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of faintly acetous odor, sharp metallic taste and a slightly acid reaction; soluble in 3 of water and in 30 of alcohol at 59° F., in 1% of boiling water and in 3 of boiling alcohol. Used locally as an astringent in solution of gr. jor ij to 3j, or internally in doses of gr. 72-ij.

ZINCI CARBONAS PRÆCIPITATUS, Precipitated Carbonate of Zinc, (ZnCO2).32n(HO),,—a white, impalpable powder, permanent in the air, odorless and tasteless, insoluble in water or alcohol, but soluble in acids with copious effervescence. When strongly heated it loses water and carbonic acid gas, leaving a residue of oxide of zinc. Used locally as a protective.

Zinci CHLORIDUM, Chloride of Zinc, ZnCl,,-a white, crystalline powder, deliquescent, odorless, of caustic, saline, and metallic taste and acid reaction, very soluble in water and in alcohol, forming a clear or only faintly opalescent solution. Tonic and escharotic. For internal use a solution in Spirit of Ether is the most convenient form, of the strength of 3 ss-Ziij, of which from 4 to 8 drops may be given twice daily. Strength of injections and collyria, gr. j-ij ad 3j.

LIQUOR ZINCI CHLORIDI,—an aqueous solution of Zinc Chloride containing about 50 per cent. of the salt. A clear, colorless, odorless liquid, of a very astringent, sweetish taste and an acid reaction. A powerful disinfectant for sinks, drains, etc. Used also as an injection in gonorrhoea, leucorrhæa, etc., in dilute solution, 72 to i per cent. Burnett's Disinfecting Fluid is similar to the above but slightly stronger.

ZINCI IODIDUM, Iodide of Zinc, Zn1,,—a white, granular powder, very deliquescent, odorless, of sharp, saline and metallic taste and acid reaction, very soluble in water and in alcohol. Dose, gr. ss-ij in syrup.

ŽINCI OXIDUM, Oxide of Zinc, ZnO,-a soft, pale-yellowish powder, permanent in the air, odorless and tasteless, insoluble in water or alcohol, but soluble in acids without effervescence. Dose, gr. j-x, in pill.

UNGUENTUM ZINCI Oxidi,-strength 20 per cent., made with Benzoinated Lard, thoroughly mixed.

ZINCI SULPHAS, Sulphate of Zinc, ZnSO4.7H,0,-small colorless prisms or acicular needles, slowly efflorescing in dry air, odorless, of sharp, saline, nauseous and metallic taste and acid reaction, soluble in 0.6 of water, insoluble in alcohol. Dose, as emetic, gr. x-xxx,-as a tonic and astringent, gr. b-ij, in pill. For Villate's Solution, see ante, page 169.

ZINCI VALERIANAS, Valerianate of Zinc, Zn(C,H,O,),.H,0,-soft, white, pearly scales, of sweet and styptic taste and acid reaction; soluble in 100 of water and in 40 of alcohol at 59° F. Dose, gr. t-ij, in pill.

[The BROMIDE OF ZINC is described under BROMUM, see page 103, and the PHOSPHIDE under PHOSPHORUS, on page 289.]

Physiological Action and Therapeutics. Zinc Salts are astringents, but milder ones than the salts of Lead. Its soluble compounds (the Chloride, fodide, Sulphate and Acetate) are corrosive poisons, causing violent gastroenteritis, and in some cases profound nervous depression. The CHLORIDE is a very powerful and painful escharotic or rather mummifier of the tissues, having great affinity for water, coagulating albumen and shrivelling the vessels. It is a very active disinfectant. The SULPHATE is also escharotic and a specific

emetic, acting promptly by direct irritation of the stomach, and without much depression or after-nausea. In small doses it is tonic and astringent, in larger it would be a severe irritant but for its causing prompt emesis. The ACETATE resembles the sulphate in action. The Oxide userl externally is a mild, soothing astringent; used internally it enters the blood as a lactate or chloride, and acts as a mild astringent and as a nervous sedative. Being almost insoluble in the stomach, it has but feeble diffusive power and consequently but slight activity. The CARBONATE reseinbles the Oxide in action. The IODIDE locally is a powerful escharotic and has been supposed to possess some alterative powers when given internally in addition to its astringent qualities as a zinc salt. The VALERIANATE acts as a nervous sedative, but its properties are in all probability due to its base and not to the acid combined with it.

Continued use of zinc salts produces symptoms similar to those of chronic lead-poisoning, but of much less gravity. They manifest much less tendency to accumulate in the system than other metallic salts, and are excreted much more rapidly. Elimination takes place chiefly by the liver and intestinal glands.

[The actions of the Bromide and Phosphide are described respectively on pages 105 and 290.]

Antidotes and Incompatibles. Lime-water, mucilaginous drinks, soap, tannic acid, milk, Potassium and Sodium Carbonates if given early, are the antidotes in poisoning by the salts of zinc. Incompatibles are --Time-water, alkalies and their carbonates, nitrate of silver, and vegetable astringents. Acetate of Lead produces double decomposition with zinc salts, but it is often used in solution with the sulphate as an injection.

Therapeutics. Zinc salts are chiefly employed in weak solution as mild astringent applications in catarrhs of mucous membranes, such as conjunctivitis, gonorrhea, etc., and as unguents and lotions in skindiseases, particularly eczema, impetigo, herpes and erythema. The CHLORIDE is made into a paste with flour and glycerin for the destruction of lupus, epithelioma and other morbid growths, and for opening abscesses in locations where puncture or incision might be dangerous. The cuticle, if unbroken, should be removed by strong water of ammonia before the paste is applied, as it will not act through the epidermic tissue. It is a commonly used disinfectant and deodorant, and in weak solution (miij-v of the Liquor to Zj of water) makes a good lotion for putrid ulcers, and still weaker (gr. j-ij to the pint), is an excellent injection for gonorrhoea. The IODIDE is not employed as an escharotic, nor has it ever been a favorite remedy for internal use. It is chiefly employed in solution as an application to enlarged tonsils, and as an ointment (1 part to 8 of lard) for the reduction of glandular enlargements. The SULPHATE is used locally as an astringent to mucous surfaces generally, internally as an emetic in narcotic poisoning and croup, and in small doses as a tonic and antispasmodic in convulsive diseases, as chorea, hysteria, epilepsy, angina pectoris, asthma, etc. In diarrheas and dysentery it is a good astringent, and is frequently combined with Opium and Ipecac. The ACETATE is used for the same purposes as the Sulphate, but is usually preferred for collyria. The OXIDE may be used as a dusting powder in intertrigo, and as an ointment in eczema and excoriated surfaces generally. In combination with Bismuth and Pepsin it is an excellent remedy for the summer diarrhea of children, and with Aromatic Powder and Morphine it is very efficient in gastralgia. It is a good remedy in 3-grain doses for the night-sweats of phthisis, and has been successfully employed in epilepsy and neuralgia, in whoopingcough, hysteria, nervous headache and in bronchorrhea to check the profuse secretion. It is much employed as an ingredient of cosmetics. The CARBONATE is by some preferred to the oxide for local use in skin diseases. Calamine Ointment, which is a mixture of the impure carbonate (calanine) with the oxide and an unguent basis, was until recently a favorite application as a soothing protective to abrasions and inflammations of the integument. The VALERIANATE has been used in chorea, epilepsy, neuralgia and various anomalous nervous affections, such as the nervous headache of hysterical women, nervous coughs and aphonia due to uterine and ovarian irritation.

[The Bromide and Phosphide are used entirely with reference to their respective non-metallic bases, under which titles their therapeutics are described.]

ZINGIBER, Ginger,-is the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, a plant of the nat. ord. Zingiberaceæ, having dingy-yellow flowers on a leafless flower-stalk, and long, lanceolate leaves on a separate stem. The plant is a native of Hindostan, but is cultivated in Jamaica, Sierra Leone, etc. The rhizome is about & inch broad, flattish, on one side lobed or clavately branched, of a pale-buff color, striate, agreeably aromatic and of a warm, pun. gent taste. It breaks with a mealy, fibrous fracture showing numerous small resin-cells and fibro-vascular bundles. It contains an aromatic volatile oil and a resin.

Preparations. EXTRACTUM ZINGIBERIS FLUIDUM,—Dose, Mx-3ss. TINCTURA ZINGIBERIS, -20 per cent. Dose, mxx-3ij.

SYRUPUS ZINGIBERIS, --has of the fluid extract 2 per cent. in sugar and water. Dose, 3ss-ij.

TROCHISCI ZINGIBERIS,-each trocħe contains of the tincture 2 grains, with Tragacanth, Sugar and Syrup of Ginger.

OLEORESINA ZINGIBERIS, --contains all the virtues of the root, and is extracted by ether. Dose, m72-j, well diluted.

Ginger is also a constituent of Pulvis Aromaticus, Pulvis Rhei Compositus and Vinum Aloës.

Physiological Action and Therapeutics. Ginger is sialogogue when chewed, sternutatory when inhaled, and externally a rubefacient. Internally it is a grateful stimulant and carminative, produces a sensation of warmth at the epigastrium and promotes the expulsion of flatus. It is employed as a carminative in colic, as a masticatory to increase the secretion of saliva and in relaxed conditions of the throat, also internally in atonic dyspepsia, to relieve flatulence, and as an adjunct to purgative agents to correct their griping properties. The syrup is in common use as a flavoring and adjuvant in prescriptions.

CLASSIFICATION OF MEDICINES.

In the present state of knowledge respecting the actions and uses of medicinal agents, no really scientific classification of these substances is possible. Some writers have adopted a system based on the natural relations of the various articles to each other, while many classify them according to their effects on the human system, and others make no attempt at arrangement but treat of them in alphabetical order. The latter method has been followed in this work, from a conviction that every medicine should first be studied as an individual, both with respect to its physiological actions and its therapeutical applications. When the student has thus made himself familiar with the characteristic features of each article of the Materia Medica, he may begin, by. comparing one with another, to seek acquaintance with their more delicate lights and shades. Some system of classification then becomes imperative as an aid to the memory, and as the titles of the groups to which the various agents belong in any physiological classification are also used to express their actions and uses, the following synopsis is inserted as an appropriate addendum to the section on Materia Medica and Therapeutics.

STIMULANTS AND SEDATIVES.

These are general terms employed in various classifications with very little discrimination.

Stimulant (stimulus, a goad),-is a term which is used in various senses as applied to medicinal agents. Alcoholic preparations, which are true narcotics, are commonly termed * stimulants,” and the same expression is employed to designate any agent which excites the organic action of a part of the economy.

Diffusible Stimulants are those which have a prompt but transient effect, such as Alcohol, Ammonia, Camphor, etc. Spinal Stimulants exalt the functions of the cord, as Strychnine, Picrotoxin, Ergot, Atropine, Phosphorus.

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