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EMPORIA, KANSAS, JANUARY, 1898.
SENSE-GIFT AND SUUL-GIFT.
seeing, smell. Then come those having bodily defects, as A book, a gem, or a blossom rare,
cripples, children with crooked spines, etc.
On the moral side are found those who are very obstinate,
liars, who seemingly are so from the pleasure of being so, Now that the gift-time's here.
thieves, domineering children, etc. In this class come those
who delight in teasing, often carrying it to the excess of But what for the friend we love no less, For the distant, silent friend?
cruelty. Ah, what of the soul's deep tenderness,
Exceptionals are found in every schoolroom and in many Of the gifts we never send
homes. The sad thing is that the defect of such a child may Of the gifts we cannot send?
be so slight as not to be recognized, or of such a nature as to HARRIET HORNER LOUTHAN.
cause the child to become an object of scorn or sport. Christmas, 1897.
This subject of exceptionals lies very close to every teacher,
for every one of us has such now, or has had them, in the EXCEPTIONALS.
schoolroom. They are found in the kindergarten, in the (Read before the Southeast Kansas Teachers' Association at Paola, Kansas, primary school, in the grammar school, in the high school, in on November 26, 1897.)
the normal, and in the college. They are the torment of the Every child is an exceptional. Therefore a paper on excep- teacher, and the teacher is the torment of them. Dear tional children might be made to include every child. But teacher, some boy or girl whom you continually dread to there is a restricted use for this term.
meet, whom you have wished out of your school a hundred In paidology we study the child as found in history-in the times, and who, perhaps, may have so vexed you that you have past, and as found in the present. His study in the present is even wished him dead, may be a child upon whom the tendivided into the consideration of the child (1) among uncivi- derest affection and the greatest sympathy should be bestowed. lized and semi-civilized peoples, and (2) the child among civi- If you are really and truly a Christian, here may be the very lized peoples. In the study of the child among civilized best place to show it. This child, whom you have abused in peoples, we recognize two great divisions, the abnormal and
almost every way imaginable and whose parents have shamethe normal child. In this paper is to be taken up one phase fully treated him, may be one who is wholly unable to do of the abnormal side of childhood.
otherwise than he does. His infirmity may be so slight as to Of abnormal children, there are five divisions: (1) Defectives, be almost unnoticeable, or your obtuseness and ignorance so which include the deaf, blind, insane, idiots, etc.; (2) Delin- great as to cause you to overlook entirely very strong and quents, children who are already among the criminal classes marked cases. or likely to find an ultimate place there; (3) Dependents, Note the following from the Child-Study Monthly: A little those children who are dependent upon the church, society, or fellow in one of the Chicago schools persisted in disturbing the state for care and protection- as waifs, orphans, etc.; the school and the teacher in so many ways that his teacher (4) Wildings, children who, having been lost or abandoned by was at last on the point of writing him down as incorrigible. parents, have grown up among animals or wholly alone; His persistence in bad conduct could apparently be accounted (5) Exceptionals, which include those children who, not for in no other way than by attributing it to innate “ugliness.” coming under any of the above classes of abnormals, yet are As a last resort his teacher sat down by him one day, and, in some way different from the ordinary child.
putting her arm around him, said: “Why is it that you act so It is impossible to classify exceptional children closely badly? None of us are unkind to you, and we would all be Yet for some purposes they may be classified as those showing willing to help you along if you would only let us.
The lad, peculiarities (1) on the mental side, (2) on the physical side, usually as indifferent to kindness as to reproof, seemed to be (3) on the moral side.
in a different mood this time, and half defiantly, half tearfully, On the mental side we find children who are especially dull; blurted out: “It's coz I'm so derned hungry!" The little precocious children, children who are especially bright in one fellow took lunch with his teacher that day, and she lost no direction and especially dull in others. Again, there are time in arranging matters so that he need not come to school found peculiarly sensitive, very nervous, or very timid chil- hungry again; and he has since become an entirely normal dren. It is sometimes quite difficult to tell just how strong boy of rather more than average aptness in study. some children are mentally; for now and then, in our public This story just read was related not long ago before a body school rooms, we meet a child who ought to be in a school for of teachers in one of our city schools. After the close of the the feeble-minded. There are, also, children with speech session a lady told me the following: “The telling of that defects which make them very exceptional indeed.
story about the hungry child called up a picture to my mind. On the physical side, there are found exceedingly tall, very One day a short time since, a girl in one of the rooms gave a clumsy children, or children who are either very large or very great deal of trouble. She was the worst child in the school small for their age. Again, we find children whose ugliness and the patience of the teacher was nearly exhausted. of face or form is very marked; and, on the other hand, chil. Seemingly the child was mean from pure meanness. No dren possessing exceptional beauty. Among this class are cause could be found for her actions. I had her come into the found children with markedly deficient or arrested develop- hall for a talk. As I closed the door and prepared myself to ment, having an exceedingly small head and shrunken body. give the necessary rebuke, I looked down into the little face, Often we find those with sense defects, as defective hearing, and involuntarily, as the pinched features were turned up to
mine, I thought almost aloud: “You poor, abused child! Instead of scolding you I ought to give your poor, hungry body something to eat.""
The lady could have well added that she ought to have given love and sympathy to the poor, hungry, starved soul of the child.
And so you have such children in your school, and I have had such in mine. Some of your stupid bad boys are hard of hearing; some of your impudent girls are full of inherited impure blood and impurer thoughts; some of your dirty, ragged, mean boys are actually hungry. And all of them feel that they are exceptionals. They feel, as only a neglected child can feel, the loneliness of their situation; and it may be that from the very depths of despair the being's response comes back to you in the only form it can come, from the kind of treatment you give it.
Another instance, from Child-Study Monthly: In a certain primary school of St. Paul there was a little girl, careless, dirty, saucy, impudent, and stubborn-face never clean, dress untidy; in fact, the child's mother (so-called) herself said it did not pay to wash and dress her for a single half-day session. On one occasion the teacher, who was also a good kindergartner, brought into the school a beautiful Easter lily, crowned with its sweet-scented, pure white blossoms. She told the children a beautiful story concerning this plant-a gift of Mother Nature. After the exercise she told the pupils they could approach the plant and touch and smell the blos
This they did eagerly and gladly, but daintily and carefully. All of them,no, not all—; the little begrimed imp already alluded to, stubbornly refused. Another exercise was taken up. The scapegrace girl was missing; she had stolen out of the room. She was gone several minutes. No allusion to her absence was made. When she returned, she was transformed; her face and hands were washed clean, her dress was changed, a little bit of bright ribbon was manifest; and as she came in, she tiptoed quietly and reverently to the flower, touched the blossom, smelled its fragrance-a better, purer child.
It is not necessary to give further illustrations. No doubt you have heard of the incidents I give here, and you can give many such out of your own experience. The question is: “What is to be done with such cases?"
Some day, it is to be hoped that every child will be physically examined by a competent examiner just as now he is mentally examined. Perhaps we shall all see the time when a medical examiner will be just as much a part of our school system as the superintendent is now. Yet that day is far off, and something must be done for these children now. offer a few suggestions:
Each teacher should very carefully make a study of the characteristics of each child. This is doubly necessary in the case of dull, backward, and bad children. By noting the expression of the child's face when he is copying work written on the blackboard, and by examining of his paper, we may discover whether his eyesight is bad. Noticing how the child holds his head when spoken to; examination of the paper on which he has written dictated matter; the failure to prepare work which he has been told to prepare, and which he says he did not know was asked for, may show defective hearing. If the teacher could take a little time to apply some very simple tests, he could, in most cases, detect bad eyesight and bad hearing. The teacher should observe, if any child has a dull, expressionless face, if he keeps his mouth open, if his face is flat, as if deformed, with almost an idiotic stare on it. Such a child is a sufferer from adenoid growths. This is especially true if the dullness is much more marked at some times than
at others. A slight surgical operation will make this child a normal, happy, intelligent child. Watch out for children, for timid ones, for children with low vitality; all such need the most loving and careful attention.
Every child who is dull, inattentive, lazy, a sufferer from headache, the vicious child, and the like, should be carefully studied. In many cases they need the attention of a physician or a surgeon; and, through his treatment, they may be made normal or almost normal children,
If the teacher will take as much time and pains to find out their physical defects as is taken in finding fault with such children, both teacher and children will be greatly benefited. In some cases the children are truly mentally deficient and should be sent to the school for the feeble-minded and not to the public school. Yet such cases are not very common. Most of the dull and bad children are hard of hearing, defective in eyesight, suffering with adenoid growths, afflicted with inherited catarrhal troubles, etc. All could be greatly benefited, and in many cases entirely made normal, if given proper medical and surgical treatment; but if left alone, must become a burden to themselves and to their teachers, and finally be thrown out of school poorly prepared, mentally, morally, and physically, for life's work. So says every investigator of such children.
Last night, in looking over a batch of papers which a class in child-study had prepared, giving personal experiences with these exceptional children, I found in the paper of one young woman, the following prayer, which I want to make my own, and which I am sure you will want to make your own:
“God in Heaven, forgive me for the mistakes I have made in teaching these unfortunate children."
Let our daily prayer to God be to teach us to know our children and to give us such love for these dear ones as Christ showed for mankind upon the cross of Calvary.
Sixty Years Ago. In looking over some old letters a few days ago, I found the following, which we print as written, including spelling, punctuation and capitalization. It will doubtless be a little revelation to our readers in other ways, as one or two things in it would hardly be expected of a Quaker girl of the olden time. It should be remembered that when this letter was written, the methods of teaching gtammar and spelling were much better than in these degenerate days:
Mount PLEASANT, Ohio, 11 Mo., 27, 1839. Dear Friend:
It is with feelings of friendship that I take my pen in hand to enform thou, that I am well at present. I have been looking for a letter from thou this long time. And have got one at last. Oh how glad I was I cried as quick as the Teacher gave it to me. And I knew the hand write as quick as I saw it. Thou gave an account of cousin J- and S(beang one mistake) being married. And Ğ -S- It struck me to the bottom of the heart. Tell Couisin H, C-;G—that I want her to get married before I return, for I want all the cousins that I can get. More cousins, more coinpany. Now my dear I expect the next thing thou wilt get married. When leap year comes I low to jump through the petitions to the boys and get a man. Now I will give thou a description of the School. Their were a hundred and thirty boarding here Yearly Meeting, and some days at diner we had a hundred and fifty. I should not a believed any body if they had a told me, that they were so many Quakers.
School has comenced three months ago, and I have but nine more months to stay and then I will return back. Their are seven months of this session and five in the next. And when this session is up I am agoing out at H- at coasin A M-s. I saw her at Early Meeting and was in her company three times before I knew we were related. Cousin A M-LM- - 8 widow. Levi and my mother were first cousins. A told me that she wanted me to write to her
when this sessien is out and she will send one of her sons
Nature Studies for January. after me.
Then I will go to unkle TS-8, and then I will get to see
Most people have an unverified belief that trees grow as do S— Uncle TS has joined the old Orthor
1 daux (if I am lowed to say such a thing) I am studying children, throughout their entire length, and that limbs near reading, writing, spelling, Mental Arithmetick, Lewises Arith- the ground in the young shoot are lifted by the growth of the metick, English grammar, Geography, Philosophy, and Scrip
tree to a proportionate height. A gentleman in Wisconsin, to ture. We spell twice a day and say Geography once every other day, and Grammar every other day and Philosophy
prove or disprove this notion, drove brads into the stem of a three times a week, and get six pages of Scripture every first maple, two or three years old, at a distance of one foot from day to repeat in the afternoon and Mentle Aritemetick and each other and at a measured distance from the ground. He Lewises Arithmetick every day in the afternoon. We have
waited ten years and then cut down his maple, a tree fifteen or night Schools it commences at seven and lets out at eight, we go to bed at nine and rise at five. Indeed Mary A it keeps us
twenty feet in height, and found his brads buried in the heart as buisy as nailers.
of the maple and still one foot apart and at his measured disOh I have forgotten, we make composition onece every week tance from the ground. and write essays every week. Indeed Mary A thou don't know
A similar experiment can be performed by the pupils on how close we are kept. We are as buisy of a first day as we are of a week day. After we say our Scripture lessons then we
house plants at home, by placing dots of red ink on their must read religious Books. And I get that tired that I do not growing stems at measured distances apart, and making know what to do and some times I slip out a doors and stay an reports at school at intervals of two weeks. hour or two, and some times I slip up stairs. Oh Mary Ann I
Plants grow upward to get sunshine, and downward for am as cunning as ever. Their was one night I and three other girls slipt out a doors and went in the superintendentans turnip
moisture, and it is very necessary that the growing tips of the patch and stole three big turnips a piece and we sit down and plant be protected from injury. Each tiny root tip has a hard eat them, and it was as dark as pitch we come back and none cap of dry cells, similar to the cuticle of our skin, so that the of those Scholars mist us, and know body knows it but us.
root may push through the soil without harm to the rapidly Indeed I can cut my monkey shines yet, when the Teachers are out of sight, and when they are by I am very sober.
developing cells just behind the cap. This cap may be easily Nothing more present but remain thy affectionate seen on the root tips of the water hyacinth as they push downfriend
ward through the water in search of soil. E-V
But the problem which stems must solve is a different one. M-A-M
They are not usually obliged to force their way through a Write to me as soon as thou canst. Tell H-G that I will not write to her, till she write to me. R-T-sends
hard, harsh soil in search of sunshine, except at the beginning her best love to thee. I have got my plaine bonet, and when I of their growth from the seed. At this time their dry seed get my bonet on and my dress on I look like a Quaiker sure coats may serve for a shield, or other means be used which the enough.
boys and girls may best discover next spring. But the deliLiterati Society.
cate and rapidly growing cells in the stem tips may be
seriously injured by extremes of heat and cold, or of Moved by the “Mission of Discontent" and by “The Higher
moisture and drouth, and the plant must do its best to ward Selfhood," the Literati's took all the football honors of the
off these adverse conditions in its environment. This it does year and all the essayists. Blushing with selfishness, disbe
by holding its leaves back in their development so they may lieving that “Unity Should be a Factor in Education," espe
form a protective covering, making what we term a bud. cially where there are four strong societies, and, touched by
The month of January may appropriately be devoted to the the philanthropic spirit of “The Nineteenth Century,” the study of buds by the boys and girls. Let them find answers Literati by unanimous consent permitted a division of the
to the following questions: oration honors among the other societies.
Where is the bud situated with reference to scars left by This essay contest that the Normal persists in having is a
the falling of last summer's leaves? chestnut. It seems that unless one is a Literatus, one is not
Find the number of the bud directly above the lowest eligible to a contest. The first embarrassment comes when
bud of last summer's growth, and find how many times the the faculty calls five or six Literati into its august presence for
finger must pass around the stem, from bud to bud, in order to the purpose of choosing three who shall appear in the contest
reach it. proper. There is a tie of affection and a spirit of unity among
3. Are the branches of the main stem arranged somewhat all Literati. It is an irksome task for these three when they
in the same order? are compelled to battle with one another for first honors
4. Find the broken sap tubes on the leaf scars of the sumac merely for the edification of a large audience. This social
and buckeye. evil ought to be looked into by the teachers of the second year 5. Find the scars left by the scales of the buds of 1896 classes. The oration contest is a good thing. The Literati usually takes first place, but this year on account of her mag- 6. Of what use is the pitch in hickory buds? nanimity believes in passing the honor around.
7. Why do many animals like to eat winter buds? A new year never found the Literati brighter and happier. 8. What is meant by “budded” fruit? All is sunshine and gladness. Not one plan has failed or been
9. Is the onion a bud? baffled during the old year. Everything has moved in perfect
What plant drops its buds to the ground, after tightly harmony with the broad spirit of the society. The same
sealing them, that they may send out roots and grow into new enthusiasm and harmony which have led the society plants in the spring? It is a common plant cultivated in yards through the struggles of '97, are present at the opening for its handsome blossoms. of '98 and seem more deeply aroused to the good of society
11. Find the difference between the flower and leaf buds of interests.
the apple, cherry, and peach trees, and predict what trees will
bear fruit and the size of the crop. The space given to the State Teachers' Association and other
What is the largest flower-bud in the world and where matters postpones "The Methods Class,” “The Study Table," may it be found? It is parasitic on a vine.
L. C. WOOSTER. and “Among Ourselves," until the next issue. We shall be pleased if our readers miss them and give them the usual wel.
Two thousand tickets were sold for Professor Dinsmore's come next month.
lecture on the “Wonderful Structure," at Atlanta, Georgia.
Story-Little Red Riding-Hood.
LESSON IV. (Correlation continued.)
Characteristics of the Wolf. (Superintendent Culter hopes that teachers using these lessons will note that all corresponding numbers are designed to be used the same day or at Little Red Riding-hood sat down on a log to eat a lunch; an least before the next number is used, See December MONTHLY for the story and the reading lessons.]
old wolf came up close, and—what did he ask her? Did you Language-Oral. Object:-The Expression of Thought.
ever see a wolf? Yes, Frank has a wolf. But he likes Frank
and won't hurt him. What makes him like Frank? (Ans. LESSON I.
Because Frank is kind to him and feeds him). How many have Kindness to Animals.
never seen a wolf? Well, here is a picture of a wolf. (Either Teacher: Little Red Riding-hood had some pets.
draw on the board or produce a picture of a wolf). Now tell any? Tell me what pets you have at home. (Ans. A dog, a me what the wolf looks like. (Ans. He looks like a dog). cat, and a bird). What is your dog's name? And yours? Notice his ears. They are not like your dog's ears? (Ans. Your cat's name? Well, I want Bessie to tell me what pets No, his ears are sharp). Where do wolves live? What do they Red Riding.i:ood had. (Ans. A dog-a dog and a cat). Yes, like for food? (Let the children talk). and what was the cat's name? Oh yes! and the name of Fred's
LESSON V. cat is Tabby, too. What was the name of little Red Cap's dog?
Treachery of the Wolf. (Ans. Frisk). What color is your dog? (Ans. My dog is black-mine is white—mine is black and white). And Red
But this wolf was mean and wanted to eat up Red RidingRiding-hood's dog was— - ? Tell us, Frank. (Ans. Red
hood. So he found out where she was going, and he said he Riding-hood's dog was black). (This may be carried farther).
would like to go with her and see that no harm came to her. Teacher: Little Red Cap took good care of her pets. She
Why did he want to go? (Ans. He was hungry and he thought was very kind to old Tabby cat, and gave her milk to drink out
that she would make a dainty dinner). The wolf, then, did not of a cup. She used to put her arms around Frisk's neck and
tell what was true. Was he a good wolf? say, “I like you, good old Frisk.” Frisk was a good dog and
Lesson VI. would play with Red Riding-hood sometimes. Frisk had to
Treachery of the Wolf (continued). work, though, for her father had a good many sheep, and Frisk
Who did the wolf make Red Riding-hood think he was? had to watch them.
(Ans. He made her think he was grandma). NOTE:-Do not use these lessons verbatim. Be yourself and use your own
Why did he do this? (Ans. He wanted to get a good chance language. LESSON II.
to eat her up). Obedience and Love of Parents.
Why did he not eat her up in the woods? (Ans. He was
afraid of the workmen). What did Red Riding-hood's mother ask her to do? Did Red
Was the wolf brave? (Ans. No, he was not brave). Riding-hood like to do this? Why did she like to do it? (Ans.
Do you suppose Red Riding-hood would have gone into the She wanted to visit her grandmother-she liked to go into the woods—she liked to do what her mamma wanted).
house if she had known the wolf was there? (Ans. She would
not have gone in). Did she go all alone? Why, where was Frisk? Did she
But she was not afraid of the wolf in the woods. Why was want Frisk to help her father? Why? (Ans. She loved her
this? (Ans. He said he was her friend). papa and did not want him to work too hard). Red Riding-hood kissed her mamma good-bye. I think that
Yes, he said he was her friend. Do you think he was her she loved her mamma.
friend? (Ans. No, we do not think so). What did her mamma tell her when she started? (Her
The wolf was deceiving her. He pretended to be her friend mamma told her to hurry).
but he was not; he was a very wicked wolf.
• Did he tell Red Riding-hood that he was going to her Lesson III.
grandma's house? (Ans. No, he did not tell her). To Teach the Love of Nature.
Where did he say he was going? (Ans. He said he was Do you like to play under the trees? Some boys like to
going to the other side of the forest). climb trees. Can you climb trees? One day when I was under
What he said was not true, but little Red Riding-hood a tree, I heard the sweetest song coming from among the leaves.
believed it. Can you guess who sang it? You may tell, Thomas. That's
LESSON VII. right, a little bird sang the song When you walk in a path
To Teach Kindness and Bravery. through the trees, what sometimes grow by the side of the path?
Why did the wolf not eat Little Red Riding-hood in the (Ans. Grass, trees, weeds, flowers).
woods? Well, the woodmen saw him, and they knew that he Our story says that Red Riding-hood gathered flowers. To was a mean wolf. What did the woodman do? I like this whom was she going to give them? Well, why could not the woodman, do you? Why do you like him? Yes, I think he grandmother gather the flowers for herself? (Ans. She was was a kind man. I like him for another reason. Can you tell sick). Do you think she would be pleased with the flowers
another reason why we should like him? (Ans. He himself which Red Riding-hood had gathered? Yes, flowers often was not afraid of the wolf). Yes, he was a kind, brave man, so make sick people happy. Do you gather flowers sometimes?
we like him. What do you do with them when you find them? (Ans.
Number Work. Sometimes I give them to mamma). Yes, you love your mamma; so you give her flowers. What do you do with them,
LESSON I. May? (Ans. I put them in a vase). Then you keep them to How many little girls did we talk about this morning? (Ans. look at; aren't they pretty? Who can tell me something else One). that Red Riding-hood saw? (Ans. She saw a butterfly). Yes, How many mouths had the little girl? and she saw a little rabbit-a little bunny, our story says. A How many clocks in this room? little bunny is a baby rabbit. Wasn't he having a fine time in How many parents had Little Red Cap? How many eyes the woods?
had Little Red Cap? feet? hands? ears? noses? baskets? NOTE:-Remember, "The letter killeth but the spirit giveth life.”
(Make figures one and two and have children make them).