History, Child Study,
L. C. WOOSTER, Botany, Zoology, Geology and Mineralogy, Phys.
ical Geograhhy, Physiology.
SUE D. HOAGLIN,
E. L. PAYNE, Arithmetic, Beginning Algebra, Advanced Alge. bra, Geometry, Trigonometry and Surveying.
SADIE L. MONTGOMERY,
MARY A. WHITNEY,
E. L. PAYNE, Sec'y.,
EMPORIA, KANSAS. ($tate Normal Headquarters during the State Teachers' Association.)
W. L. HENDERSON,
105 East Fifth Avenue.
When you want a .
DRESS SUIT OR A BUSINESS SUIT
Visit the Great Day-Light Furniture, Carpet and Complete House Furnishing Establishment
has plenty of
for the Holiday Trade. Oysters Served
Parties Served In Every Style...
On Short Notice.
616-618 Commercial Street,
EMPORIA, KANSAS, DECEMBER, 1897.
He has followed his Little Boy Blue;
While with tears, we, their graves bedew. He is joyously welcomed in that holy land,
By the beautiful child-angels there; He doth sing them his songs, while they twine him a wreath,
On his brow, he, the laurel, shall wear.
Though the midday of life was scarce spent;
That to us, here below, he was sent.
R. B. PARK,
My head is bowed and my tears fall fast,
The moon is rising, an empty cresent; And I sit with the ghost of a Christmas pastFor I haven't the ghost of a Christmas present.
G. E., in December Munsey.
Motor Control Again. The article by Heinemann in your November number is interesting because of the reasoning he uses and the inferences he draws. It was especially interesting to me because the second question he discusses was mine.
The Doctor shows by a simple experiment that the muscles of the forearm control the fingers in grasping, which, excepting the thumb, is true. The short muscles which draw the thumb towards all the fingers of the hand must be included among the groups of "arger muscles" that “develop earlier.” Carry the investigation a little further and it will be seen that the groups of muscles that move the fingers in grasping are also employed in writing by the finger movement, and no others. The small muscles of the hand separate and bring together the fingers, but are scarcely used at all in opening or closing the hand. Does not the reasoning the Doctor gives us prove that the finger movement is natural?
He recommends that the arm movement be employed exclusively at first, and at the blackboard. Teachers know that it is more difficult to get good blackboard work than good work on slate or paper. The reasons are apparent. The child is weak. It must not only make the writing movement, but must sustain its own weight while writing. If the exercise is continued for a considerable time the weariness caused by the strain becomes injurious. Try it yourself. The child's arm needs the support of the desk. Use has given at six years of age, more dexterity in the use of the forearm muscles than of the muscles of the arm, hence children always write at first with the finger movement. This is a very good method of writing, the best open to children, but is peculiarly liable to faults. Children usually cramp the muscles in grasping the pencil too tightly, and the effort to move across the line cramps the wrist. The twisting of the neck, rolling the eyes, and protruding the tongue are likely to accompany the earlier attempts, no matter what movement be employed. Lighter, softer pencils, larger copy, and more drill at the beginning on simple exercises will lessen these faults. After the first three years are passed, when writing becomes one of the child's means of expressing his own thoughts, he needs a more rapid
handwriting and should learn the arm and the forearm movements. He should have learned the forms of all the letters thoroughly by this time, and the aim should be dexterity in the use of the writing arm. The classification into “hand," “arm,” and “combined” movements is scarcely correct, if by this the meaning is that the muscles of the hand are employed in the first and of the arm in the second, as the article implies no one can write with the hand alone. The same muscles are employed in the “arm” movement and the “combined” movement, the difference being that in the former the arm is held free from any rest, while in the latter it rests upon the desk, upon the muscles of the forearm. In the finger movement the power originates in the forearm, and is transmitted to the pen by the moving of the fingers, while in the arm movement the fingers are nearly rigid, the motion being transmitted to the pen by the muscles of the upper arm through the forearm and hand, the small muscles in each case being for adjustment rather than motion.
The illustration citing the Ollendorf and the Mager methods of teaching a foreign language does not illustrate, because it is not a parallel case. Writing is not a matter of reasoning, nor wholly of memory, but of the use of the muscles, which, carried to perfection, becomes automatic action.
In one place the Doctor says the cooperation between the arm and the eye is the result of experience and training, and in the same column, that the connection between hand and eye is automatic. He founds these statements on the fact that a young infant can grasp with considerable strength, but cannot use his arm with any degree of precision. The premises do not warrant the conclusions. Skill in each case is the result of experience and training, and in neither is it automatic.
He inveighs against writing from copy, and says: “Those teachers who wish to try this method, [i. e., the blackboard,] must themselves be able to write an even, bold, and beautiful hand on the board; for the pupils, being born imitators, will invariably write as their teacher does.” Why suppress nature? He says in one sentence, “Let her lead her pupils to remember the words which she writes on the board so that they can rewrite them from memory after they have been erased," and in the next but one, “This must be done by writing and speaking the word at the same time; thus the idea called forth by the word absorbs the attention of the child completely. In this way children can be taught to read and write script at the same time." Children are to observe the details of form while their attention is wholly absorbed with the idea. What could be more practical! He seems to have discovered that he is discussing the common method of teaching reading, as indicated in his last remark, and not writing at all.
We cannot believe that many school children suffer "all manner of sickness and deformity,” but, if some do, there are many other causes to help bear the blame besides the present method of teaching penmanship.
As to the movement of the hand's being automatic and the lowest form of activity, we can only say that the Creator probably intended us to do some simple acts without reasoning or He would have developed the reasoning powers earlier.
J. H. Grotfelter. Atchison, Kansas.
Story-Little Red Riding-Hood.
The wolf said to her, "Good day, my pretty dear, where are (Superintendent H. M. Culter, of Norton, has prepared a few lessons show. you going this fine morning?” Red Riding-hood said, “I am ing how the work outlined in the course of study for graded and district going to visit my grandmother who lives in the little cottage schools may be correlated. We take pleasure in giving the introduction to
which you see among the trees. I am carrying some wine and Red Riding-hood in this number, with the promise that the rest of it shall be
some butter to her in this basket.” given in the January issue.) Lesson I.
“Are you not afraid to be all alone in this great wood?” said Little Red Riding-hood lived with her parents on the edge of
the wolf. “I am very sorry I cannot go with you and see that a large wood. Her father and mother were very fond of her
no harm comes to you, but I have an errand to do and must and tried very hard to make her happy. Once her mother
make haste onward."
LESSON V. made her a hood and cloak of red, and from this she was called “Little Red Riding-hood” by the woodmen who were at work Now the wolf wished very much to make his dinner of Little in the forest, for they often saw her wandering near her home
Red Riding-hood, but he heard the sound of axes near by and in search of flowers. Her father did not often call her by this feared he might be caught in this cruel act by the woodmen. name, for the pet name he had given her was Little Red Cap.
Since he had found out where the grandmother lived, he Little Red Cap was never lonely at home, for she had two
thought he would go on to her house and eat the old grandpets to keep her company. Besides Tabby, her cat, she had
mother instead. So he went on to the cottage and rapped genFrisk, a large black dog, which nearly always went with her tly at the door. The grandmother was very ill, and her voice when she went about the wood.
weak, but she called out, “Who is there?” The wolf answered, Note-Do not read the story to the children. Learn it and tell it to them
“Little Red Riding-hood." "Pull the string and it will lift the in your own language.
Tatch.” Now all this time a little bird perched on a bough just Lesson II.
over the window, had been uttering one shrill note after Children, do you remember the story I told you yesterday? another, trying his best to give the old grandmother warning; Who was the little girl we talked about? I will tell you some but she either did not hear or did not understand; so the wolf, more about Little Red Riding-hood, or Little Red Cap, as her after pausing a moment at the door, entered the room. father called her.
As I said before, the grandmother was very weak, and was This time, her grandmother, who lived by herself in a little lying with her face turned to the wall. Of course the wolf cottage on the other side of the forest, was very sick, and Lit- made his voice sound very much like Red Riding-hood's voice tle Red Riding-hood's mother sent her to carry to her grand- and said, “ I have brought a basket with some things in it for mother a basket with some wine and a few pats of fresh butter. you.” “Set the basket on a chair and come and get upon the Frisk had gone with Little Red Cap's papa to tend the sheep, bed where I can see you,” said the grandmother. The wolf so he was not there to go with her. But she had often gone
immediately jumped upon the bed and ate up the old grandthrough the wood to visit her grandmother, so her mother had mother. Then he decided to wait for little Red Riding-hood, no fears for her; but she said to her as she kissed her good-bye, who he knew must be quite near by this time; so he put on the “Do not tarry in the wood for I shall be anxious to hear from grandmother's nightcap and gown and crawled into the bed. your grandmother, as I fear she may be in some need.”
Note-Does the death of the grandmother affect too severely the sympa Note-Teacher should connect previous lesson with to-day's lesson.
thies of the children? If so, change the story next time. LESSON III.
LESSON VI. Red Riding-hood was very glad to go, for it was a fine morn- Ere long there came a gentle rap at the door, and the wolf, ing and the wood was very beautiful. There was only a nar- remembering the grandmother's words, called out, “Who is row path through the wood, so Little Red Riding-hood did not there?” “Little Red Riding-hood," came the answer. “Pull keep the path all the time, but ran here and there as she saw the string and it will lift the latch.” So Little Red Ridingsomething that attracted her attention.
hood entered the room and said, “Dear Grandma, I have Now it was a squirrel leaping from limb to limb of some brought you some butter and wine in the basket.” The wolf large tree, now a butterfly, which fitted across her path and said, “Set the basket on a chair and come and get upon the bed alighted on a flower only a short distance from her. She was where I can see you, for I am too weak and ill to sit up to talk sure she might catch it, but just as she thought she had it in to you.” So Little Red Riding-hood placed her basket on a her grasp, it flitted away.
chair and climbed upon the bed, but, as she did so, she was She had so often longed to have a rabbit among her pets. As frightened by her grandmother's strange looks, which she supa little bunny came jumping straight toward her, she fairly posed must be caused by her sickness. “Why, grandmother!" held her breath lest she might frighten him, for she wished she said, “You look so strange! What a long nose you have!” him to come very near that she might catch him; but he was "The better to smell with, my child,” answered the wolf. not to be caught, for he soon stopped short and then bounded “And, grandmother, what long ears you have!” “The better away in another direction.
to hear with, my child," said the wolf. “And what large eyes The birds seemed very happy to see her and sang to her their you have!” “The better to see with,” answered the wolf. sweetest songs. All along the way she had picked, now and “And, grandmother, what great teeth you have!” “The betthen, a beautiful flower which seemed to beckon to her, but ter to eat you up," said the wolf, in his natural voice, raising soon her path led to where the flowers were so plentiful that his head ready to devour her. she thought she would gather some to carry to her dear grand
LESSON VII. mother; so she left the path and wandered away a long distance,
Just then, a woodman who had seen the wolf talking to Little gathering the sweetest flowers and ferns. She began to feel
Red Riding-hood in the wood, and who feared that something tired and hungry, and as her mother had put a little lunch into
might befall her, had come to the hut and arrived at the door the basket for her, she sat down on a fallen tree to eat it.
just as the wolf said this. He sprang into the room and dealt LESSON IV.
the wolf a terrible blow on the head, which killed him. He then While she was sitting there, a wolf came out of a thicket near took the little girl back to her home, and her parents were by and spoke to her. This was not strange, for in those days indeed grateful to the woodman for saving the life of their and in that wood, wolves often met people and talked to them. dear child.
Reading correlated with Little Red Riding-hood.
The Study Table.
M'LOUISE JONES. Dr. Hervey says: “A folk story or a world story is better than a new story. A plant or animal story is better than a personal story." Here are two stories from the Outlook that will illustrate his idea. Tell them to the children and note the effects.
The Seed-Babies' Blanket. “Dear me!” said Mother Nature as she tucked the last of her seed-babies in bed, and spread over them a blanket of leaves, King Winter will soon be here, and I fear this covering is not enough to keep my babies from his icy grasp. I must get them another blanket. What shall it be? Let me see. It should be something soft and light. And for babies, of course, it must be white."
So she went to Mr. North Wind and said, “O Mr. North Wind, please bring to me
A blanket pure and white,
To cover my little seed-babies." But Mr. North Wind said, “I cannot, unless Jack Frost will give me some of his silvery powder."
So Mother Nature called to Jack Frost, “O Jack Frost, please give Mr. North Wind some of your silvery powder, that he may make for me
A blanket pure and white,
To cover my little seed-babies." But Jack Frost said, “You must ask the clouds to give me some vapor, then.”
So Mother Nature called to the clouds and said, “O kind Clouds, please give Jack Frost some of your vapor, that he may change it into silvery powder, and give it to Mr. North Wind, that he may make for me
A blanket pure and white,
To cover my little seed-babies." But the Clouds said, “We must wait till Old Ocean sends us more vapor.” So Mother Nature said to the Ocean, “Please, Old Ocean, send more vapor to the little Clouds, that they may give some to Jack Frost, that he may change it into silvery powder and give it to Mr. North Wind, that he may make for me
A blanket pure and white,
To cover my little seed-babies.” But the Ocean said, “The Sun must send us some heat fairies first." So Mother Nature called to the Sun, “Dear old Father
un, please send some of your heat fairies to Old Ocean, that he may send vapor to the Clouds, that they may give some to Jack Frost, that he may change it into silvery powder and give it to Mr. North Wind, that he may make for me
A blanket pure and white,
To cover my little seed-babies."
A blanket pure and white,
Mary LOOMIS GAYLORD.
More Ways Than One. It was very early morning, and in every orchard, thicket, and wood, the birds were singing in answering melodies. The little brown lizard that lived under a stone in the brook
(Continued on page 45.]
here, your lives when you shall leave these walls, shall prove - Manual training is getting a firm hold in nearly all of the
the folly or the wisdom of your pilgrimage after knowledge. larger cities. In the Brooklyn schools, sewing is taught the
You should work, not because the night is coming, but because girls in the second, third, fourth, and fifth grades. No
you have faith in a day that is coming. Faith—the evidence attempt is made to do any ornamental work with the needle,
of things not seen! Faith—the substance of things hoped for! but the girls become quite skillful and rapid in the use of the
What a strange order, what a beautiful order, shall prevail in needle before reaching the sixth grade. A recent symposium
the day that shall be; when the mill of education has taken on manual training in the Chicago schools shows that the
greed from the human heart; when men shall toil for the good teacher of the future must be familiar with its manifold
they can do with the rewards of their labor! Then they shall phases, drawing, modelling, wood-carving and sloyd, which
master the science of getting only that they may practice the have become fully established as a part of the regular course
art of giving.–William Allen White at K. U. in the grades, and nobody seems to question their desirability.
Nature Studies for December. Indeed, their elimination would at once arouse a storm of opposition.
This month may appropriately be given to taking an account -A new rule by the board of education of the city of New
of stock. Most plants and many animals have begun their York specifies that classes in German shall be formed upon the
winter's rest. The trees, except the evergreens, have dropped
their leaves and have allowed their root-hairs to shrivel that request of a certain number of patrons, and the German forces are all in excitement for fear that it means that it practically
they may enjoy their winter's rest in safety. They have destroys free German tuition in nearly all of the schools of the
given up their seeds to the care of the squirrels, the insects, city. An organized effort is being made to have the rule abro
the pigs, the cattle, and to the boys and girls; but their new gated. French is in similar danger. It is now proposed that
limbs and their new coat of wood and bark they keep for next the principals of the four great high schools in Brooklyn shall
summer's use. Not including their seeds in the estimate just have absolute control of the admission of pupils to their sev
now, let us ask them how much growth they have made during eral classes, fixing requirements and giving such examinations
the year 1897. The questions may be somewhat as follows: as they may think wise. Heretofore the superintendents have
What tree has put forth the longest branches? made up the city board of control and this modification reveals
2. Estimating the growing season to have been one hundred the fact that great discord exists among our brethren in Long days, what has been the average daily growth of the elm, Island.
maple, box elder, catalpa, cottonwood, rosebush, grapevine, -Now comes a new question for the consideration of school
Virginia creeper, clematis, and squash vine? boards: “Shall the teachers in the public schools be permitted
3. How do the creepers compare with the trees in length to dress in black?” The Alameda (California) school board
of growth? recently passed a resolution to the effect that teachers could
4. How do they compare in increase of diameter? not dress in mourning while in the school room. The
5. Which grow the faster, young trees and vines or old
trees and vines? chairman of the committee in speaking of the action of the board, said: “It is a delicate matter to handle and may pro
6. On which side of the trees are the new growths of the voke adverse criticism, but I do not believe that teachers should
branches the longest? On which side are the twigs the be permitted to wear mourning robes in the school rooms. The
shortest? Why? effect on the classes is detrimental and depressing. While we
7. Many trees show very plainly the amount of growth each all sympathize with the teacher who has lost some one near
year for several years. How does the amount of growth in and dear to her, still she ought not to be allowed to emphasize length for 1897 compare with the amount for 1896, 1895, 1894, her grief by wearing mourning in the classrooms."
1893, and as much farther back as the trees show?
8. Let the boys and girls ask their parents whether it was -The truth is that the man or woman who gets the best
dry or wet those years, and compare the amount of growth happiness from life, who gives the most happiness back to his during dry years with the amount during wet years. fellows,—who really makes a living,-does not live to make
9. Many trees show rotten bark on the southwest side of money. Any fool can make money; most fools can squander their trunks. Did the hot winds or the hot afternoon sun it; many fools can hoard it. The primary object of an edu- cook the bark? cation should be to instruct men and women in the gentle art 10. Some trees have shorter limbs on the southwest side of of spending money after they have earned it. It is not a
their tops. Did the wind or the cooked bark cause this? simple matter; when one thinks of the joy one may bring to Questions 9 and 10 are given to provoke discussion and may tired hearts, the comfort one may give to weary hands, the
not be answered by Dame Nature unless we ask her anew next wisdom one may see in an open book, the beauty one may
summer, and perhaps for several summers. conjure from a printed page—each with one humble American
Haphazard answers to any of these questions are of no dollar, it is small wonder that the intelligent man should ask
value, nor do haphazard observations count for anything. for more light before he executes his trust and parts with that
Nature studies are found to be of most value when the student which Providence has lent him.-William Allen White, Annual
pursues them as a general plan, and carries on a campaign; Address at State University.
or, as an Edison, searches for his facts, carefully studies them, -If we are beginning to understand the truth, the world and arranges their bearings in their proper order. must be growing better. Indeed we are growing better. You Let tables be prepared embodying the results of the obserwho have gathered here to-day assemble in a cause as holy in vations, and let the best ones be written upon the blackboard, your time as that which called the Knights of the Cross to or published in the local paper, or both. Jerusalem. The simple rites with which these doors are In the opinion of the writer, a very serious mistake is made thrown open, begin a work which should mean to the world if the oral presentation of nature study reports is allowed to more than does the crowning of a king. With you, young occupy more than a few minutes each day. More time should men and women of Kansas University, is left the answer to be used by the pupils in weaving the data they have obtained, the question: Shall this ceremony be consecrated to God, or and their conclusions, into neatly written essays. shall it be an empty show-on a pagan holiday? Your work
L. C. WOOSTER.