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That the boys and girls may learn in a practical way how keep injurious bacteria and malarial germs out of their bodies, let them investigate for themselves the conditions suggested in the following questions, and report in writing to their teachers:

1. What sort of water had a friend been drinking when taken sick with typhoid or malarial fever?

2. Can you learn of a case of typhoid or malarial fever in a family which has drunk boiled water exclusively? 3. Do all milkmen in your city scald their cans with boiling

Do milk pails on the farms receive a thorough scalding?

4. Do you know of wells or cisterns so near barnyards and places where slops are thrown that the drainage from these places might reach the water in the well or cistern? If so,

do the people who drink the water continue healthy?

5. Have you ever known people to be sick in houses where the cellars contain rotting potatoes, cabbages, and other vegetables?

6. In what places should boys and girls play, in those dry and bright with sunshine, or in those damp and dark? What proof can you give of the correctness of your answer?

L. C. Wooster.


Nature Studies for February. Many forms of life are so minute and many processes in nature are so intricate that only skilled observers can study them with success; but many of the tiny forms of life so vitally affect our welfare, and many of their habits and conditions of development are so easily understood, that every human being should try to study them, or their effects at least.

Once people excused their neglect of the laws of health by saying that each man would die when his time came and not before. When a dear one died of typhoid fever, these people thought they saw the hand of Providence in their loss, instead of a very careless one of their own.

Thanks to the studies of scores of observers in America and in Europe, we all now know that most fevers and contagious diseases are caused by tiny plants, known as bacteria, which feed on the fluids and tissues of the body, and leave as part of their refuse very poisonous substances known as toxines.

The yeast plant is now known to be a relative of the bacteria, and, in feeding on sugar, leaves as its toxine, alcohol, with which so many foolish human beings intoxicate themselves.

Many bacteria, in feeding, leave refuse that may serve very pleasant flavors in the food of human beings. Some of these give flavor to cream, butter, cheese, and milk.

Other bacteria cause meat to decay and other organic matter to rot and become fit for the food of more highly organized plants. Some live in the tubercles on the roots of leguminous plants, like clover, and assist the plant in obtaining nitrogen from the air. Even the human body is said to harbor myriads of bacteria, which are so helpful in many ways that we could not well get along without them. But there are many other sorts that attack our teeth, our throat, our lungs, our intestines, and our blood, whose services we would gladly dispense with, and these should be the subjects of careful study.

Injurious bacteria seem to thrive in water containing decomposing organic matter. They feed for a time with other but harmless bacteria which cause much of the decomposition and the bad odor. Typhoid fever bacteria may not be present in ill-smelling water, nor diphtheria germs in sewer gas; but the chances are in favor of these death-giving germs being present in foul air and water. On the other hand, the clearest and most sparkling water may harbor enough death-giving microbes to decimate an entire neighborhood using the spring, well, or cistern water.

That we may gain sufficient knowledge of disease-producing bacteria to avoid them, we must remember that they are very tiny and multiply with great rapidity. An excellent German authority states that forty billions of bacteria weigh less than a grain, and yet one bacterium, under proper conditions, will so increase in number that in three days the product will weigh eight hundred tons. Prudden in his “Story of the Bacteria" says: “One of the most common of the bacteria is a little rod, so small that, if you were to put fifteen hundred of them end to end, the line would scarcely reach across the head of a common pin.” Well it is for us that these tiny creatures fail to get an environment in our bodies where all things are favor. able to their increase. The stomach is a veritable Red Sea to them when the gastric juice is present, and it may be found that good, healthy bile interferes very materially with their comfort in the small intestines, while the white corpuscles of the blood have long been known to fatten on bacteria.

But some of these bacteria run the gauntlet our bodies have provided for them, otherwise we should not be sick with typhoid fever, diphtheria, measles, cholera, malaria, and the other periodic diseases; so we must interpose other obstacles to these saprophytes.

To Parents, Teachers, and Others. Is there some one period in the life of the child from birth to manhood which causes more trouble than any other period to parents, to teachers, and to others? If so, when is it?

I am seeking an answer to the above question. I desire to get as many people to answer this as possible-people in all the various walks of life. I should like replies from city, from town, and from country. Let everyone who reads this be kind enough to send replies to the questions below. I will acknowledge all letters received and shall be very, very grateful.

1. What period in the life of the child from birth to manhood do you find the most trying and least understood by you? Designate by years.

2. Can you give the exact year of a child's life that is most troublesome to you?

3. Is this period the same in the boy as in the girl? If not, designate periods for each separately.

4. What do you find to be the peculiar and striking characteristics of this period?

5. As well as possible give your own feelings at that period as you may recall such.

6. Does this seem a natural period through which the child must pass, or is it caused or aggravated by home treatment, or other environments?

7. Suggest the kind of treatment to be given boys, and to be given girls, of this period.

8. Give other matter on this question that may come in mind.

I do sincerely trust that all who may read this will help. No one is occupying so humble or so exalted a sphere but that has in his own life and in the life of children about him observed such a period, if it really exists. Your replies will be very helpful to me.

Tell what position in life you occupy, whether a parent, and if your observations are upon your own children, upon other children, or upon both. Also your age.


Oscar CHRISMAN. Kansas State Normal, Emporia, Kansas.

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The Faculty. ALBERT R. TAYLOR, Ph. D., President

928 Union Psychology and Philosophy of Education. JASPER N. WILKINSON, Secretary

832 Merchants Director in Training. MIDDLESEX A. BAILEY, A. M.

218 West Twelfth Avenue

Mathematics. JOSEPH H, HILL, A. M.

1515 Highland Place


909 Mechanics


1017 Mechanics Bookkeeping and Penmanship. EMMA L. GRIDLEY.....

1225 North Market


602 Market Model Primary and Kindergarten. CHARLES A. BOYLE, B. M.

827 Constitution Voice, Piano, and Harmony. SUE D. HOAGLIN..

1002 Market

Elocution. MARY A. WHITNEY

827 Market History United States. ACHSAH M. HARRIS

827 Mechanics Critic Teacher, Model Intermediate. OSCAR CHRISMAN, Ph. D....

1013 Market History and Economics. DANIEL A, ELLSWORTH

602 Market Geography. L, C. WOOSTER

1017 Union Natural History. T. M. IDEN...

806 Mechanics Physics and Chemistry. MAUDIE L, STONE, S. B.

813 Mechanics Physical Training. EVA M'NALLY

714 Constitution Associate Professor, English. ELI L. PAYNE.

1218 Neosho Associate Professor, Mathematics. MRS. HATTIE E. BOYLE, B. M.

827 Constitution Piano and Theory. FRANCES S. HAYS

902 Congress Assistant Teacher, Model Grammar. BEATRICE COCHRAN

902 Congress Assistant Teacher, Elocution. ELVA E, CLARKE

1025 Constitution

Librarian. EDGAR B. GORDON..

507 Market Violin, Mandolin, Guitar, and Banjo. MARTHA J. WORCESTER,

906 Mechanics Manuscript Assistant, English. MAUD HAMILTON,

1002 Market Assistant, Latin and Pedagogics. MARY S. TAYLOR

927 Congress Assistant, Mathematics. LOTTIE E. CRARY

1315 N. Merchants Assistant, Natural History. WILLIAM A. VAN VORIS

1006 Exchange Assistant, Physics and Chemistry. ISABEL MILLIGAN

..927 Congress Assistant Critic Teacher, Model Intermediate. JENNIE WHITBECK

1028 Congress Assistant, Model Department. HATTIE COCHRAN

1315 North Merchants Manuscript Assistant, English. E. E. SALSER

1028 Congress Assistant, Bookkeeping and Penmanship. E. ANNA STONE

1315 North Merchants Second Assistant in Piano, EDWARD ELIAS;

823 Mechanics Special Teacher, German and French. ALLEN S. NEWMAN.

1013 Merchants Clerk and Bookkeeper. PEARL STUCKEY

422 Market Stenographer, NELLIE STANLEY.

1123 Congress Assistant, Library and Office. BESSIE KNAPPENBERGER..

1123 Congress Assistant, Library.

The new term opened February i with the old story, "a larger attendance than ever.” Classes organized with a promptness that surprised even the veterans in the faculty. Probably not over twenty-five or thirty of the students in attendance at the close of last term failed to report for duty on Tuesday.

Ar the last meeting of the board of regents the petition of the baseball section of the athletic association for permission to play three home games with non-resident college teams and two outside games was granted. The employment of Miss Hattie Bassett as assistant in elocution and reading for the rest of the year was approved. Routine matters occupied the principal time of the board.

A GOOD many calls have come to the office recently for teachers, particularly for principals and superintendents who are able to do advanced work. All of which shows that the people of Kansas are more generally seeking professionally trained teachers to work in their schools. A little patience and a little more conscientious work on the part of the better class of teachers generally, will eventually bring about a great revolution everywhere.

A PRIVATE letter from President Geo. T. Fairchild, Albany, New York, says that he is enjoying his rest very much and is busy with some literary work which he has been solicited to undertake. He recently addresssed the Connecticut Board of Agriculture and has engagements for two weeks' lectures in New York State institutes for farmers. Early in January, he gave an illustrated lecture at Trenton, New Jersey, before the State Board of Agriculture on "Farming on Western Prairies."

STATE SUPERINTENDENT STRYKER attended the Burdette lecture and remained over for a visit with us the next day. He gave some wholesome advice to the boys and girls at general exercises on Friday morning, and made many friends among them. In visiting the various classes, he expressed himself as well pleased with the work he saw and with the evident earnestness and faithfulness of the students. Nothing pleased him more than the great company in the library during the vacant hours, taking advantage of the excellent facilities afforded there. We hope he may come again in the near future.

Just as we go to press we find on our table a bright little student's paper called The Oven. It is published under the aus pices of the Literati Society Publishing Company, with Emmet D. George as editor-in chief, and Charles McKinley and Alfred Bailey as associate editors. The Oven says it comes in response to a long felt want and comes as a friend to students, faculty, and the institution in general. It hopes to occupy the field which the Salute filled so acceptably, and though published by the Literati society boys and girls, it plans to be "All-School” in every sense of the word. Its column of "Roasts and Toasts” has a pleasing flavor. We wish the enterprise abundant success.

We must again ask our readers to indulge us in a further postponement of the “Study Table" and "Among Ourselves.” The editor wrote to several former members of the faculty asking for a personal word concerning themselves and an educational suggestion. They have responded so heartily that we are satisfied our readers will enjoy the letters from them more than anything else we could print. Professor B. T. Davis was a member of the faculty as principal of the model school and director in training from 1880 to 1884; Mrs. Viola Price Franklin was teacher of language and history from 1881 to 1890; Professor May Clifford Collins was teacher of drawing from 1887 to 1892; Professor Cora Marsland occupied the chair of elocution and oratory from 1890 to 1894; Professor D. S. Kelley taught natural history from 1885 to 1897. We are promised letters from others in the near future.

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BOSTON is to-have a new public school named after Paul Revere, which will cost, including the site, about $3,000,000. The building will be constructed of light pink granite, gray, red, and white brick, and terra cotta. It will contain public bathing facilities for the children.

A few of the academies for which New England was famous in days gone by survive, and one of them, the Peacham Academy in Vermont, has just celebrated its centennial by guns at sunrise and a dinner at noon, at which the alumni ate and glorified the institution's past.

A REPORT was current at the State Teachers' Association that Mrs. Lillian Picken was in very poor health. A word from her husband states that she is as well as for a year past, though not so strong as they could wish. Her many friends hope that the spring time may restore her to her full vigor and spirit.

The state superintendent has recently finished the compilation of the school population of the state. The census includes all persons between five and twenty-one years of age. Wyandotte county shows a total school population of 19,924. Shawnee comes next with 16,136. Sedgwick, Crawford, Cherokee and Labette follow in order. The county having the least number is Morton, 114. Stanton follows next in order, 116; Grant, 132; Haskell, 153; Stevens, 195; Seward, 217. In some of the smaller counties, the enrollment was greater than the population. The report explains that this is due to the fact that students living in an adjoining county near the county line came into the district included. A larger per cent of the children of the farms attend school than of the city children.

Doctor Williston, of the State University, under appointment of the State Board of Health, visited Emporia recently for the purpose of making an investigation of the sanitary condition of the city. His report is interesting to all students of sanitation. The Emporia Republican publishes it in full. In speaking of the condition of the State Normal School, he says: “I have made a thorough investigation of the sanitary condition of the State Normal School building, and am glad to report that I found nothing for criticism. The building everywhere was remarkably free from unpleasant odors, or anything in any way offensive. Especially was I pleased to observe that the water-closets, though for the use of 1,300 persons, were wholly without offensive odors. In consideration of the difficulty in keeping such places in perfect order, when used by so many persons, I am glad to commend the care and attention given to them. Of course one cannot feel assured of the efficiency of its ventilating apparatus, except by its actual use, but I believe there is no complaint on that score."

See the MONTHLY combination offers on another page of this issue.

A very beautiful little monograph, Reliques of the Christ,' by Dems Wortem, comes to us recently. We find much enjoyment in its reading and thank the author for complimenting us.

The editor acknowledges the receipt of a copy of “District School as It Was,” by Warren E. Barton, edited by Clifton Johnson. The book is a reprint of an edition first published in 1833 and describes the district school of 1812 to 1815. It is quaint and interesting reading and every pedagogical library can well afford to have the book on its shelves. Published by Lee & Shepard; price, $1.25.

Professor HOAGLIN has just issued a small “Manual of Expressionwhich will prove of great value to her classes and to teachers of the subject generally. It embraces a full outline of the work done in her classes, with many valuable suggestions concerning voice, gesture movement, and physical culture in general. Teachers of reading, in the institutes as well as in the public schools, will find it a valuable manual to have within ready reach.

The old merry rhyme, “Girls and Boys Come Out to Play," is said to date back to the time of Charles II., in whose reign “Lucy Locket Lost Her Pocket” is supposed to have had its origin. “Sing a Song of Sixpence” is traced back to the sixteenth century, as are also "Three Blind Mice" and "Three Children Sliding on the Ice." “Pussy Cat, Pussy Cat, Where Have You Been?” is of the Elizabethan period. “Little Jack Horner” is probably as old, and “London Bridge is Broken Down” is of such antiquity that its origin has never been definitely located.

Elihu Bowles compliments the editor with a copy of his little book of poems, In a Sod House." There are some very neat little gems in it and we are certain that many of our readers will find it pleasant reading. The Emporia Daily Republican says of it: “In a Sod House is the title of a pamphlet of poems, by Elihu Bowles, of Emporia. Price, twenty-five cents. It pleasantly presents different phases of pioneer life and is a very creditable production, exhibiting a high order of poetic talent. The following lines are an indication of its merit:

“With country new and neighbors few,

'Tis then they're near in heart; But thousands with but elbow room

Are many miles apart." The sub-committee of the library committee on periodicals has been investigating the reading of the pupils recently and is gratified at the popularity of the periodical tables. We can hardly realize how so many people are able to reach the different papers during the month. The Emporia daily papers lead the list; 357 students read the Ladies' Home Journal, 103 of them regularly; 285 the Western School Journal, 103 regu larly; 294 the Youths' Companion, 82 regularly; 258 the Kansas City Star, 63 regularly; 231 McClure's Magazine, 47 regularly; 229 the Arena, 41 regularly; 229 the Century, 36 regularly; 208 the Cosmopolitan, 37 regularly; 198 The North American Review, 33 regularly; 195 Harper's Magazine, 34 regularly; 196 The Topeka Capital, 56 regularly; 189 The Review of Reviews, 49 regularly; 149 The Forum, 27 regularly; 139 The Atlantic Monthly, 17 regularly. There appears to be a large number of students reading the scientific and pedagog ical periodicals regularly. The Popular Science Monthly has 46 readers; Scientific American, 58; The American Journal of Psychology, 24; Child-Study Monthly, 76; Pedagogical Seminary, 34; New England Journal of Education, 21; Educa. tion, 38. The London Times has 9 readers.


A Study of the Growth of Kansas. An old map of Kansas in territorial days, showing the small portion of the eastern part of the state that was considered then worth mapping, is very interesting to compare with the maps of today.

A full-sized map of Kansas at that time would have extended to the top of the Rocky Mountains, taking in Denver. The map before us, copyrighted in 1856, does not show the numbering of any ranges of townships west of the sixth principal meridian.

The writer of this article has a letter from Colonel Johnson, now of Highland, Kansas, who was appointed by the government in 1854 to survey the boundary between Kansas and Nebraska and locate the sixth principal meridian. In reply to the question as to how that meridian chanced to be where it is, the letter says that the orders given to the surveyor were to ascertain correctly the fortieth parallel and plant a monument on the Missouri river bluff just out of reach of the high water mark, and survey due west from there as far as civilization would be likely to extend. After surveying west one hundred eight miles, the party found Indians and buffaloes so numerous that they concluded this part of the territory would remain the perpetual possession of wild men and wild beasts.

This map, which is the earliest we have been able to find giving any publication of this survey, shows all of the territory east of the sixth principal meridian except a little of the Arkansas Valley laid off in counties, but the names given to the counties are in most cases entirely different from the present. It is easy to guess what change in political sentiment may have caused the dropping of Calhoun, Wise, and“Breckinbridge” from the list. The changing of Davis to Geary was a rather tardy punishment of Jeff Davis, after whom the name was originally given. The only counties that seem to have had the same names and boundaries then as now are: Doniphan, Nemaha, Marshall, Washington, Atchison, Jefferson, “Pottowotomie,” Johnson, Franklin, Linn and Coffey. The other names remaining from that time are: Brown, Leavenworth, Shawnee, Dickinson, (sic), Butler, Bourbon, Allen, Woodson, Wilson, Anderson, and Greenwood.

The shape of the rivers was somewhat accurately mapped, but the “Waukarusa" river is shown as a great deal larger than Cottonwood "creek”. Walnut river, though larger than Wakarusa, does not appear on the map, which is not strange, as there were no settlements on the Arkansas tributaries west of the Neosho.

Lecompton is shown most prominently of all the cities, it probably being the recognized capital as understood by the author of the map at this time. Kansapolis is shown at the mouth of Soldier Creek, just east of where North Topeka now stands. Pittsburg is on the Kansas river just east of Manhattan. Reeder is the name of the town at the mouth of “Solomons Fork”, where Solomon City is now located. There are a few other towns shown in that neighborhood, but no city west of Fort Riley bears its present name.

A “Proposed Pacific Railway Route" extends through Lawrence and Fort Riley without turning aside even half a dozen miles to touch Topeka. The following railroads seem to be so well assured that they are not even called proposed routes: The Southern Pacific starts at the state line a little south of Shawnee Mission and runs mid-way between Council Grove and Emporia. The “Fort Riley, Manhattan & Leavenworth” is located as its name would indicate, and the "Galveston Railroad” runs directly south from Leavenworth. Besides the

Santa Fe trail, many other roads are shown in different direc tions; one starting from Fort Riley runs through Emporia and down the Neosho on about the route now taken by this branch of the M. K. & T. This is the trail along which the Indians went from Council Grove to Columbia Ford to get “fire-water." Early settlers of Emporia report that the Emporia Townsite Company located the different churches of this city on the curving line of that Indian trail. The map makes the mistake of putting Columbia southwest from Emporia instead of south east. This is a very serious mistake when we remember that the people of Columbia at that time supposed that their city would be a county seat at least.

The map shows the location of Indian tribes throughout the eastern part of the state, but does not indicate the distribution of Indians or of anything else in the west; in fact, does not think it worth while to show the territory further west than the present location of Larned. Teachers in all parts of the state would find it worth while to get a copy of such a map to refresh the recollection of old settlers and promote enthusiasm in the study of state development.

J. N. W. NOTE. The Normal School is indebted to Mrs. Fannie R. Vickery for the map from which this study is made.

Programs for Primary Pupils. In making a program for a primary school, follow the kindergarten plan of outlining the work for the year according to the main thought in each season.

Each month in a season has its main thought leading up to the thought of the season, and each day has its characteristic as to weather.

Guided by (a) season, (6) month, (c) day, the two general lines of science and literature are easily worked out. The science and nature study determine the selection of story and song, and these in turn intensify the child's interest in nature.

The manifold implications of these two great lines of study necessitate real study of programs for daily work. Instead of making one program answer for every day, it is much wiser to have one for Mondays, another for Tuesdays, a third for Wednesdays, and so on, since in this way the general lessons come on regular days and the variety is restful to teacher as well as pupils. In order to have at least one general lesson each day, it may be necessary to omit one of the regular lessons. On Monday, A Reading is omitted. Tuesday's program gives first place to A Reading and omits B Number, which has first place on Wednesday. The loss of one recitation per week will not materially affect the standing of the class in that subject and yet will give opportunity for study in a line which other. wise could not find a place on the program.

Two things-a morning talk with the children, and a period for free play or else for entire relief from the oversight of the teacher-are absolutely necessary; the first, for deepening the spiritual impressions of story and song for training in conversation; the second, that the nerve tension be removed, for no matter how skillful the teacher, constant oversight on her part keeps the children on a strain and retards their develop


S. L. M.

In these days when there is such a disposition to proclaim lack of confidence in public men, the following concerning Hon. Ed Hoch, of Marion, Kansas, is most refreshing. There is a rumor abroad that he has declined the offer of the Marion postoffice. With reference to it the Florence Bulletin says:

“It is true that the appointment was tendered Mr. Hoch, but we believe he refused it, principally, through consideration for a friend who is an applicant. Ed Hoch' is good to everybody but himself. He deserves a flogging for neglecting his opportunities. For instance, he could have had any office in the county for the asking. Suppose he had served the people as county treasurer for a couple of terms at $4,000 a year, it would have made him a nice nest egg. Besides, his paper has always been a moneymaker. But his liberality and friends

ave robbed him and kept him poor.” h

SATURDAY, APRIL 23, 9:00 A. M. Aftermath and Business Meeting.

All the leading speakers on the program have agreed to accept the work assigned them, and it is hoped that those placed on the discussion will be pleased to serve us as well. The meetings of the society thus far have been very enthusiastic and helpful. May we not look for several hundred teachers, parents, and professional men and women from all parts of the state? Announcements concerning railroad rates will be made later,

Arvin S. OLIN, President. Oscar CHRISMAN, Secretary-Treasurer.





Of the third annual meeting of the Kansas Society for Child-
Study, to be held in Albert Taylor Hall, Emporia, Kansas, on
April 21-23, 1898.

THURSDAY, APRIL 21, 8:00 P, M.

Invocation. 3. Music.

Address of Welcome. Pres. A. R. TAYLOR, Emporia. 5. Response to Welcome. Prof. Arvin S. OLIN, Lawrence. 6. Music. 7. Annual Address—The Scotch Child as I Remember Him.

Hon. John MacDonald, Topeka. President Kansas State Teachers' Association. 8. Music. 9.

Business Announcements.

FRIDAY, APRIL 22, 9:00 A. M.
Children and Ghosts. Supt. L. A. Lowther, Emporia.
Discussion: (1) Supt. J. H. GLOTFELTER, Atchison.

(2) Mrs. S. M. Cook, Chapman.

(3) Supt. F. H. BAKER, Norton. Disappointments in Children as they Come to the High School.

Mrs. E. H. RICHARDSON, Hutchinson. Discussion: 1) Supt. M. E. Hickey, Winfield.

(2) Supt. E. P. MCMAHON, Minneapolis.

(3) Supt. B. F. Merten, Clay Center. 3. Attitude of Pupils towards School.

Supt. WM. M. SINCLAIR, Ottawa. Discussion: (1) SUPT. F. B. Smith, Lawrence.

(2) Miss STELLA E. Myers, Hutchinson.

(3) Supt. W. B. HALL, Cherokee. 3. Language and Mathematics of Children.

Supt. MAMIE E. DOLPHIN, Leaveuworth. Discussion:

(1) Prof. E. B. Smith, Great Bend. (2) Supt. N. MCDONALD, Osage City.

(3) Prof. J. H. Hill, Emporia. 4. How Children Judge Character.

Prof. Achsan M. HARRIS, Emporia.

(1) Supt. John SCHURR, Howard.
(2) Miss Bell M. STEVER, Lawrence.
(3) Miss MINNIE DROWN, Wichita.

The Man with the Merry Heart. Emporia is a far bettertown to-day because Robert J. Burdette was here last night with his merry heart. A thousand people came to Albert Taylor hall to hear him and a thousand burdens are lighter to-day and ten thousand cares have fled. Men with money-bags have come to town and left sorrow and wrinkles in their trail. Men with knotty problems to solve have visited Emporia and headaches and weariness have followed them. Men with green-eyed envious visions of other people's iniquity have come and heartaches and ranklings have seered their scars upon those who listened. But the man with the merry heart came, and to-day God's smile of benediction is on the dull old town.

Burdette's lecture last evening was a town event. Not since Keene came, has a crowd so thoroughly Emporian assembled. It was almost as good to watch the crowd while the lecture went on, as it was to hear the lecture. It was all very funny and all very true and all very sweet-gentle and kind as a May breeze in an orchard, with the apple trees in bloom.

The little man with the merry heart helped old Emporia out of its crusty rut-so God bless him for his coming.Emporia Daily Gazette.


2 P. M.


years old.


Children's Hopes and Ambitions.

Supt. Mary L. BRIERLY, Concordia.
Discussion :

(1) Prof. A. GRIDLEY, Salina.
(2) Miss Lizzie DAVIDSON, Topeka.

(3) Mrs. H. C. Ford, Girard. Drawings of Children. PROF. A. H. CLARK, Lawrence, Discussion: (1) PROF. J. D. WALTER, Manhattan.

(2) Dr. A. H. HEINEMANN, Lawrence.

(3) Prof. Emma L. GRIDLEY, Emporia. 3. In Story Lạnd. Mrs. E. DAVIDSON WORDEN, Topeka. Discussion: (1) Hon. W. A. WHITE, Emporia.

(2) Supt. A. M. Bear, Wellington.

(3) Prof. M'LOUISE JONES, Emporia. 4. The Pubescent Period. Dr. Oscar CHRISMAN, Emporia. Discussion: (1) Supt. H. B. Peairs, Lawrence.

(2) Supt. Geo. KENDRICK, Function City.
(3) Miss M. E. MAYNARD, Emporia.

8 P. M.
The Child in the World of Science.

Hon. WM. STRYKER, Topeka,

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 3. Music. 4. Child-Study in Kansas City.

Supt. J. M. Greenwood, Kansas City, Mo.

President National Education Association. 5. Social-Musical and Literary Entertainment.

Helen Kellar. As many of our readers are not familiar with the details of Helen Kellar's life, we take pleasure in giving the following facts gathered largely from the Kansas City Fournal:

She is about eighteen years of age and in 1896 passed a most creditable examination to Ratcliffe College, Harvard Annex. It included English, German, French and history, and was passed upon by the Harvard examiners without knowing the source from which it came.

She is one of two blind and deaf girls in the world who are known to have mastered the accomplishment of lip reading by touch.

Helen Kellar was born in Alabama in 1880. When she was eighteen months old she was fiercely attacked by a complication of diseases, and when she recovered it left her blind, deaf and able to articulate only partially. The parents placed her in an elementary school in Boston when she was eight

She was preternaturally bright, according to her teachers, and she seized and held on to the slightest thing that tended to make her less dependent. She applied herself bravely to the apparently hopeless task of regaining the power of speech. It was slow and painful work, and the little girl was often disheartened, but perseverance at length showed effect, and, once started, she picked up rapidly.

In the last three years she has mastered and speaks fluently English, German and French. A slight realization of her task may be found in the fact that she had to distinguish such words as “court" and "caught from “port” and “got" by pressing her fingers against the throat of her teacher.

After her schooling at Boston she entered the WrightHunason school for the deaf. She is said to be the brightest star ever graduated there. Her lip reading became a wonderful art and such was the delicacy of perception in her sensitive fingers and her understanding of the vibrations of the lips so perfect that she could talk for hours without failing once to understand their meaning.

When someone is talking to her, Helen places her thumb over ine arnyx of the speaker, her forefinger upon the lips and her middle finger at the side of the speaker's nose.

She has read widely and in an ever-increasing circle. Her knowledge of history is profound, and she is deeply interested in mythology.



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