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Although, as we have seen, Godsall does not involve any oath, yet the ancient name Bigod, appears to have arisen from the receiver’s habit of taking God's name in vain, 'for so (Bigod)
the Frenchmen called the Normans *, because at every other ' word they would swear by God.' (Camden.) So in modern times Frenchmen have sometimes replaced the ordinary generic name of Jean Bull' by Jean Gottam.'
Some other old English, and at least analogous names, may have had a like origin with Bigod. Pardew and Pardoe, Godbody, Olyfader, Bodkin t, Blood and Death. Among surnames of the class now under consideration, we have in England St. John and St. Leger, which, as if ashamed of so using such names, we corrupt in pronunciation into Sinjohn and Silleger. When the id surname had the prefix de, as in de Saint Pierre or de Sainte Pelaye, it denoted a mere locality, and was not more profane than such local names as St. James' Park or St. John's Wood.
VIII. The above classes contain the bulk of the names novy in use in England ; there remains only one considerable class on which we have not touched. It is the class of different foreign names which, at various epochs since the Conquest, have been imported into England by immigrants, not only from Scotland and Ireland, but from most of the countries of Europe. It would be easy to point out different epochs at each of which the greatest influx of such foreigners into England has taken place. The first of such epochs was under the Plantagenet dynasty, when the intercourse between the inhabitants of England and those of the continental possessions of the English monarchs, was so considerable. Most places in Normandy had given rise to surnames in England from the time of the Conquest. From other places , were received, in the course of centuries, not only innumerable individual names, but national ones, such as Alman, Almayne, Dalmaine, Janeway (Genoa). Bret, Britain, Burgin, Burgoyne, Dane, Flanders, Fleming, Franceis, Gaskin, Gascoyne, Hanway (Hainault), Norman, Pickard (Picard) $, Lambert, Lombard, Loring (Lothringer), Poitevin, Sterling (Easterling), Wallis,
* Compare Wace, Roman de Rou, vol. ii. p. 71. Mult out Franceis · Normanz laidiz, E de mefaiz e de mediz, Sovent lor dient reproviers, • E claiment bigoz et draschiers.'
+ Contracted from the second word in the oath 'Ods-bodikin.
† From the oaths ’S”blood, (God's blood), and S’death (God's death).
§ Edward IV., as I have heard' says Camden, 'loving some whose name was Picard, would often tell them that he loved them well, but not their names, whereupor. some of them changed their names.'
Walsh, Wales, Scot, Scotland, Ireland, Baden, Holland, Schweitzer, France, Spain, Poland, Polack, Finn, Phinn. Such words plainly indicate the countries from which the nominal founders of the families came.
Of the above names a few occur in the Domesday survey, more are found under the princes of the house of Plantagenet, and some are of comparatively recent importation. Thus to bestow upon the foreigner the mere name of his nation, was not perhaps at any time very complimentary on the part of the proud islanders who received him among them. It is thus that the Greeks and Romans used commonly to designate their slaves. Davus or Syrus, Thrax or Geta, Phryx or Lydus. Sometimes each was called by a name very common in his own country; a Phrygian, Manes or Midas, a Paphlagonian, Tibius, a Syrian, Dama.
German names of recent importation are quite numerous enough, in London alone, to admit of a classification similar to that which we have made of English surnames. Of such German Dames, derived from localities only, a long catalogue might be made. The termination in er denotes sometimes locality, as in Hamburger, Bamberger, Ehrenzeller, and Schneeberger; sometimes an occupation, as in Bauer, Cramer, Koehler, Kocher, Schleiermacher.
The directories of Manchester and Liverpool show how large a proportion of the surnames found in both those places, have an Irish, or Scottish, or, at the latter place, a Welsh origin. At the former place are many recently imported from Germany. The names of shopkeepers in some streets in London, prove how large are the additions which the London Onomasticon' is now receiving from different continental sources.*
Occasionally the foreign name is dropped altogether. Thus the German Klein has been known to become the stem from which English Littles have sprung. Sometimes the Anglicising process is effected by corruption of the original name into an English word of similar sound; thus Tolner became Turner in
• In Regent Street alone there is an enormous proportion of foreign names nearly all very recently imported into England. Muurigy, Roux, Ferraro, Du Barry, Arias, Norra, Mirza, Claudet, Grosjean, Vieyres and Repingon, Defries, Aubert and Klaftenberger, • Schott & Co.,' Duvelleroy, Akerman, Euders, Gautier, Isidore, Baillière, Baumgart, Nevers, Leprince, Helbronner, Duclos, Causse, Lecomte, Losada, Azur, Verey, Baum, Emary, Armand, Sanguinetti, Driou, Barbe, Norchi, Thierry, Fosset and Wenkheim' Jugla, Le Roy, Henneman, Petit, Debacker, Forrer, Lehocq, Marion, Futvoye, Piver and Lauvergnat,' Jullien, Houbigant, Castrique, Rossi, Viault, Beyer, Hubert, Leroy.
the case of an organ maker, who at his death was described as · Henry Tolner, alias Turner, buried Sept. 9. 1730,' and whose son, called Turner only, was afterwards organist at St. John's College, Cambridge. A Dutchman, Groenvelt
, for many years university printer at Cambridge, Anglicised his name to Crownfield, which was afterwards borne by his son, vice-president of Queen's College in that university. An ingenious whitesmith, a native of Lausanne, called Gracon, and who hardly spoke English, translated his uncouth French name, which few could pronounce,' into Jackson, which name alone was used by his descendants.
It is mainly in London and in a few large commercial places, that this great recent influx of foreigners is found. The family nomenclature of country districts has but slightly changed since the revolution of 1688. The sources of personal surnames throughout all England, town and country, are, however, as we have seen, numerous and varied ; and the multifarious origin of such surnames corresponds in some degree with that of the English people. Many centuries have passed since the ancient Norman, and the more recent Saxon surnames, had equally be come hereditary; and although existing surnames may still indicate, to the intelligent, a diversity of station and origin among their first bearers, yet that diversity has long ceased to be of any practical importance.
We regret that neither time nor space will allow us now to compare the history of surnames in Ireland and in the Scottish highlands, with that of surnames in England; possibly we may recur to the subject at some future time. In the meanwhile, in closing our survey of the main divisions of the English family nomenclature, we cannot help feeling that we have been, to some extent, noting the various sources from which the AngloSaxon race has received its full and mature growth, and has been enabled to go forth conquering and to conquer a new hemisphere and a southern world. In the course of another century that great race, extending the blessings of civilisation and laying sure foundations of free institutions in new worlds, will have planted there every class of surnames that took root in England between the conquest of 1066 and the revolution of 1688. Such names have already spread with the growth of the United States of North America, from the St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean; and they will soon be diffused throughout the Australian continent. We hardly need apologise to our readers for inviting them, as we have done, to survey in some detail the varied sources of that English family nomenclature which is destined to spread over so large a part of the whole world.
ART. IV. - 1. Report on Criminal and Destitute Children.
Parl. Blue Book. 1852. 2. Report on Criminal and Destitute Children. Parl. Blue
Book. 1853. 3. Acts for the better Care and Reformation of Young Offenders.
Nos. 237. and 279. Ordered to be printed, 1854. 4. Reformatory Schools. By Miss CARPENTER. London :
1852. 5. Juvenile Delinquents. By Miss CARPENTER. London: 1853. 6. Report of a Conference held at Birmingham (Dec. 1851) on
the Subject of Preventive and Reformatory Schools. 7. Rapport sur les Etablissements d'Education Correctionelle de
jeunes Detenus. Par M. De PERSIGNY. Paris: 1854. 8. Treatment of Criminal Children. Report of the Society for
the Amendment of the Law. London: 1854. 9. Essays on Juvenile Delinquency. London : 1854. IN N a recent Number we developed at some length a system
for the treatment and disposal of the adult criminal population, by the adoption and efficient enforcement of which we were sanguine enough to liope for the immediate reduction of that population as a special class ; for the restoration, that is, of the individuals composing it to respectable society and honest industry, under certain conditions, and in some quarter of the world. We have now to call attention, as briefly as the topic will allow, to the point which, in our previous paper, we reserved for separate consideration, the mode, namely, of cutting off that constant supply of juvenile delinquents, by which the community of adult criminals is perennially supplied. It would be a hopeless and endless labour to be drafting off or rescuing the host of confirmed offenders, unless we could at the same time check or destroy the source whence recruits are hourly pressing in to fill the vacancies created. We must rescue the young, as well as reform and redeem the old.
For more than two generations--ever since, indeed, attention had been awakened and reflection aroused upon the matter, Do Judge of unblunted sensibility ever presided over an Assize, no Magistrate of ordinary feelings of compassion or rectitude ever sat at Quarter Sessions, without having to pass sentences which revolted his humanity and lay very heavy on his conscience. Children were repeatedly brought for trial, of twelve, of ten, of seven years of age, --so small that they had to be lifted
up in the arms of the gaoler before the Jury or the Bench could see them, --so young that it was impossible for any one really to regard them as responsible moral agents, or proper victims of the law, — conscious, indeed, that they were in a state of hosti. lity with the community at large, but scarcely conscious of guilt in being 80 — of whom it was notorious that they were
so trained to depredation, acting under parental authority, and often under parental threats. Their guilt was undeniable; the necessity of stopping them in the career of such guilt undeniable too; the propriety of punishing such guilt, according to received notions, equally indisputable. Judge and magistrate knew perfectly well that to whip these wretched infants, and then turn them back upon their homes, was to inflict wholly gratuitous and unprofitable suffering - was simply to restore them to a course of inevitable crime, to be re-commenced on the morrow, with greater caution, perhaps, but with added skill.* Judge and Magistrate knew, also, that to send them to prison for the crime, and in the manner allotted by law to the offence of which they were convicted, was to ensure their coming out, after a short detention, confirmed and hardened disciples of iniquity, finished graduates in crime, with their tastes immoveably fixed, and their profession irrevocably settled,-every lingering remnant of good extinguished, every latent seed of evil developed and fostered. No one ever denied that it was so; no one ever doubted that it must be so: there is not, there never was, any demur or controversy as to the conclusion. Yet year by year, Session after Session, Judges and Magistrates, fathers themselves, with tears in their eyes and a heavy nightmare at their hearts, conscious they were acting wrong, knowing they were doing mischief, went on sentencing these young vagabonds to gaol, because it was their duty, or, at least, their function to do because law and fact left them no alternative.
The case we are treating now is far simpler than that with which our last Paper on the Criminal Population was concerned. We have here to deal only with acknowledged, principles with uncontroverted facts, with undeniable and undenied inferences. We have simply to arrange statements; we have no necessity to
• The same conviction on the part of the community also tends largely to the encouragement of youthful crime, — the more thoughtful and compassionate members of society constantly refusing to prosecute where the only certain result to the offender would be that he would be hardened in iniquity and cut off from all chance of reformation. See many instances of impunity arising out of this virtuous and merciful reluctance in Miss Carpenter's Juvenile Delinquents,' p. 176-179.