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Emporia, Kansas.

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Vol. X.

EMPORIA, KANSAS, FEBRUARY, 1898.

No. 5

DUSK.
Dusk wraps the village in its dim caress,

Earth sleepeth in her snow white cover;
No sound disturbs the dreamy quietness,

O'er which pale Winter's form doth hover. The trees are broidered with a frosty rime,

O'er them the moon glides softly beaming; And 'neath the light of those cold stars that shine, Of gentle airs the flowers are dreaming.

-Eva MCNALLY.

From Old Friends.

Oshkosh, WISCONSIN, January 24, 1898. PRESIDENT A. R. TAYLOR,

Dear Sir: I am in receipt of your very polite note requesting me to write something for publication in the next issue of the NORMAL MONTHLY, setting forth some personal reminiscences and professional comments that may be deduced from the experiences of the years that have intervened since I laid down my work at the State Normal.

My first acquaintance with the Normal School was in the capacity of a student in 1873. I took my examination for entrance under the direction of President G. W. Hoss, assisted by Professor H. B. Norton, Mr. J. P. Carmichael and Mrs. A. P. Morse. At this examination I met as a fellow student, my friend, A. W. Stubbs, and about this time Joseph Hill, now Professor Hill. The examination was held in the assembly room of the then styled “New Building”', which was afterward burned to the ground.

My further association with the institution has become a matter of record in the archives of the school. It was in the capacity of both student and teacher and was more or less continuous for a period of eleven years, terminating in '84.

The succeeding years have been associated with an experience of two years as founder and editor of a county newspaper, five years superintendent of schools in Kansas, five years in similar work in Minnesota, and the last two years, including the year 1898, at Oshkosh, Wisconsin, which I find a pleasant field of labor and a very pleasant and delightful home. It is a remarkable coincidence in connection with my sixteen years as superintendent of schools that my work should have been chiefly at Emporia, Winona, and Oshkosh, all prominent normal school cities.

Mrs. Davis and myself are doing what we can to educate and train up in the way they should go, a little flock of five, three boys and two girls. The oldest, Buel, a lad of fourteen, is now a junior in the high school. Josephine, the youngest, four years, is enrolled in the kindergarten. Merton, Mildred, and Jay are respectively in the first, fourth, and seventh grades.

The experiences of these years have only more thoroughly established some of the convictions set forth in the principles laid down in the work at the Kansas State Normal years ago. Physical training and kindergarten education, the importance of which was emphasized at Emporia, have since found expression in results secured at Winona, Minnesota, in the establishment of a most thorough and complete system of kindergartens. These same ideas are finding expression at Oshkosh, first, in the completion of the kindergarten system, and, second, in the establishment of a most thorough and complete system

of manual training which recognizes the manual side of education in the kindergarten and is working out through the grades a course of manual and physical exercises alike for both sexes as far as the fourth grade, where the work divides, providing a course of sewing and cooking for girls through the grades into the high school, and a thorough course in Sloyd, whittling, benchwork, etc., for boys, throughout the same grades. The idea as yet is not fully worked out, but is built thoroughly from the beginning, and while yet primary and elementary in kind, it will, in due time, as a regular course of development requires, evolve the higher forms of work which will bring to our schools that variety and system which will enable us to educate more fully and completely the children under our tuition.

The later years are presenting opportunities for the more complete unfolding of earlier conceived ideals, and we may yet live to see systems of schools which not only train pupils to know, but, at the same time, to do and to be. There was a time, perhaps, in the history of the world when the thing most to be desired was knowledge and learning. This was during the Dark Ages; but in these latter days of the printing press, the daily newspaper and abundance of excellent and cheap books, with ready means of distribution and dissemination, it is even more important that our attention should be turned toward teaching our children to do and to be. The doing involves not only skill, but a more thorough knowledge; the being involves character. Our schools are becoming more a part of life and not so much a place to prepare for living.

Having just completed the installation of six hundred fifty girls in sewing, one hundred twenty others in cooking, five hundred bo in Sloyd and two hundred others in benchwork, I find that with these and the oversight of nearly four thousand pupils associated with one hundred twenty teachers, to say nothing of social and family duties, my time is quite thoroughly employed, and I fear that I have not, under the circumstances, been able to do justice to the subject of your request; but hoping that you will be able to glean from this letter what you desire, and that it is at least sufficiently personal to fulfill your demand, I remain, with kindest regards to all mutual friends,

Yours very truly,

BUEL T. DAVIS.

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA, LINCOLN, JAN. 20, 1898. Dear Friends:

A request from President Taylor that I send a letter to the STATE NORMAL MONTHLY has been received. Although very busy, a feeling of loyalty to the dear old Normal and especially to its honored head, urges me to send you all a word of greeting.

Nearly a decade has passed since the writer left that charmed circle of the faculty, where were spent so many happy years, filled to overflowing with all that tends to uplift and ennoble. The memory of those years comes over me with all the freshness and fragrance of Easter lilies.

It would take too long to recount my varied experiences since my departure from the Normal. I am reminded of what William Dean Howells said after he returned from the World's Fair: “I never saw anything like it and I never expect to see anything like it again; it is indescribably beautiful. I enjoyed every moment that I spent there. And yet the sight of so

* * * * *

much beauty was saddening, too.

It made me realize how Mrs. Eugene Field is another poet's wife whom to know is much finer our lives might be-how much more we could put to love. It was my good fortune to be invited to accompany into them,-if we only walked in the right direction. But we Dr. Flugel, of Leland Stanford University, on a visit to Eugene are too absorbed in our terrible struggle for money to give Field's library of rare books. His beautiful wife warmly welany suitable thought to making our surroundings beautiful.” comed us as pilgrims to a shrine. We were at once attracted During two years spent at the University of Chicago, I had an by her charming personality and the evident note of sincerity opportunity to "walk in the right direction," and perhaps in all she says or does. The most beautiful feature of her face some of the beautiful things that came into my life are worthy is her rich brown eyes. At the time of the poet's death, Ripley of being “passed on.”

paid her this tribute: “It would be most fitting to say that his For many years my heart had been going to the poetry of wife is as remarkable as a woman as he is as a man. She is a Lanier, charmed by its beauty and inspired by its power, . strikingly handsome woman, and yet with a face of force and hence it was indeed a red-letter day in my life when I enjoyed strength of character suggesting to me that Mr. Field was in the pleasure of hearing the dead poet's wife read his poems.

no small degree indebted to her for the inspiration that led Mary Day Lanier, in her graciousness and refinement, is a him on to success." The very fact that Eugene Field could typical poet's wife. Her large gray eyes are very expressive

write but at the home fireside, surrounded by his prattling and their tenderness recalls the beautiful tribute of her hus- babes, and cheered by his sympathetic wife, speaks volumes band in the poem, "My Springs":

for her influence. For a revelation of the ths of his affec"My springs, from out whose shining gray

tion and the degree of inspiration, the following poems should Issue the sweet, celestial streams That feed my life's bright Lake of Dreams.

be studied: "A Little Bit of a Woman,” “Sweetheart, Be My Oval and large and passion pure

Sweetheart,” “The Tea Gown,'' “Child and Mother," "The
And gray and wise and honor-sure;
Soft as a dying violet breath,

Little Boy,” and “To a Usurper." The dedication to The
Yet calınly'unafraid of death."

Second Book of Verse also tells of the power of this love. On One of her Baltimore friends once wrote me: “Her manners

this point, Mrs. Field said, in her accustomed humble way: are those of the most refined Southern lady, and I can imagine

If I did no more, I do feel this, that I kept Mr. Field's ideal nothing to surpass them in grace and delicacy.” Her tastes

of womanhood to a high standard, and never permitted any are what one expects-a love of the best books, flowers, and

thought of impurity to come into his presence.” And this music. When I asked about her assistance to her husband she

lovely character will take her place in literature alongside of replied, after referring to her family affection and the love of

such saintly personages as Mrs. Tennyson and Mrs. Lowell, the beautiful: “My one gift was to recognize that beauty

glorified by wearing the crown of a husband's faith, that supremely in the soul of Sidney Lanier, and always, from girl

motherhood is the most sacred thing on earth. hood, to believe in him implicitly and without limitation. It

Walking through Eugene Fieid's library one is reminded, was this that strengthened his arm and constituted my help to

on every hand, that here dwelt the one who wrote “The Love him. Music was ever dearest and highest with me,

Affairs of a Bibliomaniac." All the kindness and loveliness and this was the meeting ground where Mr. Lanier and I

of his great, warm heart is poured out freely on those pages. quickly knew each other." All who know Lanier's poetry

Many passages came to mind, as with tender touch we opened know what his indebtedness to his musical wife amounts to

autograph volumes of books he loved so dearly, or looked at and how great was her inspiration.

the many autograph letters, framed as pleased the poet's To hear Mrs. Lanier, in her soft, Southern accents, read

fancy. Such rare ones as those growing out of the corressuch melodious poems as “The Marshes of Glynn” and “The

pondence about securing Gladstone's ax; letters from Andrew Song of the Chattahoochee" was a revelation of sweetness and

Lang, in the happiest vein; warm-hearted words from Henry power rarely experienced. Apparently her deep love for the

Irving; and many more, from his numerous literary friends, departed poet had so imbued her spirit that she was capable of

all spoke of the high esteem in which this poet was held expressing, without effort, every shade of emotion and of ren

abroad, as well as in his own country. dering most impressively this poetic tenderness and beauty. I

Hushed were our voices as the poet's wife guided us into the think I never heard a voice so admirably adapted to bringing

sacred death-chamber and tenderly spoke of her husband's out the melody, and so imaginative as to reveal, in its exqui.

habits and tastes. Here in the study is to be found the best site intonations, all the marvelous beauty that Lanier's poetry

Horace library in the country. Surely there do not exist more possesses.

artistic and beautiful manuscript books than those of Mr. Among the incidents in Lanier's life told by Mrs. Lanier

Field's poetry. Mrs. Field compared one of his immaculate was one showing the power music had over him. Often when

pages with a manuscript of Dicken's Christmas stories. The awaking in the night he would find himself composing musical

latter was scratched up so as to be almost illegible, while the strains. He used to tell his wife how difficult it was for him

former was artistically perfect. She told us that the manuto abstract himself to force the melody into the background.

script of “The Touch in the Heart" was the most perfect, for In his playing he improvised a great deal. His entire spirit

in it she could find only one word changed: the word "relic" seemed keyed to the harmonies of heaven.

had been erased and “vestige” written above it. This is Mrs. Lanier's warm-hearted hand-clasp is typical of Southern remarkable when it is known that the story covers many pages. life, and to meet her is to exalt one's ideal of true woman

During the time that Mrs. Field was showing us these treashood. Truly of such women may it be said: “Gazing deep

ures, she was pleased to give us many interesting reminisinto their eyes, we are reminded of the light of dim churches; censes of the poet's daily communion with his books, and we hearing their voices, we dream of some minstrel whose

found that the afternoon had passed all too quickly. We murmurs reach us imperfectly through his fortress wall;

came away hoping that this shrine might ever remain as a beholding the sweetness of their faces, we are touched as by

memorial to one whose life was so ennobled by his love for the appeal of the mute fowers; merely meeting them in the

books. street, we recall the long-vanished image of the Divine good- The Twentieth Century Club has brought to Chicago many

illustrious authors and artists. On two occasions it was my

ness."

happiness to be a guest of this club;-once, when Mrs. George

PHILADELPHIA, PA., JAN. 20, 1898. Pullman entertained the club, and Prof. Gildersleeve, of Johns

There are milestones passed in life's journey which seem Hopkins, was the lecturer; and the other time, when it was

always to remain in sight. The short time I spent in working entertained by Mrs. Fernando Jones, and James Lane Allen

with the busy Kansas Normal people marked one of those was the lecturer. Of the latter I will speak. His theme was

milestones in my life always to be remembered with pleasure. “The Seven Waves of Literature," which were designated as: It seems "but yesterday," but 'twas really half a dozen years the carved cherry stone, the boulder, the sex, the provincial,

ago. the commonplace, the romantic, and the historic. He traced

Kansas friends have visited me in my Eastern home and the effects of these movements upon American fiction, and

many items of interest and notes of the marvelous growth and then closed by stating that until the beauty wave came along progress of the Normal have come to me. The wonder is, and swept all others into its circle, our fiction could not attain

that but two wings serve to keep the Normal steadily traveling to the highest ideal. The plea for the needed supremacy of onward and upward. the beautiful in art was most earnest and eloquent.

In this ancient Quaker city brotherly love is shown in many This gifted author then pleasantly surprised the guests by ways-one in providing for its boys and girls the finest facilireading two chapters from his forthcoming novel, “The ties for industrial art education of any city in our country. Choir Invisible.” The first was chapter twelve, containing that Kansas teachers, see to it that the teaching of art in the West incomparable conversation between John Gray and the parson, is what it should be. You have earnest, anxious pupils, about women, and closing with the parson's beautiful rhap- capable of learning the many applications of art-pupils sody, in which he shows how all life can be expressed in terms who need the mental training which art-study must furnish, and of music. Mr. Allen's melodious voice, as he interpreted

pupils hungry for ideas and glimpses of the beautiful which the beautiful thought with so much sweetness and charm,

true art will bring to them. Should you not love the study reminded me of the pleasure Edınund Gosse received from

yourself, learn to do so; then teach it earnestly, patiently, and hearing Rossetti read his "Rose-Mary.” And when the

rightly, until, Kansas shall be proud of her art products, her author came to the close, where the parson's flute playing is art buildings, and the refinement of an art-loving people. described so beautifully, all our hearts were stirred. Out

One of my own kindergartners said last evening: “Let us upon the stillness of the night floated the parson's passion

play the guessing game. I am thinking of something as far silver clear, but in an undertone of such peace, of such

away as the moon. It has five points to it. I think it must be immortal gentleness! It was as though the very beams of

made of gold. Can you guess it?" And before I could answer, the far-off, serenest moon falling upon the flute and dropping

the question came: “But why are not the stars circles like the down into its interior through its little round openings, were

moon. Aren't they the moon's children?” by his touch shorn of all their lustre, their softness, their

I hardly know why, but Kansas, the Normal, and a pointed celestial energy, and made to reissue as music. It was as

request from there for a good word from me, received a week though his flute had been stuffed with frozen Alpine blossoms,

ago, all came at once to my mind. So I write you, Normal and these had been melted away by the passionate breath of

friends, today, to bid you Godspeed and a happy new year. his soul into the coldest invisible flowers of sound.” And the

MAY CLIFFORD COLLINS. sublime tenderness in the tones of the author's voice filled our souls with solemn beauty and elevated our spirits to heights Oliver College, OLIVET, MICHIGAN, January 17, '98. before unknown.

Dear Friends: “The Choir Invisible” well illustrates the author's principle It gives me pleasure to respond to Doctor Taylor's request that every other art is of value in helping one to become an for a letter and short article for the NORMAL MONTHLY, because artist in fiction. In this book can be found many proofs of it seems to bring Kansas friends a little nearer. Scenes in his statement: “From painting I learned the grouping of form which I see many familiar faces, often appear before my mind's and the use of color in landscape; and music taught me how to eye. And sometimes, in my dreams I see again the magnifimanage major and minor motives, and the treatment of spir

cent prairies, and the gorgeousness of the Kansas sunflowers. itual discords and harmonies.” The description of Amy Fal- Only kindly thoughts turn Kansasward. coner, as she returns home through the woods on “that Of nyself? Not much to tell. In brief, shut in by stately morning of mid-May," in its beauty and harmony, its exquisite forest trees in a tiny, beautiful college town, four terms' work blending of human life with nature, cannot be surpassed even in English literature, one term in oratory, all of the college by the art of a Corot.

rhetoricals (including manuscript and drill work), office hours The charm of Mr. Allen's conversation is as delightful as is from one to three o'clock daily; care sometimes more, somethe pleasure of reading his prose pastorals. Looking at his times less; books; some friends—and these wonderful trees. serene countenance, one feels that he, too, with John Gray, I have attended four conventions in the state, twice reading a has won his crown, and dwells in that Country of the Spirit, paper before the Michigan Elocutionists' Association. I will victorious and peaceful.

send you brief extracts from one on “Gesture as a Means of Beautiful also are the memories of an afternoon with Har

Expression,” December 17, 1897. riet Monroe, of Lilian Bell's inimitable personality, of lec- It always gives me pleasure to hear of or from the friends I tures on Russian literature by Prince Wolskonky, and of Lady knew in the K. S. N. S. With many cordial wishes, Aberdeen's convocation address.

Your friend, My “educational suggestion” is in harmony with the

CORA MARSLAND. yearning expressed by Mr. Howells, that more of the beautiful Long before the hand has become skillful to do, the young be permited to come into our lives. The æsthetic should play being, conscious only of existence, expresses its abundant life an important part in all educational advancement. Believing that the students of the Normal will receive into their lives a

in activity of the limbs. The first gesture: With increasing large portion of immortal beauty, I must now say, “Hail and

intelligence the hand grasps at objects. Use in gesture: As farewell!"

the little life journeys on into the months, imagination sucViola Price FRANKLIN.

(Continued on page 76.)

Oregon and the Louisiana Purchase.

twelve years after Louisiana had passed out of Spanish The government map of the United States, published in

hands—that England renewed the provisions of the Nootka 1897, has given such bounds to the Louisiana Purchase as to

Convention of 1796, and again surrendered her claims in Ore. raise a question in the minds of those comparatively familiar

gon to Spain. In 1818 England and the United States adjusted with the circumstances of the purchase. A resume of the facts

the northern boundary "from the Lake of the Woods west to in hand may throw some needed light upon this subject.

the Stony Mountains" (Rockies). In 1819 Spain surrendered The Mississippi River was discovered by the Spaniard, De

to the United States her claim to Oregon. In 1824 Russia made Soto, in 1541. Certain Frenchmen-La Salle, Father Henne- a treaty with the United States, and in 1825, with England in pin, and others - explored the river 1679-1682. Iberville

which treaties she relinquished all her claims to Oregon. Eng. founded Mobile 1701, and Bienville founded New Orleans, 1718.

land and the United States now being the only claimants, Thus, according to the recognized law of nations-by right of

they agreed in 1818 to occupy it together. In 1843 Marcus exploration and permanent settlement-were the French able

Whitman led one thousand settlers to the country and, to lay just claim to all territory drained by the Mississippi although England was found to be getting the better of the

United States in the bargain of joint occupation, a treaty was and its tributaries, and east to the Appalachian Mountains and to the Perdido River. The Mississippi River does not drain

agreed upon in 1846, which gave the United States undisputed territory west of the Rockies; hence the original Louisiana

ownership in the Oregon territory. Had we really acquired territory could include only territory east of the Rocky

this country in 1803, as the government map indicates, there Mountains. Sir Francis Drake had discovered and entered

would have been no need of the boundary treaties of 1824, the mouth of the Columbia River in 1579 and so gave England

1825, 1842, and 1846. The United States ownership of Texas priority rights in the Oregon country. Unless there are rec

by the treaty of 1803 is capable of proof, while all claim to ords of French discoveries, explorations and settlements, or an

Oregon rests in generalities and pretensions. English-French treaty with respect to the same, France had

To summarize the foregoing facts, we note: (1) Since 1513 not a shadow of a claim to the Oregon country before 1762.

Spain claimed the Pacific coast to 54° north latitude. (2) In In place of such records, being found, there is a map in

1762, Spain acquired the ancient French Louisiana-land west existence which disproves all such claim. A Frenchman by

of the Mississippi and east of the Rockies, France having no the name of Du Pratz resided in Louisiana from 1718 to 1734

claim to land west of the Rockies. (3) In 1800 Spain retroand held office under the Crown. In 1758 he published a large

ceded to France the ancient Louisiana" she had received work on the civil and natural history of Louisiana and accom

from France in 1762, to which it is assumed Spain added Orepanied it with a map which runs the northwest boundary from

gon. (4) In 1803 this same Louisiana, with the assumed posthe Mexican Mountains in Texas, north to the 46° north lati

session of Oregon, was conveyed to the United States. tude. All of the French and even some of the Spanish geog

(5) Spanish ownership of, and right of transfer in, the Oregon raphers of that time delineate the same boundary. In 1753

country was not a certainty in 1800 and was the subject of the atlas published by the Prussian Royal Academy of Sci

treaty negotiations with England as late as 1814. (6) It was not ences represented the same boundary. Hence the Louisiana

until 1819 that Spain renounced all rights, in 1825 that Russia territory which France transferred to Spain in 1762, could not

withdrew her claims, and in 1846 that England acknowledged have included the Oregon territory.

United States the owner. (7) It is an error to assert the acquiLater the Oregon country was claimed by Russia as it was

sition of Oregon or even our first claim to it in 1803. The contiguous to Alaska. It was also claimed by Spain because

only positive proof which can substantiate such assertions of pretended discovery and settlement. In 1790 England and

must be either treaty rights or exploration and permanent Spain attempted to adjust their conflicting claims by the

settlement by France between 1758 and 1763, or by Spain Nootka Convention. When the Spaniard, Balboa, discovered

between 1763 and 1800, or by France between 1800 and 1803, the Pacific Ocean in 1513, he took possession of all lands

and some definite statement as to its being attached to the said washed by this ocean. In 1579 Spain claimed that the

original Louisiana territory in the different transfers. Until Englishman Drake had intruded upon what was already

such proofs are produced, United States ownership rests alone Spanish territory, and so plundered all English vessels

on the discovery by Captain Robert Gray in 1792, explorations claimi rights on these shores. In the Nootka Convention,

of Lewis and Clarke 1804-6, settlements at Astoria in 1811, by Spain granted certain fishing and trading rights to England,

Marcus Whitman and others 1843-46, and treaty with England but still maintained her sovereignty over the Oregon country.

in 1846. Thus, such title to this country was guaranteed by This treaty was abrogated in 1796 by the English-Spanish war.

nearly all the means known to international law-discovery, In 1800 the "ancient Louisiana, which was assumed to embrace

exploration, settlement, and treaty, -and not at all by the the Oregon territory,” was retroceded to France, and in 1803

treaty of 1803 was ceded to the United States, "with the same extent that it

What the government map should indicate as the result of now has in the hands of Spain”-east of the Rockies to the

the treaty of 1803, is the positive possession of the territory Iberville River,—"and that it had when France possessed it”

east of the Rockies to the Iberville river; the well-grounded, -east of the Rockies to the Perdido River,-"and such as it

although disputed, possession of Texas; and the assumed, yet should be according to treaties subsequently entered into

thoroughly untenable, claim to the Oregon territory. between Spain and other States,”—which gave the basis for

A few writers of texts on American history support this the assumed transfer of the Oregon territory as well. Jef

claim Willson (1853), Swinton (1880), Sheldon-Barnes ferson himself said that the territory purchased in 1803

(1892), and Ridpath (1895). Other equally eminent, among "extended to the main chain of the mountains (Rockies),

them, Scudder, Eggleston, Barnes, Anderson, Montgomery,

Mowry, Johnston, Fiske, Thomas, McMaster, Woodrow Wildividing the waters of the Pacific from the waters of the son, and Albert Bushnell Hart, either recognize the claim as Atlantic.” It should be carefully noted that the addition of very doubtful or deny it altogether. the Oregon territory to the "ancient Louisiana” is merely an

The above conclusions have been reached after a careful assumed fact as Spanish ownership therein, and so right to

investigation of treaties and other original sources found in

the libraries of the Kansas State Normal School and of Michitransfer was not then an assured fact. It was not until 1814– gan University.

MARY A. Whitney.

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