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Chlorine. Disinfectants, destroy the specific germs of communicable diseases, many of which belong to the microbe class, hence many antiseptics are also disinfectants. They act in several modes, some as oxidizants, others by combining with albumen, others by chemical combination forming substitution-compounds, others by arresting molecular changes, and still others by altering the reaction of the media containing the germs. The principal disinfectants are
Heat, 230°-250° F. Aluminium Chloride. Iodine.
Potass. Bichromate. Ferrous Sulphate. Mercuric Chloride. Potass. Permanganate.
Zinc Sulphate. Condy's Fluid is an aqueous Solution of Potassium Permanganate, 2 parts in 100, or gr. 176 in Zxx. Burnett's Fluid is a solution of Zinc Chloride, containing about 50 per cent. of the salt, and equivalent to the official Liquor Zinci Chloridi. Labarraque's Solution is the official Liquor Soda Chloratæ.
Deodorants,-are agents which destroy foul odors. The Volatile Deodorants are chiefly oxidizing and deoxidizing substances, acting chemically on the obnoxious gases; while the Non-zolatile ones are mainly absorbents, which condense and decompose the effluvia. The deodorants in general use are the followingnamed:Chlorine Gas.
Parasiticides (Tuparitos, a parasite, cædo, to kill), -are agents which destroy the animal and vegetable parasites found upon the human body. They are generally applied in the form of lotions, ointments or oleates, and include the following substances, viz. Sulphur. Mercury
Carbolic Acid. Sulphides.
Ammoniated Mercury. Petroleum,
Balsam of Peru.
AGENTS ACTING UPON EACH OTHER.
AGENTS ACTING UPON EACH OTHER.
Antidotes and Antagonists are terms frequently confounded with each other, and rarely defined with sufficient lucidity to enable a clear distinction to be drawn between them. An Antidote is a substance which affects a poison either physically or chemically, or both, and in such a manner as to remove the poison from the body or to form with it an insoluble salt or an inert compound, with the object of preventing its toxic action upon the organism.
Thus, Tannic Acid is an antidote to Digitalis, as it forms therewith a com pound (tannate), which is soluble with difficulty and therefore comparatively innocuous. But as this tannate is not wholly inert, another antidotal measure must be employed, viz.-evacuation of the stomach, which may be accomplished by the administration of Zinc Sulphate or any other emetic, or by the use of a stomach-pump.
Antagonists, on the other hand, are agents which directly oppose each other in some or all of their physiological actions, and may be used against each other to counteract their effects on the system. Antidotal action takes place in the alimentary canal, and is applicable to vegetable as well as mineral poisons. Antagonism takes place in the blood and tissues, and so far as antagonistic drugs are concerned, is applicable almost wholly to vegetable poisons, as these produce their effects after absorption. The heart and respiratory apparatus are the principal objective points for the antagonism of drugs, but the spinal cord, the cerebrum, muscular tissue and the glandular system are also affected by most of them.
Antagonistic Measures are such proceedings as may tend to antagonize certain effects of poisons, and include Artificial Respiration,-Faradism of the respiratory muscles,-Constant motion, -Douching, - Rest, etc.
Thus, to refer to the case of Digitalis again, Saponin and Senegin are its most complete physiological antagonists, their counteraction extending throughout the whole range of its effects. Aconite and Morphine antagonize its cardiac action, the former being considered the best antagonist to the effe of large doses, and the latter to those of its long.continued use. Alcohol is also indi. cated in Digitalis-poisoning, and absolute Rest in the recumbent posture is an antagonistic measure of great importance, by reason of the liability of the heart to cease its action on assuming the erect position, when much lowered by the drug.
In the treatment of poisoning, whether from mineral or vegetable substances, the first indication is to administer the appropriate chemical antidote, so as to render the poison harmless or comparatively so. Next, the stomach should be emptied and washed out, lest the newly-formed compound be absorbed after a time, and to remove any of the poison which may have escaped the action of the antidote. Next, the antagonist should be administered, in order to counteract the effects of such portion of the poison as may have been absorbed. Lastly, the appropriate antagonistic measures should be employed to sustain the action of any organic function which may show signs of failure. In most cases of alkaloidal poisoning absorption has proceeded so far before assistance is obtained that antidotes are of no value, and reliance can only be placed upon the physiological antagonist and such supporting measures as will tend to maintain vitality until the poison has been eliminated by the natural channels.
In the previous pages the antidotes and antagonists for each poisonous substance in the Materia Medica are enumerated under their proper titles, and in the Appendix the same agents are tabulated in a suitable form for reference. A few examples are appended below, to illustrate the principles above stated, and to point out some of the most prominent instances of physiological antagonism at present known.
Atropine, Belladonna, etc. Antidotes,—Tannic Acid, to form an insoluble tannate. Zinc Sulphate, as an emetic, or Apomorphine hypodermically, or the stomach-pump. Purgation. Antagonists,-Muscarine (see page 49). Physostigmine. Pilocarpine, Morphine. Quinine. Aconite (see page 96). Antagonistic Measures,-Artificial respiration. Faradism of respiratory muscles.
Strychnine, Nux Vomica and Ignatia. Antidotes,-Animal Charcoal suspended in water. Emesis, as above-mentioned. Antagonists,-Chloral, or Chloroform, to muscular relaxation (see page 138). Curare. Nitrite of Amyl. Bromide of Potassium. Antagonistic Measures, -Artificial respiration. Perfect quiet.
Morphine and Opium. Antidotes,-Emesis or stomach-pump. Antagonists,—Atropine (see page 281). Black Coffee. Caffeine. Ammonia, inhaled. Amyl Nitrite. Antagonistic Measures,—Cold douche. Artificial respiration. Continued movement.
Potassium Cyanide. Antidotes,-Sulphate of Iron, to form Prussian Blue. Emesis. Antagonists,-Atropine. Ammonia. Alcohol. Antagonistii Measures,-Artificial respiration. Faradism.
Arsenic and in Compounds. Antidotes,—Hydrated Oxide of Iron (see pages 87 and 191). Dialyzed Iron. Magnesia. Chalk. Lime-water. Emetics, or stomach-pump. Oil or Mucilage to protect the mucous membranes. Diluents. Iodide of Potassium, to promote elimination. Antagonists,-none.
PHARMACY AND PRESCRIPTION WRITING.
Pharmacy (çápuazov, a medicament),-may be defined as the art of selecting and preserving medicines, and preparing them for administration. It may be divided into
Official or Galenical Pharmacy,—dealing with the processes and preparations of the Pharmacopoeia; and
Extemporaneous or Magistral Pharmacy,—which includes the operations of compounding and dispensing remedies as directed by the prescriptions of physicians.
PHARMACOPEIAS AND DISPENSATORIES. A Pharmacopoeia is an official list of the drugs and their preparations recognized by the medical profession of a certain country. In foreign countries the Pharmacopæias are published under government auspices and have the force of a legal standard ; in the United States its publication is left to the medical and pharmaceutical professions and is revised every ten years by a convention called for that purpose. The principal official Pharmacopæias, with their dates of latest revision or additions, are the following, viz.
Pharmacopæia of the United States of America, 1882. British Pharmacopæia, 1885. Pharmacopæa Germanica, 1882. Codex Medicamentarius (Pharmacopée Française), 1884. Besides the above there are the Russian (P. Rossica, 1880); the Austrian (P. Austriaca, 1869); the Swedish (P. Suecica, 1869); the Norwegian (P. Norvegica, 1879; the Danish (P. Danica, 1868, 1874, 1876); the Belgian (P. Belgica, 1881); the Swiss (P. Helvetica, 1872, 1876); the Spanish (F. Española, 1865); the (Portuguese P. Portugueza, 1876); the Hungarian (P. Hungarica, 1871); the Netherlands' (P. Neerlandica, 1871); the Roumanian (P. Româña, 1862); the Finnish (P. Fennica, 1863); the Greek (P. Hellanica, 1868); the Mexican (Nueva Farmacopea Mexicana, 1884); and the
Pharmacopæia of India, 1868, 1869. Italy, Chili and Japan are each about to issue a national pharmacopoeia.
A Dispensatory is a commentary on one or more pharmacopeias, giving in extenso the physical and medicinal history of the drugs and preparations, together with their doses, physiological action and therapeutics, and includes similar information about many drugs which are not official in any pharmacopeia, but are of occasional use or general interest. A dispensatory is a private publication, of authority according to the reputation of its author. The principal Dispensatories published in the English language are the two following, viz.
United States Dispensatory, 15th edition, edited by Wood, Remington and Stadtler. J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia.
National Dispensatory, 3d edition, edited by Stille and Maisch. Lea Bros. & Co., Philadelphia.
American Dispensatory, King & Lloyd, Cincinnati, is the organ of the “ Eclectic" school of physicians.
Companion to the U. S. Pharmacopæia, Oldberg and Wall, William Wood & Co., New York, is an excellent commentary on official and unofficial drugs.
THE CONSTITUENTS OF VEGETABLE DRUGS.
The constituents of vegetable drugs may be classified as soluble and insoluble, the first group containing those ingredients which may be extracted by suitable menstrua, the second such as resist the action of all ordinary solvents.
THE SOLUBLE CONSTITUENTS comprise both inert and active principles, the inert being chiefly starch, gum and pectin, which may be readily separated by water. The active principles are alkaloids, acids, salts, glucosides and other neutral principles, volatile oils, resins, etc. Some few of these may be extracted by Water alone (e. g. Morphine), and in some cases the addition of acids or alkalies to the water will effect the chemical solution of many ingredients which are insoluble in water alone. As a rule, however, Alcohol is the most generally applicable of all simple solvents, but from its hardening the cell-membranes instead of softening them it prevents the osmosis of their contents. Drugs subjected to alcoholic or ethereal menstrua should have their cells thoroughly broken or torn, so that the solvent may be
orht into actual contact with the principles contained in
The degree of disintegration required depends upon the