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191
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1895

PREFACE.

The motive for writing this book was, in the main, to supply students of pharmacy with a text-book which, while sufficiently comprehensive to serve as a trustworthy guide, should be devoid of all unnecessary material, such as official and unofficial formulas, etc., readily accessible in the Pharmacopoeia and such books of reference as are usually found in drug-stores. The author was repeatedly assured by the late Professor Maisch, and other friends, that such a book was desirable, and, at their request, the task was undertaken. Owing to unavoidable interruptions caused by increased duties, the work, begun in the spring of 1894, was not completed until the autumn of 1895.

Since the present advanced state of professional pharmacy is the fruit of long-continued labors of many competent men in both this country and Europe, no hesitation was had in utilizing their results, the author having, in fact, felt it to be his duty to incorporate with his own experience, extending over twenty-five years of a busy life as a practical pharmacist, the many valuable hints obtainable from numerous well-known writings. Grateful acknowledgment is hereby made for aid derived from such books as Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, The Art of Dispensing, Proctor's Lectures on Practical Pharmacy, American Journal of Pharmacy, Ernst Schmidt's Lehrbuch der Pharmaceutischen Chemie, Hager, Fischer u. Hartwich's Commentar zum Arzneibuch für das Deutsche Reich, Hager's Technik der Pharmaceutischen Receptur, Die Schule der Pharmacie, Flückiger's Pharmaceutische Chemie, Bornemann's Die Fetten und Flüchtigen Oele, and others.

The subjects treated in this book have been grouped under three distinct headings.

Part I. comprises General Pharmacy, which includes the study of weights and measures, specific gravity, the application and control of heat, mechanical subdivision of drugs, and methods of solution and separation, together with a classification and description of the various plant-products and solvents used in pharmacy.

Part II. treats of Practical Pharmacy. This involves a study of the official galenical preparations, together with the many operations of the dispensing-counter. It has been the author's aim to explain as clearly as possible the various processes and apparatus met with in this department, and to point out difficulties likely to be encountered, as well as the remedies therefor. All suggestions made have been tried and verified by the author before offering them, so that statements made are based on actual experience.

Part III. is devoted to Pharmaceutical Chemistry, the study of which is of paramount importance to every pharmacist. While the subject is a very comprehensive one, and undoubtedly entitled to an extensive treatise, it has been confined, in this work, to such compounds as are either officially recognized in the United States Pharmacopeia, or are of special interest to pharmacists.

By a careful analysis of the working formulas of the Pharmacopoeia it has been thought possible to render that excellent book more useful to students as well as pharmacists in general. The Pharmacopoeia contains a number of valuable tests and assay methods which are unintelligible to the average reader, but which can be made available and interesting by a series of explanations. As such explanations have thus far not been offered in any of the treatises on pharmacy in the English language, the attempt has been made to supply this want.

This book is pre-eminently intended to be one of instruction and an aid in the study and use of the Pharmacopoeia. The object constantly in view was to answer, if possible, the many questions of why and wherefore with which students and practising pharmacists are almost daily confronted. To what extent the writer has been successful in this direction must be left to the judgment of the pharmaceutical profession. He is fully aware that imperfections must of necessity exist in a work covering so extended a field of study, and he hopes that those better able to judge will kindly inform him of any apparent or real defects, so that they may be rectified in a subsequent edition, should such ever be demanded.

The author desires to express his warmest acknowledgments to his friends, A. D. Clark and J. P. Piquett, for valuable suggestions and aid in proof-reading, to all parties who kindly furnished drawings and electros for purposes of illustration, and to the publishers' who have spared neither expense vor labor to bring the typography, engravings, and general outfit of the book up to the fullest requirements.

CHARLES CASPARI, JR.

BALTIMORE, September, 1895.

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Sources of Heat. Apparatus for Generating Heat. Apparatus for Regu-

lating Heat. Apparatus for Measuring Heat. Boiling-point. Melting-

point.

CHAPTER V.

MECHANICAL SUBDIVISION OF DRUGS

Grinding of Drugs. Drug-mills. Sifting. Trituration.
Elutriation. Precipitation. Reduction. Granulation.

Levigation.

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