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Martin's Cash Store
FRANTZ & WILSON,
519 Commercial Street, is a place where you can get almost anything you desire. They Shoes and Slippers. keep for sale Dry Goods, Notions, Clothing for Men and Boys, Boots and Shoes, Groceries, Flour and Feed. When you need anything to LADIES', $1.50 to $4.50. MEN'S, $1.50 to $5.00. eat or wear do not miss calling at our store, which is it the OPERA HOUSE BLOCK
Students Invited to Call.
HAYNES BROS., GOOD POCKET KNIFE, RAZOR, GUNS OR AMMUNITION.... mesarte ea for --AVERY'S MEAT MARKET.
If you want a
616-618 Commercial Street,
This space is
EMPORIA, KANSAS, OCTOBER, 1897.
SLEEP, BABY, SLEEP.
classes arise from the importance of the external or internal The mock bird singeth sweet songs for thee,
factor in the movement. Impulsive and Expressive refer to Sleep, baby, sleep;
movements which contain only the internal factor. AutoThe harvest-fly hummeth away in the tree,
matic and Imitative movements partake of both internal and Sleep, baby, sleep. Hum and sing, sing and hum,
external stimuli. The movements designated Reflex, InMother is singing a lullaby;
stinctive, and Selective arise only from external causes. Sing and hum, hum and sing,
Impulsive movements are irregular and without purpose. Hush, little baby, oh hush-a-by.
These are such as occur in the embryonic state and in early Out in the meadow is little Bob White,
infancy, also they are found all through life. Under these are Sleep, baby, sleep;
classed those squirming and twisting movements noted in Calling to thee, my sweet, "good night,"
very young infants. I recall quite distinctly the squirming of Sleep, baby, sleep. Hum and sing, sing and hum,
our child when very young when at any time her napkin was Mother is singing a lullaby;
removed. The little limbs and hip were thrown about in just Sing and hum, hum and sing,
such a squirming way as one sees in a fish-worm cut in two. Hush, little baby, oh hush-a-by.
The expressive movements are much more definite than the Angels will watch o'er my little one's bed,
Impulsive. Each one is a marked indication of a bodily or Sleep, baby sleep;
mental state. Such are the movements expressive of emotions, The darkness has come and the daylight has fled,
fatigue, and the like. These movements are a rise above the Sleep, baby, sleep.
Impulsive towards conscious and voluntary movements. Next
in the chain come the Automatic movements. (In this classiSing and hum, hum and sing,
fication it must be noted that it is not according to the hisHush, little baby, oh, hush-a-by.
torical development of the movements that they are placed, but FRANCES GILLETTE,
rather to the condition in which they are found in the later
life of the child and of the adult.) Automatic movements are Motor Control: Its Nature and Place in the Physical and inherited or acquired. The movements of the vital organs are Psychical Life of the Children.
inherited. Walking movements, unconscious handling of [Paper read before Kansas Child-Study Society, May 14, 1897, at Lawrence, tools, and the like are acquired. Originally these acquired Kansas, by Dr. Oscar Chrisman.)
movements were markedly conscious, but later they became to At birth the child is ready for action. He has the brain be so regularly and constantly used as to drop almost out of with at least some nerve-centers formed. Going out from the consciousness and are habitually performed. The coordibrain to the various organs and parts of the body are the nation between the parts used and the brain-centers, becomes nerves ready to work. Whatever inherited tendencies there so close as to be performed with little or no retention in mind may be, there yet remains the greatest work in the develop- of the action of the muscles. Imitative movements may be ment of the functions.' At birth there is no hearing, but feeble voluntary or involuntary, conscious or unconscious, but in sense of sight and also of taste, not much touch, and no vol- their earliest form were perhaps both voluntary and conscious. untary movement whatever. Thinking, feeling, doing, if ex- In the smaller child, at least, imitative movements made unistent, are all directed to the one thing-getting food.
consciously are the most perfectly made. It seems that in the Nor is there any period at which all the psychical and phys- conscious imitation, trying to hold the mental image tends ical functions burst forth upon the child. In fact, scarcely any to retard a proper and necessary flow through the nerves to two functions appear to be brought out at the same time. In the parts required in the imitation. The next class of movethe first few months the child is learning the things which are ments, Reflex, is the simplest form of the voluntary movevery simple. Learning to sit and to stand in his mother's ment. They are wholly produced from external stimuli which lap prepares him for standing and later for walking. The in most cases, if not in all, seem not to be carried directly into babbling and prattling have strengthened his vocal organs and consciousness but stop in centers this side of it. An example given more coordination between brain-centers and muscles, of this is the jerking away of the hand when coming in conand so language is produced. Thus the child's life is being tact with a hot or cold object. Instinctive movements belong developed. Each step that he takes in his physical and psych- to the same type as the Reflex but they are much more complex ical life helps on to the next. In the early stages of the child's in their nature. They have always a definite purpose which, life the duties of the mother are quite simple. In later stages though, is more often unknown to the animal making the her work and the work of the teacher become much more motion. These instinctive movements are quite mysterious complex and the child grows each day to be a greater problem. and hard to understand, and in many ways border on reason
The child is known only through his physical manifes- and judgment. These movements, quite marked in the very tations. There are two general kinds of movements-vol- young child, are seemingly lost in the later and higher forms untary and involuntary. The voluntary movement occurs of reason and judgment. The highest form of all movement from an external stimulus of some sort. The involuntary may be designated Selective movement. This movement is movement seems to be the result of changes which arise made after having in consciousness two impulses. So these within the organism itself. Movements may also be divided movements demand attention. This makes them come in the into: (1) Impulsive; (2) Expressive; (3) Automatic; (4) Imi- realm of education. tative; (5) Reflex; (6) Instinctive; (7) Selective. These All these various movements are found in the child, and it is
highly necessary for the teacher to understand this and to be able to distinguish one from another. This last form, Selective, though, is the one which has in it most for the teacher. As the child must give attention to external matters in order to have correct data on which to base his movements, and as he must carefully weigh all that is presented to his mind before the movement is selected, so it is the duty of the teacher to see that the right material is placed before the child and that he be held to give to such the best of attention.
Motor incoordination is always disagreeable from whatever source it may arise. All of us can recall stepping off some abrupt place in the sidewalk when such a place was previously unknown. Also one can recall the lifting of an empty bucket supposed to be full. The teacher must fully understand that such incoordination is easily brought about in the child by undue excitement whether pleasant or disagreeable. The very over-anxiousness to please or to do work so as to avoid punishment, may throw the control of the hand out of the sway of the will and bring on incoordination. Incoordination is very marked in fatigue. The connection between a tired muscle and its nerve-center seems to be entirely lost or very greatly disarranged. This is a strong argument against the detention of pupils after school. If the child is at all able at such times to do the work required, the amount of forced brain-power necessary to bring coordination of brain-center and muscular organ is so very great, that the literary good obtained thereby is of very little value compared to the amount of brain-power forever lost.
Instead of subjecting the pupils to so great waste of good psychical powers, the teacher should ever be on the alert to ascertain from the motor condition of the child his mental condition. The weak child will show weakness in every posture and movement. The drooping hand, the bending of the spine at the abdomen, the dropping of the head to one side, all show weakness in the child. Fatigue marks itself so plainly that no observant teacher can fail to note it. Exhaustion is yet more marked. In this condition the face loses its finer lines of expression, the jaw may be slightly dropped, the muscles about the eye are relaxed, and a general toneless condition of the body exists. Irritability marks itself just as plainly. Every noise startles the child, a touch gives a nervous action. So can other bodily forms show the mental condition.
Some tests have been made of the motor ability of children and results of importance found.
Tests were made on children of 5, 6, and 7 years of age. At the outset, this investigator (Hancock) says: “In the effort to train the intellect of the child, considerable quiet is demanded of him. It is one of the faults of children, in the minds of many teachers and parents, that they do not keep as quiet as the adult. The quiet child which sits through the sermon, or which sits still when callers are present, and which does not tear or soil its clothing, is liked and given the reputation of being good.” He tested the ability of the children to keep quiet. An apparatus was placed on the child's head as he stood erect, which recorded his swayings, on smoked paper hung above him. The child was asked to stand with feet close together and hands at side, to keep his attention on a distant object and try to stand still for a minute. The results obtained were contrasted with those obtained from adults between 20 and 30 years of age. It is needless to say that neither adults nor children stood still during the entire minute nor even for half a minute. The children being shorter than the adults, one would expect their swayings to be less than the adults', but just the contrary was true-the children's swayings were significantly greater than that of the adults. Also the steadiness of arm and of hand as tested. In this, as in the other, the arm of the child was far less steady than that of the adult. This
same investigator made some tests on kindergarten children in regard to the interlacing of slats, threading of needles, tying ends of string, and similar tests of coordination. Another investigator (Bryan) tried the test of the power of tapping by children of various ages. He found that at 16 the youth could tap five times as fast as the child of six. He found that the hand-power develops later than the arm-power but soon surpasses the arm power.
From these tests, observations and reading, these investigators are led to conclude with other psychologists that the larger muscles are first brought into control by the will—that is, the brain-centers for the control of the larger movements are earliest developed, or in other words, that coordination takes place first between the brain and the larger muscles, and that the finer and more delicate muscular movements are not developed until later. If this be true, then we have gained a very important pedagogical fact and one which must eventually greatly modify the work of kindergarten and primary schools. If this theory be true, then we can see that the brush of the Chinese child used for writing is much superior to the fine pen of our schoolrooms. Also that the large scrawling writing of the young child is really the only writing it can do in accordance with proper expenditure of power, and that it must be encouraged in this very kind of writing. Some have gone so far as to claim that only crayon and black-board writing with full-arm movement should be asked of the child. Also, this theory would abolish in the schoolroom the copper-plate writing book and geometrical drawing. It would demand that the finished drawing-work of our present schoolroom should be wholly excluded.
Whether one can agree with this theory of the development first of brain-cells coordinating with the larger muscles, observations do teach that much of the finer work should not be given to little children.
Since the motor ability of the child is great, since he revels in movement, it remains for education to find some way of utilizing these powers. Play is so common to the child and consumes so much of his energy, it seems that truly this can be turned to some account and much educational food be given through this medium. Famous will be the man who can combine the useful and the practicable in education with the pleasurable, and so can turn the play of the child into the form of education. Further fame will be to him who in this combining of play and work will bring happiness to the child. Already one step in this direction has been taken-the Kindergarten. When and what will be the next?
D, A, ELLSWORTH,
The first is from the pen of the "only man of pure African blood of American civilization, so far as we know, who is able to feel the negro life æsthetically and express it lyrically."
The second is from the pen of our own cherished professor, a nineteenth century poet able to feel Saxon life æsthetically and express it lyrically. How many centuries apart are these two lyric souls?
Ex-Regent J. H. FRANKLIN was recently elected States Attorney for Marshall county, Illinois.
Dumond, Edward Joseph, principal schools, Neosho Falls.
Finley, Laura Joquette, assistant principal high school, Russell.
Gorow, George Franklin, principal high school, Marysville.
Perley, Jennie Haskell, teacher city schools, Los Angeles, California.
Robinson, Ernest Francis, principal city schools, Quinter.
Sandborn, Annie Eleander, teacher Dickinson County High School, Chapman.
Schenck, George, principal schools, Elk City.
Van Voris, William Arthur, assistant physical laboratory and physiology, K. S. N. S., Emporia.
Witt, George Nelson, principal schools, Nortonville.
Fitch, Laura M., teacher city schools, Kansas City, Kansas.
Heacock, Arnal Burtis, county superintendent, Harper county.
Higgins, Grace Alice, teacher city schools, Morehead, Minn.
Salser, Everett Ellsworth, student and assistant penmanship, K. S. N. S.
Smith, Lillian Belle, teacher city schools, Valley Falls.
Tangemann, Minnie Margareth, teacher city schools, Newton.
Vaudrey, Clara Isabel, teacher city schools, Twin Falls.
Evans, Jeptha Wilson, assistant principal high school, Junction City.
Freeman, Ernest Harrison, teaching, North Topeka.
Wheeler, Abijah Clement, student Kansas State University, Lawrence.
Beadle, Jesse A., principal ward school, Lakeside, California.
Crawford, James Elmer, principal schools, Melvern.
Elias, Edward, teacher German and French, K. S. N. S., Emporia.
Keller, William Heber, student Kansas State Normal.
Ader, Benjamin Franklin, principal schools, Mound City.
Alden, Lizzie Shaw, teacher Baptist Mission School, Atoka, Indian Territory.
Avery, Edna, teacher city schools, Pleasanton.
Davis, Charles Sumner, superintendent printing department K. S. A. C., Manhattan.
De Baun, Janette Cecil, teacher city schools, Pleasanton.
AMONG the graduates of the school who are with us again taking advanced work, are J. M. Colburn, '90, J. L. Jenkins, '97, H. H. Gerardy, '96, Laura Rubow, '90, S. A. Bardwell, '95, T. M. Wood, '96, and W. H. Keller, '97. C. W. Kline, '95, enters this month to finish the Latin course.
ONE of our graduates writes us that she wishes to tell us how much she enjoys reading the MONTHLY. “It is like a letter from home.” We have many letters of similar character.
We are sorry to learn of the death' of William Ferguson, with us last year. He died at his home in Wichita, of typhoid fever, on September 11.
differences of instinct and skill. A little study makes it entirely possible to understand how the great picture was painted; but what a training lies between that initial knowledge and the ability to paint a picture! We are slow to learn the truth that the education of the intellect by itself, no matter how thorough and complete, is only rudimentary; education must go through a man's instinct into his personality before it can be said to be finished or to count for anything productively. 'It is the unintelligent Me, stupid as an idiot,' says Dr. Holmes, 'that has to try a thing a thousand times before he can do it, and then never knows how he does it, that at last does it well. We have to educate ourselves through the pretentious claims of intellect, into the humble accuracy of instinct, and we end by acquiring the dexterity, the perfection, the certainty, which those masters of arts, the bee and the spider, inherit from Nature.' There is a depth of insight and philosophy in these words that one rarely finds in a formal discussion of educational questions; a wisdom that both pupils and teachers are to learn."
The Study Table.
M'LOUISE JONES. The Kansas summer weather threatened last June to warp the “Study Table" and loosen its joinings, when some remarked, “This must not be. How can we gather 'Just Among Ourselves' if we may not gather about the old 'Study Table.' Then, the electric bells rang out “Twelve o'clock and all is well;" the great door, “so frequent on its hinge before," closed with a clang; the broken-back key slipped the bolt safely into its socket and ran away leaving the deserted rooms of the dear old Normal to the human spiders whose instinct it is to spin
“When little man Mercury
Up from his dwelling a tall ladder shows." Stowed away in a baggage car of the old Santa Fe, the Study Table was carried to a cooler clime where around it there gathered the sages of this and other lands. It will take a year and a day to tell all that these savants said, or read, or exhibited around its hospitable board. All had traveled extensively in the realms of Mind and were now returning from Klondike. Here are some of the nuggets of wisdom that they brought from the mines full, they tell us, of unknown riches. The journey is toilsome, but pleasant and safe, and "oh, so satisfying at the end." Each one brought away a chest full and yet did not impoverish the mines for any of us who may wish to go and dig likewise.
Reading is a matter of nutrition.
Learn to substitute intellectual life and delight for lower life and delight.
Culture makes one to be as much at home among books as a stable-boy is among horses. Thus saith Dr. Arnold Tompkins.
Our best friends are books that are reverent in spirit and help us to find God.
Every story should have educative value, hence it must contain the universal or the child will not see itself; it must contain the ideal or it will not see its better self. A folk story or a world story is better than a new story. A plant or animal story is better than a personal story. To know a good story is to have a literary taste.--The Hervy's.
Mark Twain, the inimitable, has a new volume out, styled “How to Tell a Story and Other Essays.” In it he gives the following rules governing literary art in the domain of romantic fiction :
A tale stall accomplish something and arrive somewhere.
The episodes of a tale shall be necessary parts of the tale and shall help to develop it.
3. The personages in a tale shall be alive, except in the case of corpses, and always the reader shall be able to tell the corpses from the others.
4. The personages in a tale, both dead and alive, shall exhibit a sufficient excuse for being there.
5. When the personages of a tale deal in conversation, the talk shall sound like human talk, and be talk such as human beings would be likely to talk in the given circumstances, and have a discoverable meaning, also a discoverable purpose, and a show of relevancy, and remain in the neighborhood of the subject in hand, and be interesting to the reader, and help out the tale, and stop when people cannot think of anything more
The good teacher crowds the universal into the individual ; the poor teacher leaves it isolated.
Definition is the putting of the universal into the individual.
The problem of education—to find ourselves at home in the objective world.-Dr. Tompkins.
The object of a college education is, says President Gilman of John Hopkins University:
Concentration, or the ability to hold the mind exclusively and persistently to one subject.
2. Distribution, or power to arrange and classify known facts.
3. Retention, or power to hold facts.
5. Power of judgment, or making sharp discriminations between that which is false, that which is temporal, that which is essential.
How far may this object be attained in the Kansas State Normal School?
6. When the author describes the character of a personage in his tale, the conduct and conversation of that personage shall justify said description.
7. When a personage talks like an illustřated, gilt-edged, tree-calf, hand-tooled, seven-dollar Friendship's Offering, in the beginning of a paragraph, he shall not talk like a negro minstrel in the end of it.
8. The personages of a tale shall confine themselves to possibilities and let miracles alone; or, if they venture a miracle, the author must so plausibly set it forth as to make it look possible and reasonable.
9. The author shall make the reader feel a deep interest in the personages of his tale and in their fate; he shall make the reader love the good people in the tale and hate the bad ones.
The characters in the tale shall be so clearly defined that the reader can tell beforehand what each will do in a given emergency
The author shall use the right word, and not its second cousin.
The author shall employ a simple and straightforward style.
13. The author shall use good grammar. 14. The author shall eschew surplusage.
The students gathered around this "Study Table” may test these rules by some romance of high quality and thus determine their value.
The editor of the Outlook is a close observer of men and a wise thinker. Recently he has written an article on "Through Intelligence to Instinct,” in which he thinks aloud: “Many people suppose that as soon as a man understands how a piece of work ought to be done he can do it; not knowing that the real differences between men are not differences of brain, but