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acter, and queftioned his veracity, he has, at length, prefented the detail of his travels to the world. They are fufficiently interefting to justify the eager anxiety with which they were expected; and are

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wife the defence (if any is requifite) would be infinitely more ftrong and accurate.

James Bruce, Efq; of Kinnaird, is a gentleman of confiderable family and fortune; and in 1763 was appointed Conful to Algiers, where he continued till 1765.

In June 1764, he requefted leave of abfence from the Secretary of State for the Southern Department, in order to make fome drawings of antiquities near Tunis, for which Mr. Bruce hath very confiderable talents.

In Mr. Bruce's last letter from Algiers to the fame fecretary, (dated December 29th, 1764,) Mr. Bruce alludes to another leave of abfence, which he had likewise requested, that he might vifit parts of the African continent.

How long he continued in Africa, I have not had the op portunity of procuring information, but having intentions afterwards of visiting Palmyra, he was fhipwrecked on the coast of Tunis, and plundered of every thing by the barbarous inhabitants.

The most diftreffing part of the lofs, was probably that of his inftruments, so neceffary to a scientific traveller; and though he afterwards procured fome of thefe, yet others (particularly a quadrant) could not be recovered.

Mr. Bruce, however, determining to repair this lofs as soon as poffible from France, so much nearer to him than England, was fo fortunate as to be provided with a time-piece and quadrant from that quarter.

Where he continued after his shipwreck, I have not heard with any degree of accuracy; but on the 28th of January, 1768, he was at a French houfe in Aleppo, by which route he probably returned from Palmyra.

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marked with fuch an air of truth, that no man of understanding and candour, who reads over the work, will ever hesitate to receive the facts which it relates, as fully authentic. Although it should be allowed,

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Where and when Mr. Bruce received the French inftruments is not known; but as he was still bent on vifiting Abyffinia, he gave a commiffion to Mr. W. Ruffel, F. R. S. for a reflecting telescope, made by Bird or Short, a watch with a hand to point feconds, and the newest and completest English Aftronomical Tables; all of which were to be sent to Mr. Fremeaux, and forwarded to him at Alexandria before August.

On the 29th of March, 1768, Mr. Bruce was at Sidon, on the coast of Syria, and wrote to Mr. Ruffel from thence for the following additional instruments, viz. a twelve-feet reflecting telescope, to be divided into pieces of 3 feet and joined with fcrews. This telescope was alfo accompanied by two thermometers and two portable barometers. Mr. Bruce moreover informed Mr. Ruffel, that he was going into a country (viz. Abyffinia) from which few travellers had returned ; and wifhed Mr. Ruffel, or his philofophical friends, would fend him their defiderata, as he was entirely at their fervice. Mr. Bruce added, that if he could not obtain admiffion into Abyffinia, he ftill would do his best in the cause of fcience on the eastern coaft of the Red Sea..

-As Mr. Bruce had directed the instruments to be ready for him at Alexandria by the beginning of August 1768, it is probable that he reached Cairo about that time; from whence he proceeded to Abyffinia, by way of Jedda, Mazava, and Arquito.

Whilft Mr. Bruce was at Jedda, he was met by fome English gentlemen returning from the East-Indies; amongst whom was Mr. Newland, who hath published a map of the Red Sea, and who availed himself of Mr. Bruce's obfervations to fix the fituation of that port.

It is fuppofed that Mr. Bruce did not continue long at Jedda, as he is faid to have explored the coaft on the caft fide

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"That Mr. Bruce left Cairo in 1768, and proceeded thence by way of Jedda, Mazava, and Arquito, into Abyflinja.

"That in 1771, a Greek came from Gondar in Abyffinia, who had a draft from Mr. Bruce on a French merchant at Cairo (named Rose) for some hundreds of German crowns, which were paid inmediately. This draft was accompanied by a letter from Mr. Bruce, and was the first time that he had been heard of at Cairo fince his departure in 1768.

"That after Mr. Bruce's return to Cairo in 1773, Mr. Antes faw a young Armenian and his father (who came likewise from Gondar) at Mr. Pini's, an Italian merchant of Cairo, where they and Mr. Bruce, converfed in the Abyffinian language, and feemed glad to meet him again.

"That Mr. Bruce returned to Cairo from Abyffinia by way of Nubia and Upper Egypt; which can be fully attested by the Francifcan friars who are established at Ifne near Afyuwan, which latter is the highest town of Upper Egypt.

« That during Mr. Bruce's stay at Cairo, which was not lefs than four months, no day paffed without their feeing each other, which gave Mr. Antes frequent opportunities of inquiring with regard to Abyffinia, concerning which he was particularly interefted from a reafon before stated.

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<<That Mr. Antes likewife frequently converfed with Michael, Mr. Bruce's Greek fervant, who is flated to have by no means had a lively imagination, and who always agreed with the circumstances mentioned by his master, and more particularly in relation to their having vifited the fources of the Nile, which the Baron Tott doubts of, from having had a converfation with this fame Greek fervant."

Mr. Antes adds, "That Baron Tott ftaid but a few days

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cal opinions, or expofing the inaccuracy of his aftronomical calculations; and the friends of Sparrman may wish, that in cenfuring that enthufiaftic and indefatigable ftudenc of nature, he had, at least used language

at Cairo and from his fhort refidence in that country, hath given several erroneous accounts relative to Egypt. Mr. Antes on the other hand, had almost daily conversations with Michael for several years, and often in relation to the fources of the Nile."

Laftly, "That after Mr. Bruce left Cairo, Mr. Antes had converfed with others who had known Mr. Bruce in Abyffinia, and that he was there called Maa im Jakube, or Mr. James."

After this state of facts, I conceive that no one can entertain a reasonable doubt with regard to Mr. Bruce's not only having vifited, but refided long in Abyffinia; though it is remarkable that the Jefuits expreffed the fame doubts in relation to Poncet, who had continued there nearly as long as Mr. Bruce. Poncet happened to be a layman; and the Jefuits, perhaps, would not approve of any narrative that did not come from father Benevent who accompanied Poncet to Abyffinia, but unfortunately died there.

Driven, however, from this hold, the objectors will poffibly retain their incredulity as to many particulars to be related, which I will shortly endeavour to answer, at least in regard to two of the principal ones, which are often much dwelt upon.

The first of these is, the having vifited the fources of the Nile, which, from claffical education, we cannot eafily believe, as they were unknown to the ancients, though they had fo great curiofity with regard to this discovery.

Many things, however, have been accomplished by travellers in modern times, which the ancients never could achieve, and which may be attributed to their want of enterprise (as travellers at least) of languages, and lastly, the not being able to procure credit when in a distant country. Mr.Bruce could not have

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language not unworthy of a gentleman: yet, his lively defcription of the manners of the Abyffinians, fo happily blended with his own adventures; his accurate geography of the Red Sea; the activity, firmnefs,

continued fo ong as he did in Abyffinia, unless he had drawn from Gondar upon a merchant established at Cairo.

The difficulty, however, with regard to reaching the fources of the Nile, arifes principally from the uncivilifed state of Abyffinia, unless the traveller hath a proper introduction. When once this is procured, all difficulties feem to cease, as we find by Lobo's account of this fame difcovery, and likewife by Poncet's narrative, who was prevented by illness from vifiting the very spot, but hath given an ample relation from an Abyffinian who had often been there. Poncet, moreover, had obtained leave from the Emperor to make this journey, which he states as not being a diftant one, and that the Emperor hath a palace near the very sources.

If it be doubted whether Mr. Bruce has vifited every source of the Nile, I answer, that perhaps no Englifhman hath taken this trouble with regard to the fources of the Thames, which, like most other great rivers, is probably derived from many springs and rills in different directions.

The other objection which I have often heard, is, That Mr. Bruce hath mentioned in converfation, that the Abyflinians cut a flice from the living ox, eftecming it one of their greatest delicacies.

This fort of dainty indeed is not fo confidered in other parts of the globe; but every nation almost hath its peculiarities in the choice of their food.

Do not we eat raw oyfters within a fecond of their being feparated from the shell? And do not we roast both them and Jobfters whilft alive, the barbarity of which practice feems to equal that of the Abyffinians? Do not cooks fkin eels, whilft alive? And do not epicures crimp fish for the gratification of their appetites ? That

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