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accounts actual amount annual appear army audit average balance Bank births British budget capital causes cent charges close Commons companies compared condition cost credits deaths December departments districts divisions effect ended England English establishment estimates excess Exchequer exist expenditure expenses Exports fact Females finance France French funds give given Government head hospitals important improvements increase interest Ireland issued Italy January June labour land less lines London Lower Males March marriages Mean miles minister months mortality natural navy nearly Notes officers paid Parliament payments period persons population practice present principle produce proportion quarter Quarter ended railways registered respect result returns Scotland September Society statistics supply Table taken Total town trade Treasury United Kingdom vessels vote week whole
Page 286 - What capital does for production, is to afford the shelter, protection, tools and materials which the work requires, and to feed and otherwise maintain the labourers during the process.
Page 551 - Commercial men and men of enterprise were enthusiastic in favour of the new railways and eager for their introduction all over the country. But the vested interests of roads and canals, and landed proprietors who feared that their estates would be injured, together with the great body of the public, were violently prejudiced against them. Railways had to fight their way against the most strenuous opposition. I quote from the Life of Robert Stephenson...
Page 214 - The immense wealth of the Italian clergy has been greatly reduced since the year 1850, when the bill of Siccardi, annihilating ecclesiastical jurisdiction and the privileges of the clergy, passed the Sardinian chambers. This law was extended, in 1861, over the whole of the kingdom, and had the effect of rapidly diminishing the numbers as well as the incomes of the clergy.
Page 508 - The crops are most precarious ; the poor are left to Providence's care. They prowl like other animals along the shore to pick up limpets and other shellfish, the casual repasts of hundreds during part of the year in these unhappy islands. Hundreds thus...
Page 14 - It is generally recognised that the healthiest children are those weaned at nine months complete. Prolonged nursing hurts both child and mother ; in the child, causing a tendency to brain disease, probably through disordered digestion and nutrition; in the mother, causing a strong tendency to deafness and blindness. It is a very singular fact, to which it is desirable that attention were paid, that in those districts of Scotland — viz., the...
Page 588 - Hence the relief afforded by railways, both in cheapness and saving of time, was far beyond any relief by free trade in taking off moderate duties. In a vast number of cases railways did more than cheapen trade, they rendered it possible. Railways are the nearest approach that human ingenuity has yet devised to that magic carpet of the " Arabian Nights," for which I ventured to express a wish.
Page 564 - An increase in 1864 equal to five-sixths of the whole number of passengers in 1834, and to five-twelfths of the total goods tonnage in 1834; a wonderful proof of the capabilities and benefits of the railway system.
Page 587 - Steam navigation had also existed for many years before 1830, and before the great expansion of commerce, and steam navigation was unable to cope with the obstacle which before 1830 was so insuperable, viz.: the slowness and expense, and limited capacity of land carriage. I come then to this further conclusion, that the railways which removed this gigantic obstacle, and gave to land carriage such extraordinary rapidity and cheapness, and such unlimited capacity, must have been the main agent, the...