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Mr. Bruce lays down this as a positive rule of health, that the warmest dishes the natives delight in, are the most wholesome strangers can use in the putrid climates of the Lower Arabia, Abyssinia, Sennaar, and Egypt itself; and that spirits, and all fermented liquors, should be regarded as poisons; and, for fear of temptation, not so much as be carried along with you, unless as a menftrum for outward applications. Spring, or running water, if you can find it, is to be your only drink. You cannot be too nice in procuring this article. But as, on both coasts of the Red Sea, you scarcely find any but stagnant water, the way our traveler practised was always this : when he was at any place that allowed him time and opportunity, he took a quantity of fine fand, washed it from the falt quality with which it was impregnated, and spread it upon a Meet to dry ; he then filled an oil-jar with water, and poured into it as much from a boiling kettle as would serve to kill all the animalcula and eggs that were in it. He then fifted his dried as slowly as possible, upon the surface of the water in the jar, till the sand stood half a foot in the bottom of it; after letting it fettle a night, he drew it off by a hole in the jar with a spigot in it, about an inch above the sand ; then threw the remaining sand out upon the cloth, and dried and washed it again.

This process is sooner performed than described. The water is as limpid as the purest spring, and little inferior to the finest Spa. Drink largely of this without fear, according as your appetite requires. By violent perspiration the aqueous part of your blood is thrown off; and it is not spiritous liquor can restore this, whatever momentary Arength it may give you from another cause. When hot, and almost fainting with weakness from continual perspiration, Mr. Bruce has gone into a warm bath, and been immediately restored to strength, as upon first riling in the inorning.

In Nubia, never seruple to throw yourself into the coldest river or spring you can find, in whatever degree of heat you

The reason of the difference in Europe is, that when by violence you have raised yourself to an extraordinary degree of heat, the cold water in which you plunge yourself 2.

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checks your perspiration, and shuts your pores suddenly: The medium is itself too cold, and you do not use force sufficient to bring back the perspiration, which nought but action occasioned; whereas, in these warm countries, your perspiration is natural and constant, though no action be used, only froin the temperature of the medium ; therefore, though your pores are fhut, the moment you plunge your.. self in the cold water, the simple condition of the outward air again covers you with pearls of sweat the moment you emerge ; and you begin the expense of the aqueous part of your blood afresh from the new stock that you have laid in by your emersion.

Rice and pillaw are the best food; fowls are very 'bad, eggs are worfe ; greens are not wholesome. In Arabia the mutton is good, and, when roasted, may be eaten warm with safety ; perhaps better if cold. All soups or broths are to be avoided; all game is bad.

It is a custom that, from the first ages, has prevailed in the east, to shriek and lament upon the death of a friend, or relation, and cut their faces upon the temple with their Dails, about the breadth of a sixpence, one of which is left long for that purpose. It was always practised by the Jews, and thence adopted by the Abyffinians, though expressly forbidden both by the law and the prophets. At Masuah, it seems to be particular to dance upon that occasion. The women, friends, and visitors, place themselves in a ring; then dance flowly, figuring in and out as in a country dance. This dance is all to the voice, no instrument being used upon the occasion ; only the drum (the butter jar before mentioned) is beat adroitly enough, and seems at once necessary to keep the dance and song in order. In Abyffinia, too, this is pursued in a manner more ridiculous. Upon the death of an ozoro, or any nobleman, the twelve judges, (who are generally between 60 and 70 years of age) sing the fung, and dance the figure-dance, in a manner so truly ridiculous, that grief must have taken fast hold of every fpectator who does not laugh upon the occasion,

In Masuah, it is a general custom for people to burn myrrh and incense in their houses before they open the doors in the morning; and when they go out at night, or early in the day, they have always a small piece of rag highly fumigated with these two perfumes, which they stuff into each noftri to keep them froin the unwholesome air.

Their houses are, in general, built of poles and bent grass, as in the towns of Arabia ; but, besides these, there are about twenty of stone, six or eight of which are two storeys each ; though the second seldom confifts of more than one room, and that one generally not a large one.

Situated as Masuah is, in the very entrance of Abyssinia, a very plentiful country, yet all the neceffaries of life are scarce and dear. Their quality, too, is very indifferent, This is owing to the difficulty, expense, and danger of carrying the several articles through the desert flat country, called Samhar, which lies between Arkeeko and the mountains of Abyssinia ; as well as to the extortions exercised by the Naybe, who takes, under the name of cuftoms, whatever part he pleases of the goods and provisions brought to that island ; by which means the profit of the feller is so small, as not to be worth the pains and risk of bringing it.


A considerable trade is carried on at Masuah, notwith. standing these inconveniences, narrow and confined as the island is, and violent and unjust as is the government. But it is all done in a slovenly manner, and for articles where a small capital is invested. Property here is too precarious to risk a venture in valuable commodities, where the hand of power enters into every transaction,

On the 13th, at four o'clock in the afternoon, Mr. Bruce waited upon the Naybe at his own house. He received him with more civility than usual ; or rather, with less brutality; for a grain of any thing like civility had never yet appeared in his behaviour. He had just received news, that a servant of his, sent to collect money at Hanazen, had run off with it. As our traveller faw he was busy, he took his leave of him, only asking his commands for Habesh; to which he answered, « We have time enough to think of that; do you come here to-morrow."

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On the 14:h, in the morning, he waited upon him according to appointment, having first struck his tent and got all his baggage in readiness. He received him as before, then told him with a grave air, “ That he was willing to further his journey into Habesh to the utmost of his power, provided he shewed him that consideration which was due to him from all passengers ; that, as by his tent, baggage, and arms, he saw he was a man above the common sort, which the Grand Signior's firman, and all his letters testified, less than 1000 pataka's offered by him would be putting a great affront upon him ; however, in consideration of the governor of Tigre, to whom he was going, he would consent to receive 300, upon his swearing not to divulge this, for fear of the Ahame that would fall upon him abroad.”

To this Mr. Bruce answered in the same grave tone, " That he thonght him very wrong to take 300 patakas with shame, when receiving a thousand would be more honourable as well as more profitable ; therefore, he had nothing to do but put that into his account-book with the governor of Ti. gre, and settle his honour and his interest together. As for himself, he was sent for by Metical Aga, on account of the king, and was proceeding accordingly; and if he opposed his going forward to Metical Aga, he should return; but then again he Mould expect ten thonsand patakas from Metical Aga for the trouble and loss of time he had been at, which he and the Ras would no doubt settle with him.” The Naybe faid nothing in reply, but only muttered, closing his teeth, fheitan afrit, that devil or tormenting spirit.

Those friends which Mr. Bruce had made at Masuah, seeing the Naybe's obftinacy againit their departure, and know. ing the cruelty of his nature, advifed Mr. Bruce to abandon all thoughts of Abyssinia ; for that in passing through Samhar, among the many barbarous people whom he commanded, difficulties would multiply upon them daily, and, either by accident, or order of the Naybe, they would be furely cut


off. However, our traveller was too well convinced of the embarrassment that lay behind him, if left alone with the Naybe, and too determined upon his journey, to helitate upon going forward. He even flattered himself, that his stock of stratagems to prevent their going, was by this time exhausted, and that the morrow would see them in the open fields, free from further tyranny and controul,

On the 15th early in the morning, Mr. Bruce again struck his tent, and had his baggage prepared, to fhew they were determined to ftay no longer. At eight o'clock he went to the Naybe, and found him almost alone, when he received him in a manner that, for hiin, might have passed for civil. He began with a considerable degree of eloquence, or fluency of Speech, a long enumeration of the difficulties of their journey, the rivers, precipices, mountains and woods they were to pass, the number of wild beasts every where to be found ; as also the wild savage people that inhabited those places ; the most of which, he said, were luckily under his command, and he would recommend to them to do them all manner of good offices. Hecoinmanded two of his secretaries to write the proper letters, and then ordered them coffee.

In the mean time, came in a servant covered with dust, and seemingly fatigued, as having arrived in haste from afar. The Naybe, with a considerable deal of uneasiness and confusion, opened the letters, which were said to bring intelligence, that the Hazorta, Shiho, and Tora, the three nations who possessed that part of Samhar, through which our road led to Dobarwa, the common paffage from Masuah to Tigre, had revolted, driven away his servants, and declared themselves independent. He then (as if all was over) ordered his secretaries to stop writing ; and lifting up his eyes, began with great seeming devotion to thank god we were not already on our journey, for, innocent as he was, when our travellers should have been cut off, the fault would have been imputed to him. Angry as Mr. Bruce was at fo barefaced a farce, he could not help bursting out into a violent fit of loud laughter; when the Naybe put on the severest countenance, and desired to know the reason of his laughing at such a time. “ It is now two months, (antwered Mr, Bruce) since you have been 22


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