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When Gold is at
Long Measure (continued).
8 furlongs 6 perct, prom477 per ot. diso't. In gold, $05 28
equal 1 mile.
1 degree, 20 16:07
83 33 25 20 00
360 degrees the circumference of the 80 #
76 02 earth,
71 42 60 188 38
06 60 87.50
02 50 Land (or Square) Measure, 70 41.18
68 82 80
66 56 144 square inches equal 1 square foot. 90 47.87
1 square yard. 100 150.00
304 square yards 1 square rod. Avoirdupois Weight.
40 square rods
1 rood. 4 roods
1 acre. (For groceries and heavy gooda.)
160 acres 16 drams equal 1 ounce.
1 qua'r section
640 acres 16 ounces 1 pound.
1 square mile. 112 pounds 1 cwt.
Distance Measure. 20 cwt., or 2240 pounds, 1 ton.
equal 1 link. Troy Weight.
1 rod, (For Jewellers.)
1 chain. 24 grains equal 1 pennyweight. 10 chains
1 furlong 20 ponnyweights
" 16 square polos. 12 ounces
10 square chains 21 inches equal 1 nail.
Cubic (Solid) Measure. 4 nails
1 quarter yard. 4 quarters
1728 cubic (solid) inches =1 cubic foot,
yard. Dry Measure.
40 feet round timber -1 ton. 4 quarts equal 1 gallon. 2 gallons
=1 ton. 4 pecks
42 feet equal 1 ton shipping. 86 bushels
128 1 chaldron.
feet 1 cord wood. Liquid Measure.
Jewish Long Measure. 4 gills equal 1 pint.
equals 1,1% feet 2 pints
1 quart. A Sabbath day's journey 86-8 4 quarts 1 gallon. A mile
7296 31) gallons 1 barrel. A day's journey
334 miles. 42 gallons
1 tierce. 63 gallons
1 hogshead. 84 gallons
equals 5,280 feet 126 gallons 1 pipe or butt. English
6,280 262 gallons
Italian 12 inches
26,400 3 feet
Dutch 6 feet 1 fathom. Spanish
21,120 54 yards 1 rod or perch. Polish
21,120 “ 40 rods
Is constantly examining his books, 24 sheets of papermake 1 quire.
and sees through all his affairs as far 20 quires
as care and attention will enable him. Barrel of flour contains 196 pounds,
Balances regularly at stated times, Barrel of Beef or Pork " • 200
and then makes out and transmits all Peck of salt weighs
his accounts current to his customers, 1 cubic foot of Anthracite coal weighs both at home and abroad. 50 to 55 pounds.
Avoids as much as possible all sorts of 1 cubic foot of bituminous coal weighs accommodation in money matters, and 45 to 55 pounds.
lawsuits where there is the least hazard, 1 cubic foot of charcoal 18 pounds.
He is economical in his expenditure, 28f bushels of coal, or
always living within his income. 433 cubic feet, } 1 ton.
Keeps a inemorandum-book in his
pocket, in which he notes every parHabits of a Man of Business. — A ticular relative to appointments, adsacred regard to the principles of jus- dresses, and petty cash matters. tice forms the basis of every transac- Is cautious how he becomes security tion, and regulates the conduct of the for any person; and is generous when upright man of business,
urged by motives of humanity. He is strict in keeping his engage- Let a man act strictly to these habits ments.
- ever remembering that he hath no Does nothing carelessly or in a hurry. | profits by his pains whom Providence
Employs uobody to do what he can doth not prosper and success will ateasily do himself.
tend his efforts. Keeps everything in its proper place. Taking a Store or Place of Busi
Leaves nothing undone that oughtness. - It you are about to take a to be done, and which circumstances place of business, you will do well to permit him to do.
consider the following remarks: Keeps his designs and business from SMALL CAPITALISTS, -- Let us take the view of others.
the case of a person who has no intiIs prompt and decisive with custom. mate knowledge of any particular trade, ers, and does not over-trade his capital. | but having a very small capital, is
Prefers short credits to long ones; about to embark it in the exchange of and cash to credit at all times, either in commodities for cash, in order to obbuying or selling; and small profits in tain an honest livelihood thereby. It credit cases with little risk, to the chance is clear, that unless such a person starts of better gains with more hazard. with proper precaution and judgment,
He is clear and explicit in all his the capital will be expended without bargains.
adequate results; rent and taxes will Leaves nothing of consequence to accumulate, the stock will lie dead or memory which he can and ought to become deteriorated, and loss and ruin commit to writing.
must follow. For the least absorption Keeps copies of all his important let- acting upon a small capital will soon ters which he sends away, and has every dry up its source; and we need not picletter, invoice, etc., belonging to his ture the trouble that will arise when business, titled, classed, and put away, the mainspring of a tradesman's success
Never suffers his desk to be confused abides by him no more. by many papers lying upon it.
LARGER CAPITALISTS. --- The case Is always at the head of his business, of the larger capitalist can scarcely be well knowing that if he leaves it, it considered an exception to the same will leave him.
rule. For it is probable that the larger Holds it as a maxim that he whose capitalist, upon commencing a busicredit is suspected is not one to be ness, would sink more of his funds in trusted.
a larger stock – would incur liability
to a heavier rent; and the attendant | formed, and to take advantage of the taxes, the wages of assistants and ser- now improved condition of the locality. vants, would be greater, and, therefore, It seems, therefore, desirable for the if the return came not speedily, simi- small capitalist rather to run the risk lar consequences must sooner or later of a more expensive rent, in a wellensue.
peopled district, than to resort to LOCALITIEA. – Large or small cap- places of slow and uncertain demand; italists should, therefore, upon entering for the welfare of the small dealer deon a storekeeping speculation, consider pends entirely upon the frequency well the nature of the locality in which with which his limited stock is cleared they propose to carry on trade, the out and replaced by fresh supplies. number of the population, the habits PRECAUTIONS. But should the and wants of the people, and the small capitalist still prefer opening in extent to which they are already sup- a suburban district, where competition plied with the goods which the new is less severe, and rents and rates less adventurer proposes to offer them. burdensome, there are certain precau
NEW NEIGHBORHOODS. — There is tions which he will do well to observe, a tendency among small capitalists to He should particularly guard against rush into new neighborhoods with the opening a shop to supply what may be expectation of making an early con- termed the superfluities of life; for the nection. Low rents also serve as an inhabitants of suburban districts are attraction to these localities. We those who, like himself, have resorted have found, however, in our experience, to a cheap residence for the sake of that the early suburban places seldom economy. Or, if this be not the case succeed. They are generally entered --if they are people of independent upon at the very earliest moment that means, who prefer the “detached the state of the locality will permit -- villa" to the town house, squeezed up often before the house is finished the on both sides, they have the means of store is tenanted, and goods exposed riding and driving to town, and will for sale - even while the streets are prefer choosing articles of taste and unpaved, and while the roads are as luxury from the best marts, enriched rough and uneven as country lanes. by the finest display. The consequence is, that as the few NECHITIES OR LUXURIES. -- The inhabitants of these localities have fre- suburban storekeeper should, therequent communication with adjacent | fore, confine himself to supplying the towns, they, as a matter of habit or meccanities of life. Hungry people disof choice, supply their chief wants like to fetch their bread from five miles thereat; and the suburban dealer de-off'; and to bring vegetables from a pends principally for support upon the long distance would evidently be a accidental forgetfulness of his neigh- matter of considerablu inconvenience. bor, who omits to bring something The baker, the butcher, the grocer, from the cheaper and better market; etc., are those who find their trado or upon the changok of the weather, first established in suburban localities. which may sometimes favor him by And not until these are doing well rendering a "trip to town” exceed- should the tailor, the shoemaker, the ingly undesirable.
hatter, the draper, the hosier, and FAILURES. " While the grass in others, expect to find a return for their growing the borac is starving ;” and capital and reward for their labor. thus, while the new district is becom- CIVILITY. In larger localities, ing peopled, the funds of the small where competition abounds, tho small tradesman are gradually eaten up, and dealer frequently outstrips his more he puts up his shutters just at the time powerful rival by one element of sucwhon a more cautious speculator steps cens, which may be added to any stock in to profit by the connection already without cost, but cannot be withheld
without loss. That element is civility. command eight hours every day for the It has already been spoken of else- cultivation of our minds and the dewhere, but must be enforced here, as spatch of business. aiding the little means of the small FRUGALITY.-The great philosotrader to a wonderful degree. A kind pher, Dr. Franklin, inspired the mouthand obliging manner carries with it an piece of his own eloquence,“ Poor indescribable charın. It must not be Richard,” with “ many a gem of purest a manner which indicates a mean,
ray serene," encased in the homely grovelling, time-serving, spirit, but a garb of proverbial truiems. On the plain, open, and agreeable demeanor, subject of frugality we cannot do better which seems to desire to oblige for the than take the worthy Mentor for our pleasure of doing so, and not for the text, and from it address our remarks. sake of squeezing an extra penny out A man may, if he knows not how to of a customer's pocket.
save as he gets, " keep his nose all his INTEGRITY. — The sole reliance of life to the grindstone, and die not worth the storekeeper should be in the in
a groat at last. A fat kitchen makes a tegrity of his transactions, and in the lean will." civility of his demeanor.' He should make it the interest and the pleasure Many estates are spent in getting, of the customer to come to his place. And wen for puncta fursouk lewing and splitting,
Since womeu for tea forsook spinning and knitting, If he does this, he will form the very best“ connections," and so long as he If you would be wealthy, think of continues this system of business, they saving as well as of getting. The Inwill never desert him.
dies have not made Spain rich, because DUTIES OF A STOREKEEPER. - He her out-goes are greater than her inshould cheerfully render his best labor comes. and knowledge to serve those who ap- Away with your expensive follies, proach his counter, and place confi- and you will not have so much cause dence in his transactions; make him to complain of hard times, heavy , self alike to rich and poor, but never taxes, and chargeable families.
resort to mean subterfuge and decep- " What maintains one vice would tion to gain approbation and support. bring up two children.” He should be frugal in his expendi- You may think, perhaps, that a ture, that, in deriving profits from little tea, or superfluities now and then, trade, he may not trespass unduly diet a little more costly, clothes a little upon the interests of others; he should finer, and a little entertainment now so hold the balance between man and and then, can be no great matter; but man that he should feel nothing to re- remember, “Many a little makes a prove his conscience when the day mickle.”' comes for him to repose from his Beware of little expenses : “A small labors and live upon the fruits of his leak will sink a great ship;" as Poor industry. Let the public discover Richard says; and again, “Who dainsuch a man, and they will flock around tiess love, shall beggars prove;" and bim for their own sakes.
moreover, “ Fools make feasts and wise Early Rising. - The difference be- men eat them." tween rising every morning at six and Here you are all got together to this at eight, in the course of forty years, sale of fineries and nick-nacks. You amounts to 29,200 hours, or three years call them goods; but if you do not take one hundred and twenty one days and care they will prove evils to some of sixteen hours, which are equal to eight you. You expect they will be sold hours a day for exactly ten years. So cheap, and perhaps they may, for less that rising at six will be the same as if than they cost; but if you have no oclen years of life (a weighty considera- casion for them they must be dear to you. tion) were added, wherein we may Remember what Poor Richard says,
" Buy what thou hast no need of, and Good friends, let me beg of you, don't run in debt
If the chairs and the sufas are old, ere long thou shalt sell thy neces
They will nt your bacli letter than any new set, saries,"
Unless they are paid for -- with gold. " At a great pennyworth, pause If the house is too small draw the closer together, awhile," lle means, perhaps, that the Reep it warm with a hearty good wili; cheapness is apparent only, and not
A big one ninpaid fur, in all kinds of weather,
will send to your warm heart a chill, real; or the bargain, by straitening thee
Don't run in debt - now, dear girls, take a hint, in thy business, may do thee more harm
If the fashions have changed since last seacuti, than good; for in another place he Old Nature is out in the very same tint, says, Many have been ruined by
And old Nature, we think, has some reason, buying good pennyworths."
But just say to your friend, that you cannot afford It is foolish to lay out money in
To spend time to keep up with the fashion :
That your purse is too light, and your honor too the purchase of repentance;" and bright, yet this folly is practised every day
To be tarnished with such silly passion, at auctions for want of minding the Cents, don't run in debt - let your friends, if they Almanack,
llave fine honges, and feathers, and flowers; Cash and Credit.- If you would get But, unless they are paid for, lw more of a man rich, don't deal in bill books, Credit Than to envy their sunshiny lours, is the "Tempter in a new shape," Buy If you've money to spare, I have nothing to say -goods on trust, and you will purchase Spend your silver and gold as you please; a thousand articles that cash would
But mind you, the man who his will has to pay
Is the man who is never at ease. never have dreamed of. A dollar in the
Kind husbande, don't run into debt any more hand looks larger than ten dollars seen
"T will fill your wives' cnp full of anirow through the perspective of a three To know that a neighbor many call at your door, months' bill, Cash is practical, while
With a claim you must settle to-morrow. credit takes horribly to taste and ro- Oh! take my advice - it is good, it is true! mance, Let cash buy a dinner, and But, lest you may some of you doubt it,
I'll whisper a secret now, seeing 't is you you will have a beefisteak flanked with
I have tried it, and know all about it onions, Send credit to market, and
The chain of a debtor is heavy and cold, he will return with eight pairs of Its links all corrosion and rust; woodcocks and a peck of mushrooms, Gild it o'er as you will, it is never of gold, Credit believes in diamond pins and
Then spurn it aside with disguak, champagne suppers, Cash is more The Art of Carving. --CEREMONIES easily satistied, "Give him three meals
OF THE TABLE, ETO, - A dimmer-table a day, and he doesn't care much if two should be well laid, well lighted, and of them are made up of roasted pota- always afford a little spare room, It is toes and a little dirty salt, Cash is a better to invite one friend less in numgood adviser, while credit is a good ber, than to destroy the comfort of the fellow to be on visiting terms with. If whole party, you want double chins and content
THE LAYING OUT OF A TABLE must ment, do business with cash,
greatly depend upon the nature of the Don't Run in Debt.
dinner or supper, the taste of the host,
the description of the company, and "Don't run in debt;"- never mind, never mind the appliances possessed. Ji would be If your clothes are faded and torm:
useless, therefore, to lay down specifio Beam them up, make them do; it is better by far Than to have the heart weary and worn.
rules. The whiteness of the table.
cloth, the clearness of glass, the polish Who'll love you the more for the shape of your hat, of plate, and the judicious distribution The cut of your vest, or your boots, or cravat, of ornamental groups of fruits and If they know you're in debt for the new
flowers, are matters deserving the ut There's no comfort, I tell you, in walking the street
most attention, In fine clothes, if you know you're in debt; A MMEBOARD will greatly relieve a And feel that, perchance, you sume tradusman may crowded table, upon which may be
meet, Who will meer.-" They're not paid for yet." placed many things incidental to the