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missionary motive, the religious mo- or if the atmosphere is still typical, tive.
for some reason it has not seemed to The education which they dispensed function in its relation to the Negro was founded in religion and on a Bi- collegian. ble basis; and the more rigid they
It has been noted that often he rewere in this the better they appear to
turns to his peculiar field with little have builded.
or none of that old-time subordinaThese friends came largely from tion of self, with little or none of the New England centers or from West
characteristic set forth by Paul in ern centers that had been the out
Romans 12: 10, expressed in the growth of New England adventure. phrase, “in honor preferring one an Their motive, therefore, was a Puritan other”; which I think was the major inheritance.
characteristic of those immortals who
carried the chief responsibility in The best missionary educational en- Negro education in the two or three deavor among the Freedmen noted for its deeply religious tone and trying but pregnant decades immedi
ately following the Civil War. flavor.
May we not hope that progress, the It is also a striking fact that the highest academic progress if you Negro men and women who have done please, may not be incompatible with an dare doing the most effective work such an inheritance, an inheritance for the real solid betterment of their which shall be true to that missionrace are those men and women who
ary type, that educational type which were fashioned in such a forge and shall best and most gratefully memorsuch a heat.
ialize the work and sacrifice of those There has sometimes been occasion Northern white friends who lived for disappointment on account of the and wrought among us as men and apparent absence of such mettle and women sent from God, some of whom temper in many of our race men and freely laid down their lives. women of more recent years whose In our day of progress and promise training has been in academic and new friends, and of our ability atmosphere that has aparently pro- to help ourselves, God forbid that we gressed away from the Puritan type, should ever forget these noble friends.
HOW IT IS DONE IN CLEVELAND
Rev. Ferdinand Q. Blanchard, D.D.
A splendid record and example for other ctites.--Ediior. N the autumn of 1917, the city of But Cleveland has always been fore
Cleveland, found itself facing an most in its methods of co-operative ac
acute situation in the growing tion. Here was formed the first efnumber of Negroes coming to the city. fective, efficient local Federation of The movement North had been start- Churches, and here, also, was the pied in Cleveland, as in other places, by oneer movement for a complete an the direct effort of industrial organi- successful federation of all the philzations which required more help, but anthropic and charitable organizathe large opportunites which were tions of city life. It was, therefore, open to unskilled labor vastly accele- possible for Cleveland to meet its rated the tide of black labor until all Negro congestion with the help of a the usual conditions of an unexpected fully organized social spirit. The congestion in population had come in- Cleveland Welfare Association underto existence. This was aggravated took to deal with the situation. At also, of course, by the racial antagon- first this was done unofficially, and a ism between black and white.
secretary of the Federation took the
initiative simply as one interested to SURVEYS---INVESTIGATIONS meet a crying need of the city's life.
They made a survey of church condiA group of white and colored citizens tions among colored people; and recwas formed and steps
ommendations based on the findings with the assurance that the resources
made to the comity committee of the of the city could be relied upon to do Federated Churches of Cleveland what conditions required. A secre- and the Baptist City Mission Society, tary for the movement was found
are being put into effect. This will through the URBAN LEAGUE and the tend to strengthen the worthy weak Cleveland Negro Welfare Association churches and reduce the number of was duly organized. Its governing struggling congregations poorly locatboard is made up, as already said, of ed in store fronts, by merging them white and colored men and women. It into a few strong churches properly has become a constituent part of the located, and to prevent successful Welfare Federation of the city and soliciting for church enterprises exthus guided and sponsored, it has been cept by accredited institutions, and able to claim financial support from make for the formulation of such a the city's war funds and to be rec
program of church activities by the ognized as the natural agency through established churches as will provide which officials in all welfare work greater oportunity for religious activwould naturally deal with the Negro ities to new-comers and more social life in Cleveland.
work among the
young people. The secretary who was chosen, has
They made a survey of the recreaproved himself capable and efficient. tional facilities used by colored peoHe was called upon to co-operate in ple of Cleveland and urged them to such movements as the study of the make greater use of those which housing situation of the Negroes in
promote their health and happiness, Cleveland; the raising of the Liberty and co-operated with the Chamber of Loans and Victory Chest Funds, and
Commerce in conducting a housing he has commended himself at every
survey of the district bounded by turn to those who have had in charge East 55th & 9th, Cedar and Woodland either as public officials or as volun- including Holyoke and Orange. teers, in any community service.
In co-operation with the Nurse AsMore specifically the following definite sociation they investigated the homes achievements have followed the or
where day nursery care is given colganization of the Association.
ored children. A committee of Big Brothers form
They investigated colored institued to work for a decrease of delinqu- tions and individuals seeking endorseency through helpful advice and time
ments of the Welfare Federation of ly suggestions, and to assist to nor
Cleveland and of the Chamber of nal life discharged prisoners on pro- Commerce. bation or parole.
They investigated three foreign HOME ECONOMICS
corporations selling lots to colored Volunteer home visitors have established contact with the homes of people so as to prevent them being
exploited. many families and organized clubs to
They investigated and reported to promote thrift and economy, sanita
the authorities localitie swhere extra tion and cleanliness in the home, ar
police vigilance was necessary to prorangement of household furnishing tect colored citizens and prevent raand household duties and to prevent cial clash. exploitation by installment-plan sell
RECREATION ers of household goods and clothes, and to Clevelandize the new comers by They conducted community dancing, acquainting them with the Cleveland singing and athletic activities at the spirit and methods of living.
Kennard school building.
They secured the establishment of colored Red Cross Home Visitor, the the Cleveland Community Center to appointment of a colored woman as provide for soldiers and other young Probation Worker, and men recreational and other helpful Travelers Aid Worker. activities as were provided by army INFORMATION and ADVICE welfare agencies.
Conducted a bureau to furnish exThree hundred and eleven men
act data and advice to those who inhave been given home care and pro- quire for a true knowledge of the contection, employment and adjustment ditions under which Negroes are through the Center which is
forced to live and work, with facts headquarters for the activities of a
relative to this group. number of clubs and organizations.
Made our office a Bureau of InCO-OPERATION
formation and assistance for newcomEfforts made to correlate the work ers from the South, serving them of various Negro organizations so as when they needed jobs, homes, friends, to promote their efficiency, and assistance, advice, encouragement or special lines of needed welfare work adjustments of any sort. which they might do pointed out, and We have emphasized the Cleveland plans suggested by which they may way, i. e., the necessity for thrift, co-ordinate their efforts in this work. cleanliness, integrity, economy, prop
Co-operated with the American Red er dress and correct deportment Cross and other interested agencies
INDUSTRIAL in caring for and readjusting to civil
They secured introduction of colian life the colored soldiers. Co-operated with the United States employment hither-to closed to them.
ored men and women in 42 places of Employment Bureau is furnishing em
Placed 3,897 persons in jobs. ployment to colored people.
Placed three men as welfare workCo-operated with the United States
ers in industrial plants. Home Registration Service in direct
Held shop meetings and group ing applicants to approved furnished
meetings of industrial workers to rooms and vacant houses.
stabilize labor and increase its efConferred with agencies and individuals to secure recognition of col
Investigated extent of employment ored citizens in all matters effecting and efficiency of service of colored the civic, moral and industrial devel
men in industry in Cleveland as a opment of Cleveland.
basis for practical work. Organized and conducted in the 11th Ward the Red Cross Christmas foremen and key-men in large indus
Formed an organization of colored Roll Call Campaign for membership trial plants to discuss matters of muand the campaigns for sale of the Fourth Liberty Loan and the Victory dustrial unrest and reduce labor
tual interest and to work to allay inLoan.
turnover. They have handled 1047 cases main
Adjudicated differences between emof other agenices to help them. These ployer and employee and settled one cases were referred to such agencies
Conferred with employers in effort as exist, and where there was no such
to secure new opportunities in indusagency the Association has made the
try for colored people. proper adjustment. Co-operated with welfare agencies
HOUSING and institutions of the city in handl- They conducted a Room Registraing cases in which Negroes were in- tion Bureau which supplied 358 pervolved.
sons with well furnished inspected Obtained the appointment of rooms in approved surroundings.
Adjudicated differences between and guidance of 67 persons referred landlords and tenants on questions by them to the Association, provided involving rents, repair of houses and them with employment and homes in care of property.
new environments. Co-operated with the Municipal Anti-Rent Profiteering Committee and
Have organized the Social Service
round-table composed of colored soUnited States Housing Bureau in
cial workers from every field in order preventing rent profiteering.
to form a medium of exchange for HEALTH
matters of mutual interest and to They have conducted health meet- make for greater efficiency of service. ings to arouse th ecommunity to the necessity of preventing unnecessary during the past fiscal year.
Has served directly, 12,864 persons sickness, baby saving and sanitation and to acquaint new-comers with
THE OFFICE RECORD agencies existing for their relief, and January 1st to November 1st, 1919 distributed three thousand pieces of Personal Calls to the Office health literature.
...6690 Have arranged a round-table con
.. 2052 ference of representatives of the Persons for work Board of Health and colored physi- Persons placed
..3510 cians and nurses to promote health
..2526 among the colored people.
Calls for help They co-operated with the Probation Calls filled
.1163 Officer of the Municipal Court, the Cases handled
.1047 Parole Officers of the Warrensville Conferences held
..1643 Work House, the Mansfield Reforma. And the work still goes forward with tory and the Courts in the oversight increasing power.
FISK UNIVERSITY-A SCHOOL WITH HIGH STANDARDS
\HIS university was first made American Missionary Association aid
famous by the jubilee songs ed by the Western Freedmen's Aid
(the plantation melodies) Commission. The school was opened which were introduced to the world for students in January, 1866, in the through the original jubilee singers. United States army barracks. With To those who have not carefully fol. a university name, it was not a unilowed the fortunes of the school, it re-versity nor a college,; but the name mains celebrated for having introduc- was prophetic. In recent years, the ed to the public the inimitable foll institution assumed independence unsong of the American Negro, but to der the direction of trustees, though the careful student of educational in- it retains a close filial relationship stitutions Fisk University bids fair through trustees with the American to lift itself out of the ranks of mere. Missionary Association. At the beginly famous or celebrated schools and ning, it was the distinct purpose to lo enter a class of colleges that are establish for the colored people of the eminent because they maintain South an institution that should adestandards of education that are rela- quately provide for them the advantively of the highest type and which tages of Christian education to whatthey are ever consciously striving to ever extent the capacity of the race raise.
should in the future demand. This Fisk University was founded in Oc- distinctly announced purpose has been tober, 1865, under the auspices of the ever held to since. To found a gen
uine co-educational college and with students. There are 264 in the thoroughly establish among the col- strictly college department. Three ored people the conviction of the ab- hundred students who applied could solute necessity of patient, long con- rot be admitted for lack of room. Our tinued, exact, severe and comprehen- effort is to give the best of education sive work in education in preparation both through the organization of the for large responsibilities in life was work and the time of the university declared to be its true mission. Solid, for the best achievement of the sturadical and permanent results have dent. The school runs throughout the been sought in all the courses of col- year, the time being divided into four lege study, ever looking forward to terms of twelve weeks each. The stuthe full reality of the university dent as a rule concentrates upon name. Fisk is a school of possibilities three subjects at a time, reciting in to widen the intellectual horizon more each subject five times a week. Two and more, and not only to discipline hours of study at least are expected the mind, but also to cultivate it. for each hour of recitation. For the
Nashville, the home of the univer- health of the student, careful trainsity, a beautiful city in the old state ing in hygiene is given, and physical of Tennessee, is proud of its history, exercises and recreation are required and is loyal to its institutions. So six days in a week through the central is it to the field served by the Sophomore year. It is an earnest, university that 48 per cent of the strenuous life and is intended for nine million colored people in the those who sincerely wish a thorough South are within twelve hours of Fisk education which will prepare them for by train. Indeed, the geographical all the demands of educative life any. centre of Negro population in the where. In the purpose to be honest United States is within 125 miles of with the students, they are classified Nashville. It is not singular, there and reclassified until they are where fore, that Fisk is now overcrowded they can do what is to their best pos