« PreviousContinue »
TURKISH CANDY COMPANY,
623 Commercial Street, Recently established in your city, and for the purpose of supplyiug the freshest, home-made candies of
all kinds at the most reasonable prices. Have you “BELL'S KANSAS PORTFOLIO?”
If not, and you have not arranged for employment during the summer, you should write the publishers at once for full particulars and terms to agents on this very unique and practical work. It tells all about Kansas-its history, government, industries, etc.
Ex-Senator JOHN J. INGALLS says: “It represents in a novel and attractive form a compendium of history, municipal and political institutions, public men and natural resources of the State.”
Ex-CHIEF JUSTICE ALBERT H. HORTON says: “It would be greatly beneficial to those attending our public schools if a copy of the Portfolio were in every school house." Write at once in order to secure the territory you desire.
W. L. BELL & CO., Kansas City, Mo.
A. O. RORABAUGH & CO.
call the attention of the State Normal people and
their friends to their large and new stock of
SCHOOL AIDS and FURNITURE!
DRY GOODS, ...MILLINERY, CLOAKS AND NOTIONS...
The favor of a call, inspection of goods and ascertainment of prices will be of mutual advantage to all.
"The Paradise of Childhood." (New Edition, just out.) Contains notes on the Gifts and Occupations, þy Milton Bradley, designed to bring the work up to the needs of the Kindergarten of today. It has also a new life of Froebel, by Henry W. Blake. Price, attractive cloth,
$2.00. Remember, .
WE SELL a complete line of School Supplies DIRECT
TO SCHOOL BOARDS AND TEACHERS. You pay no AGENT'S COMMISSIONS when you buy of us. ...All Goods Warranted to Give Satisfaction. Catalogue
MILTON BRADLEY CO.,
Kansas City, Mo.
A. O. RORABAUGH & CO.
THE WHITE FRONT.
The Fisk Teachers' Agencies...
4 Ashburton Place, Boston; 70 Fifth Ave.,
EVERETT O. FISK & CO.
THE STAR GLOTHING GO. suing Culin, she tanining cont. Teacur:Schools
FINE AND STAPLE GROCERIES
...501 Commercial Street...
Qualified teachers assisted to desirable positions any where in the United States at half usual rat-s. Schools supplied with suitable teachers without cost Facilities unequaled in Colorado and adjoin. ing States. Services honest. We recommend
qualite teachers. Endorsed by leading educators. 524 Commercial St., Emporia, K's.
Correspondence solicited. Address
Equitable Teachers' Bureau, W.T. PARKS,Mgr.,
exchange for farm property or sell on easy terms. A $4,300.00 stock of merchandise to ex-
This is an excellent opportunity for some one to make a good thing.
H. L. DWELLE, 610 "Eommercial Street.
State Normal Monthly. .
EMPORIA, KANSAS, APRIL, 1897.
PATRIOTS' DAY: 1775—APRIL 19–1897.
"Why do they call it Patriots' day?
And why are the flags unfurled?
That was heard around the world?
Together the children say;
To tell them of Patriots' day.
As he strokes each flaxen head;
For his thoughts are of the dead;
Where often he paused in play
As he told of Patriots' day.
Th' story of freedom is told,
On that April day of old;
Lit up by the sunset ray,
And hallows Patriots' day.
How the lamp in the belfry glowed,
With his warning message rode;
Stood firm in the foemen's way;
On that first Patriots' day.
As they hear of Concord town,
In companies marching down;
Victors in many a fray,
At Concord, on Patriots' day.
How faster the patriots came
With the sense of wrong aflame,
Above the smoke of the fray,
Of that glorious Patriots' day.
O'er the fields of Lexington
As bright as the noontide sun.
Upon our country for aye;
-D. A. ELLSWORTH, in Chicago Tribune.
The Treatment of Defective Children who Enter the Pub
lic Schools. [Paper read before the Kansas Society for Child-Study at its holiday meet. ing at Topeka, by Principal O. P. M. McClintock, Topeka, Kansas.] Iu an unguarded moment I consented to prepare a paper
for the Kansas Society of Child-Study on the subject, “The Treatment of Defective Children in the Topeka Public Schools." Knowing full well that in this capital city we have the most highly civilized and intelligent community on the face of the earth, and consequently the minimum number of defective children enrolled in the public schools, in proportion to the school population, it was deemed by me an easy task to handle such a subject. But when, on the printed program, I read as the subject set down for me, "The Treatment of Defective Children who Enter the Public Schools," I was somewhat dismayed by the increased scope given to the subject since it had been submitted to me. I at once recalled the remark of the good old Quaker woman who said to her friend, “I think everyone in the world is queer except thee and me, and I think thee art a little queer.”
I went to work at my task with the feeling that, if I failed to produce anything which would be of benefit to you, I myself would be the gainer by directing my thoughts on this particular subject. For it is an undisputed fact that the teacher should be and must be interested in anything that affects the child's activity, his growth, health, and ability to work; and such child-study must include every investigation or observation of children that has any relation whatever to education. If the teacher is thoughtfully studying his pupils, he cannot help knowing that the number of defective children who need his help is large. Indeed, if one, who is the least inclined to pessimism, goes into a school room, and makes a careful study of the situation, he is apt to agree with the old Quaker woman afore mentioned.
In the average school room there are to be found children who are defective in sight, hearing, or mental capacity. Others are deficient in the power of attention, imagination, and quick perception. Others lack some bodily development or self-control, or will power. Some are nervous, timid and shy. Others are bold and depraved in nature. How to deal with these various defects in a room of fifty or more children is certainly a perplexing question. Educational practice is not yet sufficiently advanced to furnish special instruction to the individual child according to its needs. Until the coming of that welcome day the average teacher must make provision for many children that would thrive far better in other surroundings. Special schools are provided by the state for the totally blind, the completely deaf, the helplessly feeble-minded, and the incorrigibly bad. In some few cities, such as Brooklyn and New York, schools for truants and dull children have been established. In a few cities a special high school for females and another for males have been organized. In all of these schools only children extremely deficient are admitted. However, we seldom find an extreme case of any particular defect, without also finding examples of the same defect in a lesser degree. For the sake of themselves and of the other pupils, many children who are now in the public schools would be better off if placed in separate special schools.
At Providence, Rhode Island, there are such special schools
“It will be thirty years next September since Louis Agassiz was elected professor in Harvard university. The museum he founded in 1859 has developed into an establishment which has cost for its building, equipments and collections more than a million dollars and possesses also an endowment of $600,000. All education in the United States and all American science are under the deepest obligations to Agassiz.”—President Eliot.
for defective children. Of these special schools a person well to be an arrested development of mind. Many children at an acquainted with them says: “They were organized in the city early age appear bright and active and quick to learn. When of Providence during 1893-94. They were organized as annexes they reach a certain stage, they apparently come to a standto grammar schools, but were opened in detached buildings. still, and further progress is unmarked. To successfully meet A number of the pupils admitted to these schools belonged to such cases as these, the teacher should understand the princia class who were unable, for different causes, to attend other ples of mental development and their application to inind schools with regularity. Another class in attendance are growth. These pupils should be dealt with prudently and those who, from lack of self-control, failed to do well or make patiently. The child should be saved from the impossible and rapid advancement in their work, and are consequently a dis- only be asked to do what is possible for him to do. Great turbing element in the regular schools. One special school is pains should be taken that he never become discouraged. It organized for a class of pupils who, while they appeal to our is seldom that we have to deal with idiots or imbeciles. Only sympathy and compassion, yet work a greater injury to the in rare cases is it that one is found in the public schools. schools than the gain of good in themselves. These unfortu- However, many only a few degrees higher enter but fail to get nate pupils require instruction in small groups, and need to be on and soon drop out. A somewhat higher class is well repreunder the constant oversight of a teacher whose training and sented in the public school. They are usually designated as influence is especially adapted for this work. The number of weak scholars. From the idiots, imbeciles, and feeble minded, pupils to a teacher in these special schools is limited to twenty and even from the brightest, they differ only in degree. A or twenty-five. As the aim of the school is the upbuilding of painstaking and conscientious teacher will see that such pupils character, the discipline is corrective and not punitive. The are not crowded in their work, but are dealt with liberally and teachers are allowed to employ corporal punishment, if in their kindly. Private instruction and encouragement of the pupil, judgment they deem it useful in any particular case. At the and frequent consultation with the parents, will be productive same time they are instructed and are expected to avoid corpo- of much good. ral punishment if it arouses anything approaching violent The dull pupil is a never failing source of interest. Like the antagonism. Each child as he enters this school is made an poor, we always have him with us. He has latent mental object of most careful study. His physical, mental, and moral capacity, which, when the proper springs are touched, responds attainments, as well as his least defects, are noted and a written nobly and admirably. When once started in the line of progrecord of them is made. These special schools are highly use- ress, he advances slowly, but surely. How to get him once ful in bringing relief to the already over-crowded regular started is always the problem. He should be dealt with in all schools, by freeing them from disturbing influences and reliev- patience. He needs more encouragement. The teacher should ing the regular teacher from the severe strain of discipline, urge the parents to furnish more manual work as complex in which such defective children always cause. The regular nature as the pupil can manage. One writer recommends that teacher is thus enabled to devote herself more fully to the ordi- less weight be put on the solid subjects, and more stress laid nary and more responsive and intelligent pupil. It will be upon drawing, music, penmanship, and bookkeeping. The readily seen that the essentials for success of such special experimental sciences should be used when laboratories are schools are: (1). A limited number of pupils in each room; available. Field botany especially furnishes good sense train(2) good quarters away from the regular school; (3) special ing. These children should have a greater variety of work and methods of discipline; (4) systematic and faithful child-study; less work in things they cannot obtain personal experience of. and (5) sympathetic, energetic, patient and skillful teachers.” Abstract subjects, like mathematics and technical grammar,
It will not be possible, for many years to come, to establish are but means of barbaric punishment to children of this class. in every city such special schools as those at Providence. Very prevalent physical defects in children are poor eye-sight Meantime the teacher will have to deal with these problems as and hearing. These are more common than are generally best he may. In taking up these problems we must first under- supposed. Many a pupil on the back seat has been given stand that defective children are to be found in every school credit for being dull, listless and inattentive, when in reality he room. If, by any possibility, we fail to discover them, we our- was only hard of hearing. A change from a back to a front selves are most surely defective. If, after recognizing their seat is the only remedy in addition to the teacher's taking presence, we do nothing to better their condition, we certainly extraordinary pains to become proficient in good articulation are assuming very grave moral responsibilities. Fortunately, and the habits of distinct speech. Teachers should keep in it is not often that the teacher has to do with the grosser kinds view the fact that, according to good authority, in every class of deformity. In most cases these have such marked mental of fifty children, there are probably a dozen or more of them accompaniments as to unfit the child for doing the most ordi- who have some defect in hearing. Proper tests ought to be nary school work. Any slight peculiarities of body should be made and, if defective hearing is found, information of the carefully noted and the child closely observed for any sign facts should be sent to the parents. The pupil's position indicating mental weakness. Often there is an arrested devel- should be so changed as to minimize the bad effects of poor opment of the body. One writer says, “We have here to hearing. Tests should likewise be made for the eye-sight, and remember that the body undergoes enormous changes in form similar changes arranged. Various psychologists and writers on and structure before birth, and alters, chiefly in size and finer child-study explain the tests to be used for the different defects. structure after birth. Now, if the fundamental prenatal oper- It is no doubt your observation, as well as mine, that many ations are interrupted, they often fail ever after to go further children are defective in the power of memory. How often do forward, and there result such common defects as cleft-palate, we hear "I did know, but I have forgotten.” Many pupils hare-lip, and certain marks under the ears or on the throat, acquit themselves well in their daily work, but, after the lapse the failure of some of the branchial clefts to close properly. of a day or two when, in a written or oral test, they are Usually small heads may be also classed here, though they are required to reproduce their knowledge, they utterly fail. Their just as likely to be merely instances of arrested growth. In memory is either naturally weak, or has not been properly either case the result is the same—a general weakness of intel- trained. In either case it is incumbent upon the teacher to lect, often accompanied by considerable ability in one field, make suitable effort to develop and strengthen the memory. frequently in music, sometimes in manual dexterity, and often The number of associated percepts must be increased, if memin society.” One noticeable defect in children is what seems ory is to be strengthened and rendered more effective. In
order to have a good memory one must form many and diverse associations, with every object he perceives, each of which he may use as a clue in his later search for the object in thought. The teacher fails in his duty if he does not furnish these various associated percepts.
There has been much comment on the fact that many children, after spending years in the public schools, and pursuing a diversified course of study, leave school, possessing a comparatively small amount of real knowledge and less ability for acquiring it in the future. Various reasons have been assigned for this condition of affairs, and the most savage attacks have been made upon our public school system. I think that Miss Aiken, in her little book on “Mind Training,” has proclaimed the real source of the trouble. It is because the great majority of children are defective in the power of giving voluntary attention. Teachers, in their efforts to impart knowledge, proceed as if education were a pouring-in process, and nothing is done to cultivate or develop in the child the power of voluntary attention. The ability to concentrate the attention is of the highest value to any individual. Without it a person is incapable of mental growth. A great educator has said: “The power of attention constitutes a striking difference between the trained and the untrained intellect.” Bishop Vincent has said that the person who, on leaving the school, possesses the ability to concentrate voluntarily his attention on any subject for thirty or forty minutes, has the world at his command. The lack of power to give voluntary attention should be treated as a defect, to remedy which should call forth from the teacher her most earnest and energetic efforts. How to do this Miss Aiken has explained, in a very simple and practical manner, in the little book I have mentioned. A series of graded exercises for daily drills in quick perception have been prepared. These are to be written on a swinging blackboard, so that they may be presented to the view of the pupil for a brief time, and then turned away. The pupil is required to reproduce the words, numbers, sum3, geometrical figures, or whatever may have been placed on the board. The number of objects placed before him is constantly changed and increased. The pupil's curiosity, interest and ambition are aroused, and without these voluntary attention is impossible. When you have cultivated the power of attention, you have strengthened the power of the memory. Attention is the basis of the memory,-one writer even puts it, "attention is memory."
Such are some of the defects of children who enter our public schools. While the treatment in general may be the same, yet each case should be made the object of special study and treatment. The teacher and parents should consult frequently and advise together. No greater mistake can be made than for the teacher to ignore the parent, or the parent the teacher. The teacher cannot say to a parent, “I have no need of thee,” nor the parent to the teacher, “I have no need of thee," for between them stands a little child asking for guidance along the paths they have come.
Child-Study from a Physical Point of View. [Read before the Montana State Teachers' Association, December 30, 1896, by Superintendent J. E. Klock, of Helena.]
Child-study has occupied an importnnt position in the science of pedagogy for more than two thousand years. The study of the child as a science, however, had its origin in this country in 1879. Child-study, although in its infancy, has already dòne much towards righting the wrongs which have been perpetrated upon poor, defenseless children by primitive and unscientific methods of instruction.
This science, the newest of educational movements, has been so generally received with favor, that departments for experimental psychology and child-study have been added to the curriculums in many of our institutions for higher education.
Recognizing the fact that the course of study for the common schools must ultimately be based upon conditions which may be revealed through a careful study of child nature, a national society was formed in Chicago in 1893, with Dr. G. Stanley Hall as its president. The following summer a department for child-study was organized by the National Educational Association. This department was also placed under the leadership of Dr. Hall. The earnest efforts which have been put forth by the leading educators of this country, to provide better facilities for the education of the young, began with the kindergarten, grew to manual training, and finally it has culminated in the establishment of national societies for systematic child-study.
Although this movement is of such recent origin, very much has been accomplished, owing to the fact that the best talent of the continent, under the wise leadership of Dr. G. Stanley Hall, has been earnestly devoted to the cause. Practical works have been written upon experimental psychology by Scripture, Krohn, and Halleck. Child-study magazines have been published by Dr. Hall, Earl Barnes, the Werner Publishing Company, and others.
Enough has been done to settle beyond the question of controversy, the fact that "no development is possible without the functionating of the nervous system.” In fact, we have recently been led to believe that “muscles are organs of thought.” The physical side of child-study, when regarded from this point of view, becomes at once a practical element in all educational work. Very many lines for investigation are embraced in the study of the child from the physical point of view. In the brief time allotted for this exercise, I shall attempt to cover but a portion of the field. Many of the most interesting topics are therefore omitted, among which may be mentioned muscular sense, reaction time, fatigue in voluntary movement, and the usual three physical measurements for determining the nascent period for the development of the different parts of the body.
It may be pertinent to add that I claim for my investigations no special credit for originality. Material has been gathered from every source attainable. The arrangement, however, is my own. Acting upon the statement made by Locke, that “the mind can form unto itself no one simple idea, for the material for all thought must be gained from without," I have thought best to confine my observations to tests submitted to 1500 pupils in the Helena public schools, for the purpose of ascertaining the condition of the various avenues through which the material for thought is obtained.
A few brief extracts from the oral explanations as they were giver by the aid of large charts which had been prepared for this purpose, are herewith attached for the purpose of illustration:
(1) Cards published by F. A. Hardy & Co., wholesale opticians of Chicago, were used for making the eye tests.
Rose Freeman is teaching near Junction City.
Miss May Chadwick, now Mrs. Huling, is making her home in Topeka, Kansas.
We regret that Maggie Makim was called home recently on account of the dangerous sickness of her mother.
We have just received the annual commencement announcement for the Kansas City Medical College, with the compliments of Charles F. Courtney, '94, and also the announcement of the commencement exercises of the University Medical College of Kansas City, Missouri, with the compliments of W. H. Harrison, '83. We regret to lose both of these brothers from the school room but wish them abundant success in the honorable calling which they are now following.
Number of pupils
Color blindness ........
seen in five seconds ..
seen in five seconds Average number of objects
land, few, cat
ing one or more of the
77 57 63 107
9 11 7 3
275 186 197 170 142 155 121 94 89
5.1 5 7.5 7.3 7.4 11 9.5 9.9 9
5 4.8 5 5 6.9 8.2 13.3
18 26 35 15
9 17 17 16
55 33 18 30 31 21 6
6 13 3 3
(2) Ear tests were made from the teacher's voice as well as predominate in the sanguine, bilious, phlegmatic, melancholic, by the use of the watch.
and harmonious temperaments. (3) Tests for color blindness were made by means of a large As a recapitulation of the most important points gained from chart upon which were placed different shades of colors. Each the tests submitted in the Helena schools, the following are color upon the large chart was numbered and pupils were mentioned without additional comment: (1) In cases where required to match different colors as they were displayed from children have attended school regularly from eight to twelve a hand card, by copying the numbers from the large chart cor- years and are from six months to two years behind in their responding to the color exhibited.
grades, the loss of time is almost invariably found to (4) Pictures of twenty different objects were placed upon a be due to defective eyesight or hearing. In many cases both chart for the purpose of testing the child's ability to observe a hearing and sight are defective. (2) In a majority of cases number of objects within a stated time.
where pupils have been regarded by their teachers as being (5) In like manner twenty letters were placed upon below the average in mental ability, our tests have revealed the a chart for the purpose of testing the child's ability to observe fact that such children were suffering from defective eyes and a group of letters within a stated time. From these tests the In further illustration of this point I have thought best following results were obtained:
to append the following statement submitted by a fourth grade teacher of another city where these tests were made. She states: "In my fourth grade class of forty-five pupils, eight were considered to be below the average in mental ability. Your tests have shown each of these children to be deaf." In less than a week after this discovery was made, special attention having been given to these pupils, she -reported that she had succeeded in arousing them to such a degree that she then considered them quite up to the average in mental ability,
Had this defect in hearing been known from the beginning of First
their school life, these pupils would without doubt have lost no
Test not given Second
time, but would have been promoted with other children of Third Fourth
their age who had no such difficulty to overcome. (3) ChilFifth
dren may have defective hearing so far as the ticking of a Sixth Seventh
watch is concerned, and still be very susceptible to the tones of Eighth H. S.
the human voice; or, deaf to the tones of the human voice and
still be especially sensitive to musical tones. (4) Pupils havTotal
ing defective eyes or hearing are as a rule very sensitive upon (1) For the purpose of testing the relative strength of the ear the subject, and frequently they assume an indifference which and eye in gaining information, charts upon which the follow- is interpreted by the teacher as a display of insolence. ing words-dog, can, elk, rat, milk, seem, came, boy, sat, had Every practical teacher has observed that there are defects of been previously ritte were displayed for five seconds; after hearing other than actual deafness. “That thoughtless, inexwhich pupils were required to name or write all the words perienced teachers have observed that something is lacking in rernembered.
some children, is made evident by cruel remarks like the fol(2) A similar test was made with numbers, the chart contain- lowing: Where are your ears?' 'You must hear with your ing the figures 7, 2, 5, 1, 8, 3, 6, 4, was displayed for the same
elbows,' etc." length of time, after which a summary was made with the same
In the belief that this inability to hear does not come from requirements as explained in (1).
deafness or inattention, Dr. lIall caused the words fan, log, (3) Nine words and nine numbers were pronounced in suc
long, pen, dog, pod, land, few, and cat to be pronounced in a cession, after which pupils were required to reproduce as many
distinct tone of voice to 259 boys in the Boston schools. Notas were remembered. In each case where the time element
withstanding the fact that the ages of these boys ranged from was introduced, the metronome was used to mark the time.
twelve to twenty years, eighty of the number failed to spell all It will be seen from the above explanation that eighteen eye
of the words correctly. As a result of a similar test given to tests and eighteen ear tests were given for the purpose of deter
eight hundred seventy-nine pupils from the third to the eighth mining the relative strength of ear and eye in gaining impres
grade inclusive, in the Helena schools, mistakes were made by sions, with the following results:
three hundred forty-eight different pupils. One hundred fiftyfive pupils misspelled the word pod; seventy-nine the word few;
seventy-six, pen; seventy-one, log; fifty, long; thirty-nine, dog; Eye.
twenty-eight, fan; twenty-four, land; and nine the word cat.
These experiments show thirty and eight-tenths per cent. of the
Boston boys to be tone deaf upon some of the vowel sounds;
and practically the same per cent. of the children tested in the
5.93 Helena schools were found to have a similar defect. In the Third
Boston test, to prove that the inability to understand was not the result of deafness, a test was made which resulted in find
ing but two cases of deafness out of the two hundred fifty-nine Seventh Eighth
A test for ear and eye mindedness was also given to each child in the entire system of the Helena schools; that is, from
the primary to the high school. Each child was given eighAs an introduction to the discussion upon “Temperament in teen tests in hearing, and eighteen tests in seeing, upon both Education," pictures were displayed from the chart for the nun and words, making thirty-six tests to the pupil. The purpose of showing the marked physical characteristics which inference from this report seems to indicate that we are mak