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• hedgehogs or.,' and also used the hedgehog as his crest. The four hedgehogs are now inherited by his grandson, the present Earl of Malmesbury. An elder member of the same numerous family of the sons of our English Harry, suggested an equally recondite etymology of the surname Harrison, by bearing as his arms 'a hare by a sheaf of rye in the sun.' (Camden, Remaines, p. 166. ed. 1614.)
We must speak of another little creature which Evans mentions before Justice Shallow. The dozen louses do become an
old coat well: it agrees well passant: it is a familiar beast to ''
man, and signifies love. Now the name Lucy was Lousy, as some folks miscalled it in Shakespeare's time; and we think that the word Lus in Lusborough, and in other names found in old Anglo-Saxon charters, has been equally misunderstood to mean lus, pediculus. Let us see over how wide an area names containing this word lus are now found to extend. The surnames Los, Losh, Losse, Lush, Lusby, Luscott, Luscombe, Lussemborough, Lushington, and a few others, must follow the etymological fate of the existing names of places involving this lus. They are as follows: Lusby, Luscombe, Lushcott, Lushill, Lustead; the parish of Loose ; the hundred of Loes, contained in the deanery of Loose; the hundred of Loosebarrow, and Lurborough or Loxborough *, all in England ; Luss in Scotland; and Lush and Lushmagh in Ireland. The existence of such words as names of places in Scotland and Ireland, as well as in England, suggests for them all a common origin of the first syllable. That common origin cannot be Saxon. We have no doubt that it is Gaelic. Lus is still preserved in the Gaelic of Ireland, and in that of the highlands of Scotland, and means weed, herb, plant, flower. Some names of places in England are found in the Anglo-Saxon charters, and in modern times, compounded of words denoting, not merely specific plants, as Fern, Rush, Reed, Sedge, Moss; but of the generic word for herbs or weeds, as Wyrtden, Wyrtwal. On these data, it seems clear that the above names of persons and places are all equally derivable from the Gaelic lus, and may therefore be added to the small list of words still found in England, and best explained by the Gaelic language.
The combination of Gaelic and Danish in Lusby, and of
* Lusheburghs alias Luxemburghs,' was the name of pieces of base money coined at 'Lusheburgh: see Stat. 25. Ed. 3., st. 5. c. 2. Lord Coke's commentary, and the prologue to the Monk's tale in Chaucer.
† Similarly we have Wortesley, Wortley, and probably Wordsworth.
Gaelic and Saxon in some of the other words, may be compared with the combination of British and Saxon in Nantwich, and in the proper name Nanton. The word Nant (a ravine, a mountain torrent, a brook) enters into the composition of the names of many places in Wales and in France.
The mineral and vegetable kingdoms furnish a considerable variety of names to the lords of the creation. A few instances of this will suffice. To represent the mineral kingdom, we may nominate Bishop Jewel, Mr. Steele, and Mr. Salt; as well as the mineral treasures which the German emperor, Ferdinand II., was said to possess in his three lofty mountains, Questenberg, Werdenberg, and Eggenberg; and his three precious stones, Dietrichstein, Lichtenstein, and Wallenstein. Prussia, in the time of her greatest need, found such treasures in her Hardenberg and Stein. The present King of Prussia has a Stahl in his ministry. In England our metallic treasures are called to mind by Gold and Goldsmith*, Silver, Lcad, Leadbeater, Brass, and Brazier ; by Money, and even by many coins, such as Groat or Grote, Penny (with Pennyman, Hawkepenny, and other similar derivatives), Twopenny, Halfpenny, Farthing. These latter names deserve to be compared with the German Schelling, Gröschel, Heller, and Pfennig. Perhaps some of our existing Marks, Nobles, and Angels may have their origin in the metallic currency of a former age.
The vegetable kingdom presents, as a representative peer, Archibald John Primrose, Earl of Rosebery; and as commoners, Lilly, the English grammarian, and Roses in great abundance. In every country of Europe the Rose has given its name, not merely to pretty women, such as fair Rosamund, Rose Bradwardine, and many a French Rosine, and German Röschen, but to numerous families. Sir George Rose in London, and Professor Rose in Berlin, bear a surname now common in England and Germany; and which equally belongs to France and Italy, to the Spanish and Scandinavian peninsulas, to Wallachia and Poland, and probably at the present day to Russia. In the case of the Roses of Poland, the name must have been taken from the roses which they bore in their coat of arms long before they had the name. The Griffons, Oxenstierns, and other Polish families, must also have taken their names from the arms which they severally bore long before hereditary surnames were known in their country. Sometimes this surname, Rose, may have originated in a woman's name; and in such cases comes
· Aurifaber,' occurs frequently as a surname in the Fine Rolls in the time of King John.
indirectly only from the flower. Our old forest trees have given their names to families of Ash, Oak, Elm, Beech, Birch, Alder, Elder, Aspen, Poplar, Maple, Hazel. The Willow appears in Willoughby; the lime-tree in Lind, Lindley, and Lindsey; the sloe in Slow, Slowburn, and Slocombe : Hips and Haws, in Hipsley, Hippesley, Hawdon, and Hawley: the Thorn in many compounds : and the Pine in one solitary name, although the Fir and Larch do not appear. It is remarkable, as Dr. Leo has observed, that in the names of places found in the Anglo-Saxon charters, no mention should occur of a single species of Pinus. or Abies. The Germans have both Fichte and von der Tann as surnames. Some herbs and grasses which are found in surnames have already been alluded to. Caerse, cress (nasturtium) is apparent in Cressey, Cresacre, Creslow, Cressingham, Cresswell, and Creswick. From fruit, and fruit trees, we have the family names of Apple and Pear, Cherry and Peach, Crab and Crabtree, Plum and Plumtree; but Apricot and Nectarine, Strawberry and Raspberry, still belong to Pomona only.
Cereals have long flourished in Wheat, Wheaton, and Whately; in Bere, the old name of Sir John Barleycorn's family; in some derivatives from this old name already mentioned, in speaking of the Bear, in Oates, and in Riley and Rycroft. Though our Beans cannot be compared with the great Fabiun house, or with the Piso, the Cicero, or the Lentulus of Rome, yet Bean and Pease, and Peascod, have at least great antiquity in Europe, and have thus been enabled as surnames to found families. The great tribe of the Potato having immigrated into the Old World since surnames became hereditary, have been obliged to keep their name to themselves; and, unlike Pepper, Peppercorn, and other foreigners, have not succeeded in bestowing their name upon a single English family. In this they resemble the Physician and the Surgeon ; who, for centuries now past, have been unable to take their place in the family nomenclature of England, by the side of those elder branches of the descendants of Æsculapius, the Leach, and the Pothecary.
VII. The seventh class consists of names derived from the celestial hierarchy. Man, in choosing his family names, has not confined himself to the narrow sphere of this visible created world. To enlarge his vocabulary he passed the flaming bounds * of space and time,' and ventured to adopt names taken from the whole hierarchy of Heaven. Not content, as the ancient Pagans were, with derivative names, such as Apollonius from Apollo, Poseidonius from Poseidon, Athenæus from Athene, Demetrius from Demeter, the Christians of the middle ages ag
sumed, as their surnames, the very name of God the Father, the Son, or the Holy Ghost, and those of eminent saints and martyrs of the church. Among other such names, the Germans and the French have Herrgott and Heiland, Dieu, St. Sauveur, St. Antoine, St. Ange. More southern countries have De Jesus, De Santa Maria, and even Jesus Maria, as surnames. A German, Herrgott, is well known as the author of a learned genealogical work, and Colonel Dieu has been actively engaged in giving his professional aid to the cause of the Allies now at war with Russia.
In England, the gods and goddesses of the classical mythology of Greece and Rome have not bestowed their names on men. Even in Italy, where per Bacco! is still a common oath, and where classical names were frequently assumed in the 16th century, but few names have been taken from the ancient classical mythology. Our Bacchus has an indisputable, and at the same time truly indigenous, origin : it is merely a corruption of Bakehouse. So Malthouse has been changed into Malthus, Dovehouse into Duffus, Lofthouse into Loftus, and Barkhouse into Barkus.
But although our nomenclature has not borrowed from the mythology of Greece or Rome, yet before the Conquest names were bestowed in England, involving those of the Supreme Deity and of inferior members of the celestial hierarchy of the popular faith. Some of the oldest words now used as surnames in England, were proper names during centuries of that pagan and early christian period. Goddard, Godfrey, and Godwin, belong to this class. Inferior persons in the hierarchy of the old Northern mythology are found in other proper names, which are perpetuated in existing English surnames; for instance, Os is found in the following derivatives, -Osbert, Oswin, Osborne, Osgood, Osman, Osmond, Oswald, Oswell. The surname Godsall, which seems to us to have its origin in a word of very high antiquity, has been supposed to come from an oath · By God's soul, used in England after the Conquest.f We have no doubt that Godsall is formed from Godschalk. The latter syllable, schalk, is servus, servant or attendant. The words marshall in England, maréchal in French, mariscalco in Italian and Spanish, have an analogous origin from the old High German marah-scale, cabal
Probably Professor Pallas owed his name to a corruption of Palast or some other northern source, and not to Pallas Athene.
† Lower, vol. i. p. 238., referring to the fact that Edward III. used on his shield and surcoat, the motto,
Hay, hay, the wythe swan,
• larius.' Godsall, therefore, has the same meaning as the common Arabic name Abd-Allah, servant of God. Among the followers of the Prophet, the word Abd, or servant, is thus used in names, not only in composition with Allah, but in composition with any of the adjectives which express the special attributes of the Deity. Thus we have Abd-el-Kader, servant of the Almighty, Abd-el-Medschid, servant of the worthy of glory.
Such a compound name is also common among the Hindoos. Durga-dâsa (servant of Durga), Kali-dása, Ganga-dâsa, Nandadása, Râma-dása, &c. Sometimes the very names of Krishna, Rama, Siva, &c., are bestowed on Hindoo children, from a belief that a repetition of the names of the gods is meritorious, ' and operates like fire in consuming sin.' The established epithets of the different deities of the Hindoo mythology are bestowed with equal liberality as names; for instance, Gadâdhara,
the mace-holder,' an epithet of Krishna ; Gangadhara, the • holder of Ganga,' an epithet of Siva. • The Ganges in its . descent first alighted on the head of Siva, and continued for some time entangled in his hair.'
One of the days of the week, Wednesday, is named from the old god Odin or Woden, and his name is still found in that of many places in England; one of them, Wódnesbeorg, became Wanborough. A corresponding existing surname is Wansbrough. Wish is the English form of one of the names of Odin (Kemble, Anglo-Saxons, i. 345.), and several names of places in England appear to be compounded with this name. The surname Wishart may also have been formed from it.
Thor, from whom we have Thursday, is found plainly enough in many existing surnames derived from localities.
To compare with the Scandinavian Thorwaldsen, we have our surnames Thoresby, Thurlow, Thursby, Homerton, and Hamerton.*
The ancient proper name Frewin, still preserved as a surname, is manifestly as old as the worship of Freá. Frewin corresponds entirely in form with Godwin and Oswin. We have obtained from the same worship not only the name of our Friday, but that of Fridaythorpe, à place in Yorkshire. Two other places named from Freá are found in Anglo-Saxon charters of the
Saturday is so called from the god Saetere, whose name is retained by several localities in England. An English surname derived from one of such localities, is Satherthwaite, sometimes spelt Satterthwaite.
* Hamer is one of the names by which Thor was known in Germany. J. Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, p. 166.