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Pewer children would perish, if so fed, With regard to the Diseases of Inthan are destroyed by rushing into the fants, we may observe that the most opposite extreme of feeding them with frequent of these are-1, disorders of more viscid food; the use of farina or the stomach ; 2, disorders of the bowfarinaceous foods for all infants under els; 3, exhaustion; 4, febrile affecthe age of nine months, and even in tions ;' 5, exanthematous diseases, or many beyond that, lays the founda- those which are attended with erup tion of future disease -- the powers of tions of the skin; 6, affections of the assimilation in an infant not being head; 7, diseases of the thorax, or suited for such food. Milk alone is chest; 8, affections of the abdomen, or the natural food, and this should be belly. pure, not skimmed, nor previously re- Disorders of the stomach generally duced by water --unless in the coun- depend on improper diet; or they may try, where the milk is particularly be secondary, and the effects of a din. rich, and then it may be reduced with ordered or confined state of the bow. one-third of water; in warm weather els. They are often detected by acid the milk should be placed in the cool- or fotid eructations and breath, or by est place that can be found; and the unusually frequent regurgitation should there be the slightest tendency or vomiting of food. to acidity observed, it should be at Disorders of the bowels can never once rejected; sweetening with sugar be mistaken or overlooked by an atin such a case would but increase the tentive nurse, the evacuations, in their evil.” As to the temperature of the number and appearance, being the food: “Our great aim ought to be to perfect index to these disorders. follow as much as possible in the foot- It must never be forgotten, that steps of nature; and as we may ob- whenever the system has been exposed serve that 96° or 98° Fahr. is the tem- to sources of exhaustion, this condiperature of the mother's milk, 80 tion may become, in its turn, the should we give it to the infant; and source of varied morbid affectione for the purpose of regulating this, as which are apt to be ascribed to other well as the state of the atmosphere, a causes, and treated by improper, and thermometer should be kept in every therefore dangerous, measures. If the nursery. The milk should not be infant has had diarrhæa, or if it has boiled, but a bowl or pitcher contain- been bled by leeches; or if, without ing it may be placed in boiling water, these, its cheeks are pale and cool; and so the required heat retained.” and if, under these circumstances, it be
In warm weather an infant might taken with symptoms of affection of be taken out of doors when about a the head, do not fail to remember that fortnight old; in winter it would not this affection may be the result of be prudent to expose it before it is at exhaustion. This important subject least a month or six weeks old, and seems to have been generally misunthen only if the day is fine, and for derstood. not more than twenty minutes; if an Fever is sooner detected. In every east wind prevails, the child should be such case it is advisable not to tamkept in-doors. Sleep should never be per nor delay, but to send for the encouraged in the open air, nor should physician, and watch the patient with the glare of the sun be allowed to fall redoubled care and attention. on its face; of course, the morning Especially examine the skin, hour chill and evening damp should be after hour, for eruptions. It may be avoided. When the infant does go measles or scarlatina, etc. It will be out, let it be in the nurse's arms, not in especially desirable to detect these a perambulator, that modern invention eruptions early, and to point them out for the benefit of gossiping nurses, to the physician. Above all things, and for the destruction of infant life. let not a contracted brow, an unusual
state of the temper or manner, unu. and then to administer the warm sual drowsiness or wakefulness, or bath. An important point, never to starting, and expecially unusual vom- be forgotten in the hurry of these iting, escape you,
cases, is to reserve the evacuation for Be alive to any acceleration or la inspection, otherwise the physician bor, or shortness of the breathing, or will be deprived of a very important cough, or sneezing, or appearance of source of judgment, inflammation about the eyes or nos In cases of fits arising plainly from trils. These symptoms may portend exhaustion, there need be no hesita intlammation within the chest, whooption in giving 5 drops of Sal Volatile ing.cough, measles, Pain of the body, in water light nourishment may be with or without vomiting; or diar added; the feet must be fomented, and rhæa, with or without a morbid state the recumbent posture preserved, of the bowels, or of the discharges, In fits arising from an affection of ought also to excite immediate atten- the heart, the symptom is urgent diff. tion. One caution should be given on culty of breathing; the child seems this subject: some of the most alarm- as if it would lose its breath and exing and fatal affections of the bowelss
, pire, In such a case, to do nothing is like some affections of the head, are the best course; all self-possession unattended by acute pain or tender must be summoned, and the infant ness; their accession, on the contrary, kept perfectly quiet Every change is insidious, and it will require great of posture, every effort, is attended attention to detect them early,
with danger, Another view, and another mode of Sometimes the attacks assume the the classification of the diseases of character of croup; there is a crowing infants, full of interest, full of ad- cough, and breathing; or there is dit. monition, is -- 1, as they are sudilen ; hculty of breathing, and then a crowor 2, as they are insidious; or 3, as ing inspiration. The former case is they are, in the modes of accession, generally croup; the latter is, in intermediate between these two ex- reality, a fit dependent on a morbid tremes,
condition of the brain or spinal mar. Of the sudden affections, are fits of row, although it takes the appearance every kind, croup, and some kinds of of an affection of the organs of respi. pain, as that of colic; of the second ration, class are hydrocephalus, or water on the In either case it is well to clear the brain, and tubercles in the lungs or bowels by means of the slow injection abdomen, constituting the two kinds of from a quarter to half a pint of of consumption. Fits, again, are cere- warm water, with or without brown bral, and arise from diseases within sugar; indeed this is the most gener. the head, or from irritation in the sto ally and promptly useful of all our mach and bowels, or from exhaustion ; remedies in infantile diseases. To or they are evidence of, and depend this the warm bath may always be on, some malformation or disease of added, if administered with due cau. the heart,
tion. For instance, it should not be Domestic treatment should never be continued so as to induce much flushtrusted in such terrific aflections as ing or paleness of the countenance, these; not a moment should be lost in TEETHING. - In all the affections sending for the medical man,
of infancy, whether sudden or otherIf anything, may be done in the wise, the suspicion should fall upon the meantime, it is -- 1, in either of the condition of the yum and of the teethtwo former cases to lance the gums; ing, and therefore it is desirable that 2, to evacuate the bowels by the warm the mother should make herself acwater injection, made more active quainted with the use of thegum-lancet, by the additon of brown sugar; 3, In many cases of convulsions, and
other infantile affections, the use of for cordials, Brandy and Sal Volatile, this instrument affords the simplest, the former, for exhaustion generally; quickest, and readiest means of afford the latter, when this is connected with ing relief. In any case of this kind, pain and irritation of the bowels. should there appear to be danger from What shall we say about anodynes, delay, let the mother carefully pass but simply to warn against their use? ber finger along the child's gum, and Except under the direction of the if it appears to be unnaturally tumid medical man, they should scarcely at any particular part, let her apply ever be given ; nevertheless, it may be the instrument there. If the affection prudent to have at hand a small bottle be a fit, it may be used whether any of Laudanum, of which, in violent and part of the gum is hard and swollen excruciating pain, a single drop may or not, simply as the easiest mode of be given. Ii a carminative, Dill Water relieving the system by blood-letting. is the best, to be combined, where A gum-lancet should always be kept, there is much flatulency, with Fætid but should this not be at hand, a Spirit of Ammonia, this, with a little common lancet or a sharp pen-knife Carbonate of Soda, for acidity of will do. Make a free incision along stomach; Aromatic Confection for the course of the gums, down to the loose bowels; and Poppies and Camoteeth, or socket, if there be none; mile for fomentations, may complete have the child's head held perfectly the stock of medicines, which should still, and be careful to guard against be kept under lock and key, and pushing the instrument too far back, only administered by the mother, or a so as to wound the throat. The op- nurse who can safely be trusted. But erator should remeinber that perhaps the warm bath, the injection, and the the child's life depends upon the due tooth-lancing, are the safest remedies; performance of this duty, and nerve therefore, let the apparatus necessary herself for the task.
for these be always at hand and ready There are many diseases to which
for use. We have thus, as we hope, infants are liable, which are very in- | indicated with sufficient clearners how sidious in their advance, and present to preserve the health of our infant, at first no very marked symptoms; or detect the signs of disease, and to but the watchful eye of the mother, meet it when it comes. or of a careful nurse, can generally THRUSH.-This disease is common detect the approach and progress of with infants who are fed improperly, or such — the countenance, manner, ges- upon artificial food; it consists of an tures, and motions of the child; the eruption of small white or ash colored peculiarities of its cry; the state of ulcers, on the inside of the inouth and its secretions and excretions; all af- edges of the lips, not unfrequently exford indications of this, or anything tending to the throat and fauces; it is new or strange in either of these, is caused by irritation of the bowels, and sufficient to give the alarm and excite i generally gives rise to excoriations inquiry. If there is a falling off in about the anus and nates. When the looks, color, and flesh of the child, these symptoms appear, nurses say it there is reason to apprehend the for- | is "going through" the child, and inmation of tubercles in the lungs — the dicate a speedy termination of the disharbingers of consumption.
ease. Under ordinary circumstances, The medicines and remedial means and if sufficient attention be paid to it, which must be kept for nursing, are Thrush is not a dangerous affection; few and simple. Rhubarb, Magnesia, but if neglected, and sometimes if not, and Manna for aperients, with Castor it assumes a gangrenous character, the Oil; a few Senna leaves also, for in- ulcers increase in size and become liv fusion, may be useful. Ipecacuanha it is then much to be feared. Powder and Wine, as an emetic; and Treatment. As this disease is
always attended with diarrhea, some tip with flushed face, protruding eyeanti-acid an astringent mixture should balls, and a distressing look of terror be given, after, perhaps, one dose of and anxiety ; there is a quick vibrating Rhubarb and Magnesia, the Compulse, and agitation of the whole frame, pound Chalk Mixture of the Pharma- which presently becomes covered with copoeia, with a few drops of Laudanum # profuse perspiration : As the struggle should the irritation be very great for breath proceeds, there is clutching To the eruptions of the mouth should of the throat as though w force # pasbe applied, with a camel hair brush, # sage, the arms are thrown wildly abent, little Honey and Borax, in the pro- the respiration becomes morte labored portion of 6 drams of the former to 2 the tertigh comigh more frequent, #wi of the latter; or, in aggravated cases, the characteristic Croup rings out like #lotion composed of Nitrate of sil? an alarm note. There is expectertatioti ver, 1 scruple dissolved in 1 ounce of of viscid matter, lut se difficult is it to water Dusterver the excoriated nates he got rid of, that the effort appears to and anus with Hair Powder, or dap threaten strangulation; gradually the them with Goulard Water, two ot symptoms become weaker, and eventthree times a day. If the child is at ally the child falls into the sleep of the breast, great attention should be exhaustion. It will probably wake up paid to the diet of the nurse; if not, refreshed, and during the day may apthe food must be at once simple and peur pretty well; but at night again tintritious, milk forming the chief part probably there will be a recurrence of of it: if the disease asstumes a gangra
the attack with aggravated symptoms, fimus character, there will be great ex-vulsions, pigems of the glottis, haustion, and Beef Tesa enci Tonies causing the head to he violently thw will be required; for young children back, in the effort to obtain a passage semething like this: Diluto Nitrio for the air through the windpipe; there Acid, 14 minims; Syrup of Orange is a fluttering motion in the mostrils, Peel, an oruuice; Infusion of Calum the face is puffed and of a pale lenden ba, 1 dram; Water, % ounces; take a hue; & film comes over the sunketi dessert spoonful twice of three times a eyes, the prilse becomes feeble and irday.
regular; there are more gasping cottCROUP. - This is an inflammation vulsive efforts to continue the struggle, of the larynx and trachea, causing a but in vain, the powers of life at length clifficulty of breathing, and a tough succumb, and the patient sinks into y hourse cough, with a sernutous inspi-drowsy stupor, which ends in death, tation of very peculiar character, Such is the frequent curse of this serundling me if the air was passing painful (lisenge, and the changes frotti through & metallic tube: it must usu- had to worse are so rapid that there is #lly attacks children of from one to little time for the operation of reme five years. The first signs are merely dies, that is, when the paroxysts have these of a cute mon cold or catarrh; begun. then comes in a dry cough with hoarge- Treatment.-Confinement to the hortise tress and wheezing; at night there is in case of threatened Crintip is always testlessness and rattling in the throat, advisable, unless the weather should after which the croupy crow and serund be very warm and open, and then ex#hrve spoken of give unmistakable posure after sunkon shumid ber sverick warning of the disease, which guest all; a drze of Calimel, about % grains, increasing in intensity for # day or should be administered, and followed two, or perhaps several days, before bry nauseating doses of 'Tartarized Atthere is a really alarming paroxysm, timony, of which 1 grain may be dis which mostly occurs abırt midnight. solved in an ince of warm water, The child, after tersing restlessly abent, and teaspoonful of the solution giveni endeavoring in vain to sleep, will start overy quarter of an hour, until the effect is produced; should the bowels family or house. Let it also be rebe confined after this, give Senna Mix. membered that the great agents in ture, or a Scammony Powder. Mus- producing it are cold and moisture, tard and Bran Poultices to the throat, and, the greatest of all, the east wind, Leeches, if the patient is of a full habit, and that those who have once been atand the breathing is very labored; and tacked by it are peculiarly liable to a & spare diet are the other remedial recurrence of such attack. measures.
Croup is most likely to be fatal when In the paroxysms, the most prompt inflammation commences in the fauces, and vigorous measures must be adopted and this, if discovered in time, may be to give any chance of success : bleed stopped by the application of a soluing in such quantity as to diminish the tion of Nitrate of silver to the whole Vascular action on the surface of the surface within sight, and to the Larynr. wind-pipe, and to relax the muscles; Spasmodic Croup, or Child Crowstrong emetics to cause full vomiting, ing, as it is often called, exhibits much which often has a most beneficial effect; the same symptoms as the Group; it warm baths, and blisters applied from is not, however, of an intlammatory one ear to the other. Calomel com-character, but is symptomatic of some bined with Ipecacuanha Powder, or other disease commonly coming on as Tartar Emetic, should be given every a result of irritation caused by hydrofour hours or so, and if the danger is cephalus, teething, worms, etc.; the extreme, counter irritation by means medical man only can judge of the of Mustard Poultices applied to the probable cause, and he will use such calves of the legs, etc." In leeching remedies as are most applicable to the for Croup, one leech for each year of peculiarity of each case. The followthe child's age is the general rule to ing mode of treatment has been found be observed, and the best part is over efficacious in many cases of Croup; it the breast-bone, where pressure can be is simple and easy of application : applied to stop the bleeding if re- “A sponge, about the size of a large quired; over the leech bites, apply a fist, dipped in water as hot as the hand blister should one appear necessary. can bear, must be gently squeezed half If the above powders should cause too dry, and instantly applied under the violent an action on the bowels, and little sufferer's chin over the larynx to them a little Chalk with Opium. and wind-pipe: when the sponge has Should the child appear likely to sink been thus held for a few minutes in from exhaustion, after vomiting has contact with the skin, its temperature been produced, stay the emetics, and begins to sink; a second sponge, heatgive Liquor of Acetate of Ammonia 20 ed in the same way, should be used drops, with 5 or 10 drops of Sal Vola- alternately with the first. A persetile, or the same of Brandy in a little verance in this plan during ten or water, or Camphor Mixture; a little twenty minutes produces a vivid redWhite Wine Whey may also be ad- ness over the whole front of the throat, ministered. Of course, the first endeavor just as if a strong mustard-plaster had in an attack of Croup should be to obtain been applied; this redness must not medical assistance; but if this cannot be continued long enough to cause a be procured, there must be no tempor. blister. In the meantime, the whole izing --- resort at once to the remedies system feels the influence of the topmost ready to the hand, using them ical treatment; a warm perspiration according to the best knowledge and breaks out, which should be well endiscretion available.
couraged by warm drinks, as Whey, Let the contagious nature of Croup weak Tea, etc., and a notable diminu. be ever borne in mind, and especialtion takes place in the frequency and care taken to keep apart those affected time of the cough, while the hoarsewith it from any other children in the ness almost disappears, and the rough