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422 Reflektions on the Fervency of the Love of CHRIST. Sect. 168.a Devotion suitable to the distinguished Solemnity will not drink of the Fruit Luke XXII. which you have now before you: For I say unto of the Vine, until the King

dom of God shall come. you, that after what passes this Evening, I will not 18.

drink any more with you of the Fruit of the Vine,
until the Kingdom of GOD come, and that com-
pleat and spiritual Redemption which is typified
by this Ordinance shall be fulfilled and perfected.


V E may well assure ourselves, that the same Divine Penetration, Luke xxii. W and Prophetic Discernment, which enabled the Blessed Yesus, 10,–13.

thus circumstantially to foretell to his Disciples those most contingent Occurrences, which were to determine the place where they should prepare the Passover, would also open to him a Prospect of all that was to follow. All the Scenes, that were to be passed thro' on this fatal Night, and the succeeding black and bloody Day, were, no doubt, attentively viewed: The Agony of the Garden, the traiterous Kiss of Yudas, the cowardly Flight of all the other Apostles, the Insults of his seemingly victorious and successful Enemies, the clamorous Accusations, the infolent Buffetings, the Scourges, the Thorns, the Nails, the Cross, and all that he was to endure upon it from the Hand of God, and Men. Yet behold, with all these in his View, he goes on with a holy Alacrity, and this

Sun of Righteousness rejoiceth as a Champion to run his Race! (Psal. xix. 5.) Ver. 15. Yea, when he is fitting down to the Paschal Supper, (tho therein was

exhibited, in a most lively Emblem, the Bitterness of his own Sufferings,) he utters thefe gracious and emphatical Words, With Defire I have desred

to eat this Passover with you, before I suffer. John xiñ. 1. So justly might it be said of him, as we see it is, that having loved his

own, which were in the World, he loved them to the End. Oh Blessed Jesus, may the Ardour, the Courage, and the Permanency of our Love to thee, bear at least some little Proportion to that, wherewith thou hast conde

scended to love us! May we long, from Time to Time, to celebrate with Luke xxii. thee that Christian Passover, which thou hast ordained to fucceed the 16, 18.

Jewish, as the Memorial of thy Sacrifice! Yea, may we long for the last Solemnity of this Kind, which will e'er long come, after which we Mall no more drink with thee of the Fruit of the Vine, till it be fulfilled in the Kingdom of GOD! In the mean Time, may we be cheared with thy Love, which is indeed far better than Wine ; (Cant. i. 3.) and thus supported with those reviving Cordials, which thy Gospel administers, may we keep ourselves in the Love of GOD, and in the patient Expectation of thy final most glorious and welcome Appearance ! (2 Thel. iii. 5. and I ude, ver, 21.)


The Disciples at Supper contend who should be greatest. 423

CHRIST rebukes the Ambition, which bis Disciples most un-

feasonably expressed as they were fitting down to Supper, by
washing their Feet, and adding several excellent Admoni-
tions to the Exercise of Humility, immediately before the
eating of the Paschal Lamb. Luke XXII. 243-----27.
John XIII. 2,-3,----17.
John XIII, 2.-

John XIII. 2.
AND Supper being end- NOW when our Lord had thus fate down to eat Sect. 169.

I the Passover with his Disciples, as was said 9. R.A24.

before, Supper being come (a), and the Antepast or Joh. XIII.2..

Introduction to it having been dispatched, as above; LUKE XXII. 24.—There Just in the Interval between that, and the serving Luke XXII. wasallo a Strite among them; up the Paschal Lamb, there was a most unseason- 24..



(a) Supper being come. J The Reasons brought by Bishop Kidder, (in his Demonstration of the Meffiah, part iii. chap. 3. pag. 60, 61.) by Dr. Lightfoot, (Hor. Heb. on Mat. xxvi. 6.) and since by Dr. Whitby, (in his Notes on this place, to prove that this Supper was not the Palover, but another Supper at Bethany a Night or two before, I have briefly obviated in the Paraphrafe or Notes on the Places on which they are grounded ; and therefore cannot think it material to trouble the Reader with a particular Detail of them. The chief Reasons, which determine me to the contrary Opinion, (besides fome others, of which a good Summary is given in Dr. Guyse's valuable Note on this place,) are these : Such a Difposition of the Story best suits several of the Circumstances of the Paschal Supper ; (particularly, the contention about Superiority, and the Enquiry about Judas, both which must'on the other Hypothesis have been superseded ;) and the Propriety of it is especially evinced from John xiii. 38. where our Lord says to Peter, The Cock mall not crow, till thou haft denied me thrice; which must be spoken the very Night Jefus was betrayed, and yet is so connected with this Story of washing the Disciples Feet by ver. 21. and ver. 31. that they cannot without great Violence be separated : And it is certain, Hobn xiii. 1. will have a peculiar Energy according to this Plan ; which therefore moft Criticks have followed. The Reader will obserye here, that I have rendered LATVS v svouevo, Supper being come ; which is the Sense, in which the Word is often used elsewhere: Thus John xxi. 4. mpolas gevopsyns is when Morning was come; Aets xii. 18. xvi. 35. muepos 7&vousuns, when Day was come ; and Aets xxi. 40. oigns y evolue uns, when Silence was made : In all which Places, and in many more, that might calily be collected from the Greek Writers, it would be absurd to translate the Word ended. Nay, Luke iv. 42. 9 EVOLEYNS nuspos signifies when the Day was. coming on. (Compare Mark i. 35. Note (f), Vol. i. pag. 214.) It is indeed an ambiguous. Term ; but the Rendering above is here to be preferred, (1.) Because it was much more natural to wash the Feet of Guests before, than after Supper. (2.) Because it is expressly said in ver. I. to have been done before the Pallover ; which, if the preceding Reason be admitted, determines the Point. (3.) Because Part of the Discourse, which John mentions as happening after the Feet were wasbed, is mentioned by the other Evangelists, as passing at: Supper ; nay, John himself, when he speaks in ver. 26. of Christ's dipping the Sop, and give. ing it to Judas. after this, plainly lhews that Supper was not ended.

(b) There



ings had gi

424 CHRIST rises from Supper, and washes their Feet :
Sect. 169. able Contention among them (b), as they fate at Ta- which of them hould be ac-
w ble with Jesus, which of them Mould be accounted the counted the greatest
Luke XXII.

greatest, in that Kingdom of which he had been
speaking, and which they interpreted of a Tempo
ral Dominion to succeed his approaching Sufferings.

(Compare Mark ix. 34. and Luke ix. 46. pag. 18.) John XIII. [And] upon this, tho' Jesus knew, that the Father John XIII. 3. [And] Je

by the fure Engagements of an immutable Co- fus knowing that the Father venant had given the Government of all I

had given all Things into into his Hands, and that he was just going to in- come from God. and went

his Hands, and that he was vest him with all Power both in Heaven and to God, upon Earth; and that as he came forth from GOD as his Messenger to Men, so be was returning to GOD again ; yet conscious as he was of so great a Dignity, he was nevertheless willing to give his Disciples an Example of the deepest Humility in this his last Interview with them before his Passion: With this Design, 4 He riseth from Supper, and in order to shame them out of their ambitious and laid aside his Garments, Contention, in a more forcible Manner than any

and took a Towel, and gird

ed himfelf.
Words alone could do, be riseth from Supper (c);
and whereas it was only usual for the Head of the
Family at such a Time to wash his own Hands,
he lays aħde bis upper Garments, and taking a
Towel, tied it round him like a Kind of Apron.


(6) There was a Contention among them.] If the Reasoning above be allowed, we must certainly transpose Luke's Account of this contention about Superiority; for none can ima. gine, it should follow immediately after Chrift had been giving them so affectiug a Lesson of Humility. But Luke seems less exact in the Order of this story, than the other Evangelifts; and particularly, relates what passed concerning the Person that was to betray him, after the Eucharist, thoboth Matthew and Mark place it before. As the latter Part of ver. 2. in this Chapter of John comes in by way of Parenthesis, I have transposed it, to introduce what relates to Judas in the next Section ; a Freedom, which will, I hope, be easily excused.

(c) He riseth from Supper.] As it is here asserted, that Christ rose from Supper, we mult allow, that, in some Sense, Supper was begun, that is, as I suppose, the Antepast had been taken, which is mentioned by the Jews as preceding the Paschal Lamb; (see Ainsworth's Note quoted above, Note (e), pag. 420.) They tell us, that is was then usual for the Master of the Family to wala bis Hands; and if I'am rightly informed, the Jews continue the Custom still. This seems a more natural Manner of explaining the Clause before us, than to suppose with Grotius, or Voffius, (Harm. Evang. lib. i. cap. 14. §. i.) or Dr. Ed wards, (Exercit, on Luke xxii. 21.) that after the Paschal Lamb they eat another distinct Supper ; and that this washing happened in the Interval between them. Tho'Voffius is plealed to call this a very little Lamb, (unus Agniculus,) I cannot but think, (especially confidering how early the Ewes yean in Judea,) that it might be big enough plentifully to sup Thirteen People ; and as all which remained uneaten till Morning was to be burnt, (Exod. xii. 10.) one cannot suppose, that our Lord would be inclined to multiply Dishes on this Occalion, especially as the former Part of the Night was to be spent in Watching and Prayer.

(d) He

But Peter is unwilling he should wash his Feet... 425 5 After that, he poureth And then pouring Water into a large Ewer, or Sect. 169. Water into a Baron; and Sort of Cistern commonly used on these Occasions, w began to wash the Disciples Feet, and to wipe them with he began himself to wash the Feet of bis Disciples, omn adale the Towel wherewith he and to wipe (them) after they were thus washed, was girded.

with the long Ends of the Linen Cloth with which

he was girded, which hung down to his Feet. 6 6 Then cometh he to Sic Then, when he had done with those who sate mon Peter : and Peter saith nearest to him, he comes to Simon Peter : and offerunto him, Lord, dost thou

ing to do the like for him, Peter was so affected wash my Feet ?

at his condescending to perform such a mean Of-
fice, that he says to him, "Lord, dost thou go about
to wash my Feet? It is a thousand times fitter, that

I should wash thine ; nor can I bear to see thee 9 Jesus answered and said demean thyself thus. Jesus answered and said unto him, What I do, thou to him, Thou knowelt not now the Design of what knowelt not now; but thou I am doing, but thou malt know hereafter ; and shalt know hereafter,

as I shall presently explain the Meaning of this
Action, so the Time will quickly come, when
many other Things in mine Undertaking and

Conduct, much more mysterious than this, shall
8 Peter faith unto him, be cleared up to thee. Yet still Peter refuf- &
Thou Ihalt never wash my ed, and said to him with more Warmth than be- ï
Feet. Jesus answered him,
If I wash thee not, thou hast

my fore, Lord, whatever be the Intent of the Acno Part with me.

tion, I cannot suffer it by any Means, and am de-
termined thou shalt never was my Feet. But ye-
sus answered him, Alas, Peter,' that was rathly
spoken; for there is a Sense, in which if I do not
wash thee, thou hast no Portion with me; intima-
ting thereby, that if he were not cleansed from
Sin by his Blood and Spirit, he could never par-
take of the Happiness of his People ; and that,

in the mean time, it became him to submit in 9 Simon Peter faith unto this Instance to his Direction. Upon which him, Lord, not my Feet

Simon Peter, struck with so awful an Admonition,
only, but also my Hands and
my Head.

immediately says to him, with that eager Affection
so natural to his Temper, Lord, if this Washing
is to be a Token of my Interest in thee, I most
gladly acquiesce in it, and am heartily desirous
that thou shouldst wash, not my Feet only, but also
my Hands and my Head too; for I desire, that all
my intellectual, and all my executive Powers may
be fanctified by thy Grace, and be entirely de-
voted to thy Service.
Vol. II.


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426 He explains his Design, and cautions them against Ambition. Sect. 169. Then Jesus, willing to lay hold on a Hint, 10 Jesus faith to him, He m w hich gave him an opportunity of pursuing so that is washed, needeth not,

fave to wash his feet, but is St. useful a Thought, says further to him, He that clean eyery whit: and ye

is washed already, or that has just been bath- are clean, but not all.
ing (d), needs only to wash his Feet, which may
indeed easily be soiled by the shortest Walk, and
when that is done, he is entirely clean ; as if he
should have said, The truly good Man needs not
that deep Repentance, and universal Change,
which is absolutely necessary to others ; tho' he
should by renewed Acts of Penitence and Faith
be cleansing himself from smaller Pollutions,
which are in some Degree inseparable from the
Infirmity of Human Nature : Ånd in this Sense,
I know, that you, my Apostles, are clean ; but
yet I must add, you are not all fo. For as 11 For he knew who
he was acquainted with the secret Difpofitions of should betray him; there-
their Hearts, so he knew who would

fore said he, Ye are not all
(compare John vi. 64. Vol. i. pag. 513.) and
therefore he said, You are not all clean (e) i be-
cause he knew, the Heart of Judas was polluted
with reigning Sin, and was so far enslaved under
the Power of the Devil, as to have consented to

the Perpetration of the vileft Wickedness. 12 When therefore he had thus washed their Feet, 12 So after he had washed , and bad taken bis upper Garments, and put them their Feet, and had taken on, be late down at the Table again, and said to down again,' he faid unto

his Garments, and was set them, Do you know the Meaning and Design of them, Know ye what I have

what I have now been doing to you in the Form of done to you? Luke XXII. a Servant? And to explain the Matter be said "Lure XXII. 25. And 25. to them, I must again remind you of what I for- he said unto them, The



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(d) He that has been bathing.] This rendering of the Word Xenxuev@ is confirmed by Elsner, ( Obferv. vol. i. pag. 337, 338. ) and gives as it were a compendious Paraphrase upon it. Clarius has well observed, that as the anod ulnplov, or Room in which they dressed themselves after bathing, was different from that in which they bathed, the Feet might be fo soiled in walking from one to the other, as to make it necessary immediately to wash them again.

(e) You are not all clean.) Some have observed, that Judas did not decline the Honour of having his Feet washed by Chrift, tho' Peter did; and have considered it as an Instance of his Pride. But if the Discourse between Christ and Peter bappened before he came to Judas, it had been indecent for Judas to renew an Objection, which had just been thus overruled : And if Christ came to Judas before Peter, he might be unwilling to be the first to dispute the Point, lest Christ should confound him, by enquiring whether he declined it from a Consciousness of any peculiar Unworthiness.' Guilt naturally suggests such Suspicions and Precautions.

(f) Have

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