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the Mississippi, where women have not control that of law --- as in Yale. Princeton is a notable over their own wages.

exception to this rule, for “ although,” as ChanIn pre-revolutionary days it is conceded that in cellor MacCracken phrased it, “it is not good for New Jersey, and some other communities where man to be alone, Princeton has been alone for the word person" was used in expressing qualit- one hundred and fifty years!” Edinburgh Univercations, women participated, even in the presiden-sity has just conferred its first degree on a woman, tial elections, until 1807.

Miss Ormerod, the celebrated entomologist, havMistress Margaret Brent acted as executrix oi | ing been made a Doctor of Laws. This degree the estate of Leonard Calvert, first lord proprietor | Emily Kempin received in Zurich in 1887, and and governor of Maryland, and was listened to by lectured there on law. Thus sisters and brothers the courts as his lordship's attorney, practicing in are entering college life on an equality, but not all the courts of the State, and demanding a voice always so leaving, for only last year in Buffalɔ in colonial affairs.

Law School Mrs. Rodgers graduated at the head Abigail Adams, at the close of the last century, of the law class. also pleaded for a larger liberty for women, and Leaving this brief historical sketch, the quesothers joined with etoquence in the plea.

tion meets Is legal education a benefit to a A curious link between the old and the new has woman? Austin Abbot has said: “Some study of just been severed. Lady Louisa Tighe, lately de- the law is of prime importance in the complete ceased, in Woodstock, had a unique position, education of every human being. The mental disbeing the only woman, beside the queen, in Great cipline in a thorough study of legal practice is Britain having the power to pardon criminals, unequalled. It tends to make the mind more even at the foot of the scaffold. This right she reasonable, consistent, logical and well-balanced, exercised twice a year by virtue of an hereditary and is as useiul to women as to men, whether they dispensation. She ruled from 1878 the vast and apply the knowledge to the practice of law or tu splendid domain of Woodstock with almost the any other vocation.” power of a monarch. Every morning she held Almost the last appearance of this great jurist court; the people gathered outside her windows

the home of the esident of the Woman's and stated their cases in the same way the subjects Legal Education Society, when he addressed the of an Oriental king appeal to him. Lady Louisa friends of the Woman's Law Class in New York, heard their stories, gave her decisions, and they and gave his ringing words heartily and freely in were unquestionably obeyed. Once she banished commendation of their work. Quoting Blackher steward from the realm for the theft of the stone's famous words, Every gentleman should great Richmond diamond, which he confessed. study law,” he applied them to every human being,

In a very learned treatise by M. Ostrogorski, in and, like John Stuart Mill, in his noble essay on which I acknowledge a debt of gratitude, he says the " Subjection of Women," pointed out the gaia that " positive law is opposed to the admission of to the race which would ensue when woman's inwomen to political power.” In this work, “ The tellect should be trained as is man’s. He exRights of Women,” he ably sums up the countries plained law as the rule of society," and sketching which concede to them sovereignty, regency, woman's hapless condition under the common law, franchise, eligibility to office and educational and he described briefly modern legislation, which has professional rights, and finds that while the proy- so immeasurably benefited her status, and its eiress of the present day is, as yet, opposed to grant- fect, especially upon the life and property rights ing to women political rights, yet everywhere her which have lately come to her. rights to property and to education (her individual Thus the various acts which have given to rights) are freely conceded.

women property rights, power over wages and At the dawn of the nineteenth century no col. power to make wills have been so many new relege opened its doors, for social prejudice frownel sponsibilities, urging them to study to be worthy. upon the enfranchisement of women. The days The multiplied political clubs have taught them when women filled the chairs of learning in Spain what they need to know, but the deeper voice of and Italy seemed forgotten, and the German necessity has shut out the din of social pleasure, proverb that “one tongue is enough for a woman" and women, as John Stuart Mill prophesied of her, tacitly influenced public opinion. To-day we need is all the inore winning for growing intellect, and not argue on the question of the desirability of all the more lovable for high culture and sound higher education for a woman. The wide-open common sense. The different position which she doors of colleges and universities have settled that holds in this century was brought about, in part, forever. “Woman's sphere," said Dr. Faunce at by her persistent agitation (for it is said, “is a our alumnæ banquet, “is a real sphere, and not

cannot argue she can re-iterate "), but simply a few points on man's sphere.”

mainly by the noble friendship and championship In correspondence with many of our universi- of the best men of the community. The writer ties we find provision for woman's admission to begs, above all things, to recognize that woman's some departments, even when she is excluded from 1 progress in the nineteenth century has gone hand



in hand with mail's generosity, and points to the And first, it has been the experience of your statutes of the Empire State as witness .o the fact speaker that sometimes the operation of statuie that there woman has larger power over her prop- and customary law has been hindered and deerty than has her husband, for she can buy, sell, leated because many sensitive women will not mortgage, alien, release and convey her realty free contide their business affairs to men. Repeatedly irom all control of her husband, while his right in has this occurred in our cities and in country these respects is always limited by her dower. homes. Again and again has it been said to me:

Our able lecturer in New York University has "If I had only known that women could underrecently explained " why law schools stand law I should be better off to-day,” or, “I crowded,” for law is a liberal education. Every am afraid to go to a lawyer.” When women learn argument which would sustain the position that a that law is resistless and will take its course, being man should know the laws he lives under would either a power to protect them or a Juggernaut t') equally apply to a woman some of the largest ride over them, our question will be answered. estates are held to-day by woman heirs — some or Again, the law needs women, because, however the most momentous questions of the modern law hackneyed is the saying, women can understaud concern their status. It is impossible to pui each other better than men can women. Let the woman back into the seclusion of the Pauline doubter listen to a woman as she studies her cliperiod, where her only source of information was ent, and by slow degrees extracts the story it is so

to ask her husband at home." With increased | hard to put together. Her patience and sympathy responsibility as given her by the trend of modern oiten are a powerful aid here.

Women see law, she must be taught her position as woman, as quicker the confusion which is misleading the property holder, as litigant, and as citizen. A man client and the utter ignorance of law which a man in his business must know the laws; a woman in cannot even imagine. Mr. Hinrichs told us lately her environment is equalıy under their power, and that the average office boy knows more of pracmust, therefore, know her place in the body tical law than the average woman. For a little politic.

while this is true, but it will not long remain so. Again, her avocations lead her to-day into the Women are learning the fascination which is business world. The activities which women for found in orderly living, and they yield a reverence merly monopolized are now in the hands of cor- to law when once it convinces them which makes porations. Women used to do the weaving and it binding on conscience and on conduct. spinning, the preserving, the pickling and baking Also, the law needs women because of their inin our homes, as well as the family knitting and fluence. Every calling is listed up by the entrance fashioning the home-made cloth into garments. into it of one with high, unselfish motives and To-day she never makes her collars even, and large intellectual power. It is safe to say that in knitting machines have taken her place as the the modern struggle only the wiser women will artificer of the family hosiery, while the sewing succeed in active practice at the bar, and thus the and weaving machines are helping to displace her, law will gain the best service of both men and so that she is perforce compelled to enter into the women of intellect and principle. fields of man's activity. Her coming into the Second. Has any woman a legal mind? Yes, as world of business has affected that world most witnessed by the examples already given and the noticeably. She is a factor for good, and is now testimony of those who have worked with thera welcome where once she won grudging recog- and instructed them in the calling. In the period nition. She herself has been the gainer in inde- of modern work by women in law about three pendence, in common sense, and in the possession hundred have been admitted to the bar in the of that sweet sense of independence which, once United States alone. Many of them have won known, is not easily relinquished, and it is a distinction in special lines. California and Chicago pleasure to add a tribute here to the gentle dig- both have women especially successful as probate nity with which these young women bear them- lawyers, others have distinguished themselves in selves. Woman's work in medicine is acknowl- | office, and others as instructors in law. Europe, edged to be valuable, but opinions differ as to her Asia, Canada, the Klondike and all sections of the place in the legal profession. Dr. Russell has United States have learned this fact. said: As justice and equity know no distinction Mrs. Irvine, of Wellesley, said: “I believe in of sex, so the commonwealth of intellect cannot the new woman because she can study. It is well deny to women the freedom of the city."

for a woman to know as much as she possibly can To the present writer the question narrows itself about everything." down to two points, namely:

Dean Ashley, of New York University, in adFirst. Are there any circumstances where the dressing the Woman's Law Class, said he could law has need of woman?

most warmly commend the women students in the Second. Has any woman a legal mind?

law school, where they compete successfully witin If these two questions are answered in the ai- their brothers, and prophesied that the time will firmative the fact that law needs woman may be come when their influence will be felt in political established.



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What, then, is the standing of woman in legal | the courts of the country seen more faithful, intel-
education to-day? When Oberlin opened its ligent and absolutely honest grand and petit jurors
doors to women a great step was taken, but the than these."
law schools were later to welcome her. In 1869 From the same State, some years before, the
Mrs. Belle Mansfield was admitted in lowa 10 Review published a letter written by Mrs. Esther
practice law, and the same year the University of , Morris, the first woman justice of the peace in:
lowa invited woman students. Chief Justice Aus- America, who, writing to a friend, opened her
tin Adams favored the recognition of woman's letter with the words: “For our privileges in this
ability, and withstood a tide of dissent in doing so). State we are indebted to the generosity of the men
He admitted Mrs. Foster to practice in his court, of Wyoming.” She describes her work in office,
against the protest of his associates, and lent such and explains that she did not neglect her home
influence and encouragement to the cause of lib- duties while an incumbent, adding: “In about
eral education that women of society in Dubuque thirty civil actions tried before me there has been
entered the law school to encourage by their pres- but one appeal taken, and the judgment was af-
ence the young women students, and give then firmed in the court above."

In Wyoming, also, when admitting Miss
Michigan followed Iowa, and Boston Law Heberd, November, 1899, the first woman to ask
School was opened to women in 1872, California admission to that bar, Judge Bramel said: “I be-
in 1873, and Missouri in 1880. Illinois and other lieve women ought to have equal rights with men
States followed, and when, in 1886, the legislature in every branch of study, and in the professions,
of New York admitted, by statute, women to prac- and I believe the day is not far distant when this
tice law, Cornell and New York University pro- will be accorded her."
vided for them a place to prepare to do so. It Mrs. Haskell, of Helena, Mont., in 1889 secureil
was no small change when all this was accom the passage of a law by the legislature permitting
plished — in conservative New York – for there women to practice law. There many offices are
such social revolutions move slowly and reluc- open to them, service on the school board, county
tantly, and people do not lightly adopt new ways. superintendent of schools, and others.
In the more untrammelled civilizations of the For more than twenty years Miss King has prac-
Western States there have been no restrictions on ticed in Wisconsin, and won recognition by her
the admission of women to the universities, an i talents.
many of them are in office and successful in prac- Mrs. Bradwell, of Illinois, founded the Legal

News, one of the best law journals published, and What has been the result of this new opportunity – one which is carried on since her death by her and what are modern women doing in law? It is husband. The story of her application for admistrue that Belgium denied ten years ago to M’!!e sion to practice law, and her refusal, is well known. Popelin the right to practice law, saying "that | The court rested its refusal at first on the ground women had not the leisure nor the aptitude neces- that “ she was a married woman," but finally gave sary for the struggles and fatigues of the legal to her womanhood alone the weight of its judicial profession." On the other hand, France has given “ No.” It is gratifying to know the same court to M'lle Jeanne Chauvan, author of the “ Evolu- afterwards, of its own motion, admitted her to the tion of Woman," recognition at her bar, an'l coveted privilege. Canada has followed with her partial admission, One woman from the same State is practicing allowing them to be solicitors. Canada allows law in the Klondike, and one, Miss Berthelme, is them to be attorneys, solicitors and proctors, brit public guardian in Cook county, having in her not barristers. Zurich honored Mrs. Kempin as care the estates of more than three hundred orinstructor in law, and in our own city, ew York, phans. Chicago has also a woman lawyer, who is three women were recently appointed receivers hy blind. Justice McLean.

The experience of Miss Knowles in Maine inMadam Tel Seno, of Japan, is to-day one of the terests us, as showing the ordinary course of most influential women of the country, practicing events in this direction, namely, that when courts her chosen profession, the law, in the land of the refuse woman's application then legislatures come Mikado, and devoting her whole life to the edu- to her aid. Chief Justice Peters, who presided at cation of her sex.

India has a Parsee woman the term of court to which she applied, declined lawyer who has contributed to the welfare of her to allow her to be examined without a prior consisters, who are forbidden by religion and custom struction of the law relating to attorneys by the to receive legal advice from men.

Law Court, and the case was there reported in In the American Law Review of August, 1894, 1899; but the legislature convened in January, an interesting article by Chief Justice Howe, of 1899, and an act was passed in favor of woman's Wyoming, sums up his experience of women as right to practice law in Maine. In 1872 Mrs. jurors, and closes with these words: “ I have never Nash was admitted in the same State in Washingin my twenty-five years of constant experience in ton county, but the fact seemed to have establishe?

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no precedent. Many States have a few women association, limited to women who have been praclawyers only — few have more than ten or twelve. ticing five years, with offices of their own. New York with about forty, and Illinois with Miss Miller, of Chicago, edits the Forum. Miss eighty-seven, easily lead.

O'Neill, of Connecticut, is in her father's law Women who are not intending to practice law firm. Miss Listhardt, oi Colorado, is successful are yet studying for culture, and to comprehend in her State, and of the women of my own State legal advice. The Woman's Law Class of New who are well known here much has been written, York University offers to them unparalleled ad- and more will be heard. vantages. One of the university's ablest lecturers has charge of the class, and inspires with enthus

STATISTICS. iasm for legal study all who attend the course. In the ten years since it was founded over six Thirty-four States admit women unreservedly hundred women have taken the chancellor's cer-- to practice law, and wherever there are law tificate, coníerred on those who successiully pass schools in those States, with the exception of Yale a strict examination. It has been said of this and Princeton, women may be candidates for de class: “No other institution in the metropolis is gress. Eighty-seven have been admitted to pracso eloquent a commentary upon social and profes- tice in Illinois, forty in New York, thirty in Iowa. sional changes.” Ten years ago the first step was twenty in Massachusetts, twenty-five in Missouri, taken for its inauguration, and at first it was said ten in the District of Columbia, twenty-five in the class would never be utilized by those for Nebraska, nine in Oregon, “two or three” in whose benefit it was planned. To-day it stands a Colorado, Kentucky, Nevada, Washington and successful experiment, endowed by its friends, and Wisconsin; six in Michigan, two in Florida, Idaho accepted as a permanent part of university exten- and Connecticut; one in Arizona, Maine, Monsion work, a class which teaches outlines of law tana, Utah, North Dakota, Tennessee and Wyomand supplies to women the knowledge which the ing. From Pennsylvania the uncertainty of the non-professional woman finds so hard to secure. number is because there admission is by county, The lawyers of our city are now sending their and the number could not be ascertained by instenographers to the Woman's Law Class, and quiry. From California, Kansas, Indiana an'l can testify to the usefulness of the work.

Texas the answer is “but few." A class text-book of great attractiveness has Virginia, Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, South been prepared, but found to be so valuable an Carolina and Vermont prohibit woman's entrance addition to the text-books already in use that it to their bar. has been adopted, not only in New York Univer- In Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, North Carosity Law School, but in many others. It gives lina and Rhode Island, “ law is silent - none hava with great acuteness definite knowledge, and yet ever applied." Yet Maryland and South Carolina suggests the exceptions and variations of the vari- admit them to their law schools. ous bodies of law. The Outlineof Law" is In Missouri and California nine have graduate i studied with an enthusiastic appreciation which from the law schools; in Illinois and Massach'makes the uninitiated recall the old caution, “ Be- setts twenty-five; eight in Wisconsin, twenty in ware of the man with one book.” Many of the Michigan, sixty-five in New York, about nine in students of this class have testified to its influence | Nebraska, ten in Kansas, fourteen in Iowa, three and its effect in broadening and enlightening their in Oregon, the same in Washington, four in Pennminds. The work is entirely "extension work,” sylvania, one in Colorado, and irom other schools leading to no degree, and yet the students have, an indefinite number. many of them, here discovered their aptitude for So far as we can discover, with exactness, ad. legal study, and about fifteen of its graduates have mission was by statute in New York, Iowa, Illientered the regular law school, carrying their en nois, Maine, Massachusetts, Montana, Nevada, thusiasm into the sterner study of the preparation North Dakota and New Jersey. By decree of for the bar. Miss Stanleyetta Titus was the first court in Pennsylvania, Connecticut, New Hampwoman to thus enter the profession, and gradu-shire and Wisconsin. “Always," never prohibated with distinction, being admitted afterwards ited,” in Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, (June, 1894), the first woman lawyer in New York Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Ohio, State.

Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington In New York we have a Woman Lawyer's Club, and Wyoming. of which Miss Loew is president and Miss Phil- Help has been generously given from every brook, of New Jersey, is secretary. Miss Brischen, State in the Union for these statistics, and from of Boston; Miss Fall, of Malden, Mass., and the colleges and law offices, from courts and senators, others who have graduated from Boston Univer- and from my sisters-in-law have come generous sity with magna cum laude are active. Boston has responses which will be cherished by the writer for her Portia Club and Chicago her League of their varied and generous information. Women Lawyers, while there is also a national New YORK, May, 1900.

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Arizona .
Dist, of Columbia..
New Hampshire.
New York
New Jersey.
North Dakota
Ter. Oklahoma
South Carolina
South Dakota..



1884-5. 25.
1872. 25.
1869 20.
Baltiino re law school.

None bave applied.



Since statehood. "Since Arizona had existence


* Probably always eligible

By counties... 1873.

Three are in practice. 1845..

"Always - never prohibited 1899.

Feb. 3rd, 1899.

Number of years. 1870.

“Ever since 1870"

Ever since Kapsas was a state

By decree 1870, by statute 1872.
1872 and 1899. By statute ..

By statute, ch. 189
About 1880. "They could always

None have applied
Adoption of constitution,

* There is no restriction

Ever since Montana's statehood 1865.

Then the word male was omitted from

constitution. 1880.

At least 20 years. 1864.

By statute 1893. 2 or 3 years

Judge Doe's decision. 1888.

By statute .... 1896

Probably by statute.

Never a law against it

"No law prohibits 1885.

By counties..

" They can "No law

Not eligible as a notary, but one is prac

ticing in Tenn

Since organization..
Always (except U. S. excluded)
“Never prohibited

". They are admitted

Law was silent till then.

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West Virginia

Yes the
Yes to

Always.. 2 or 3.
At Morgantown.
thesame as men 8.
to preparato'y l'w d'pt

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