« PreviousContinue »
obtained favor with scientific physicians. There are only 2 official Decoctions, viz.
Decoctum Cetrariæ. Decoctum Sarsaparillæ Compositum. The general official formula prescribes that an ordinary decoction, the strength of which is not directed by the physician, nor specified by the Pharmacopoeia, shall be prepared in the proportion of i part of the substance to 9 of water. Decoctum Cetrariæ is one-half the aforesaid strength, while the. Compound Decoction of Sarsaparilla is of the full strength as to its chief ingredient.
ALCOHOLIC PREPARATIONS. Extracta Fluida, Fluid Extracts,-are liquid alcoholic solutions (concentrated tinctures) of uniformly definite strength if the crude drugs are so, a cubic centimeter (m16.23) in each case representing the medicinal powers of one gramme (gr. 15.43) of the drug, or approximately a minim of the finished preparation representing the active constituents of a grain of the drug. They are officially directed to be prepared by percolation and partial evaporation, the menstrua employed being usually Alcohol, diluted Alcohol, or Alcohol and Water in various proportions, though a few are percolated with water, the alcohol being afterwards added. In several instances Glycerin in different proportions is added to the first menstruum, and in the menstruum used for the extraction of Aconite root Tartaric Acid is an ingredient. In the preparation of the fluid extract of Prunus Virginiana, the extraction is preceded by maceration with water and glycerin, in order to permit of the formation of Hydrocyanic Acid by the reaction of the amygdalin and emulsin of the bark upon each other, which takes place only in the presence of water. The glycerin aids to keep the dissolved matters in perfect solution, and also to better retain the acid and volatile oil formed during the process. The fluid extract of Glycyrrhiza is prepared with a first menstruum containing Ammonia, and that of Lactucarium is first treated with Ether and then put through an elaborate process in order to obtain a preparation which will make a clear mixture with water, syrup or glycerin. The menstruum directed to be used in each case is intended to be that which will thoroughly extract all the active constituents of the drug and at the same time will leave the inert soluble matters behind in the rejected portion, known as the marc. In manufacturing fluid extracts on a large scale, modifications of the official processes are necessary, and the methods used are generally percolation
and maceration with hydraulic pressure, vacuum maceration followed by percolation, percolation with incomplete exhaustion, or repercolation. The number of official Fluid Extracts is 79. They are named in the following list, the letters following each one in parentheses showing the character of its menstruum, and representing Alcohol, Diluted Alcohol, Alcohol and Water, or Glycerin, by their respective initials.
Extractum Aconiti Fluidum (A). Extractum Ipecacuanhæ Fl. (A).
Ext. Krameriæ Fi. (DA,G).
Ext. Leptandræ Fl. (DA,G;). Ext, Brayeræ FI. (A).
Ext. Lobeliæ Fl. (DA). Ext. Buchu Fl. (A,W).
Ext. Lupulini Fl. (A). Ext. Calami Fl. (A).
Ext. Matico Fl. (A1.W.G,). Ext. Calumbæ Fl. (DA).
Ext. Mezerei Fl. (A). Ext. Cannabis Indicæ Fl. (A). Ext. Nucis Vomicæ Fl. (A,W). Ext. Capsici Fl. (A).
Ext. Pareiræ Fl. (DA,G).
Ext. Pilocarpi Fl. (DA).
Ext. Pruni Virginianæ Fi." (W,G). Ext. Cimicifugæ Fl. (A).
Ext. Quassiæ Fl. (DA). Ext. Cinchonze Fl. (D, AG,).
Ext. Rhei Fl. (A,W). Ext. Colchici Radicis Fl. (A,W). Ext. Rhois Glabræ Fl.(DA,G,). Ext. Colchici Seminis Fl. (A,W). Ext. Rosæ Fl. (DA,G), Ext. Conii Fl. (DA).
Ext. Rubi Fl. (A,W,G). Ext. Cornus Fl. (DA,G).
Ext. Rumicis Fl. (DA). Ext. Cubebæ Fl. (A).
Ext. Sabinæ Fl. (A). Ext. Cypripedii Fl. (A).
Ext. Sanguinariæ Fl. (A). Ext. Digitalis Fl. (A,W,).
Ext. Sarsaparillæ Co. Fl. (A;WG). Ext. Dulcamaræ Fl. (DA).
Ext. Sarsaparillæ Fl. (AWG). Ext. Ergotæ Fl. (AzW.).
Ext. Scillæ Fl. (A). Ext. Erythroxyli Fl. (DA).
Ext. Scutellariæ Fl. (A,W,). Ext. Eucalypti Fl. (A).
Ext. Senegæ Fl. (A,W,). Ext. Eupatorii Fl. (DA).
Ext. Sennæ Fl. (A,W,. Ext. Frangulæ Fl. (A,W,).
Ext. Serpentariæ Fl. (A,W,). Ext. Gelsemii Fl. (A).
Ext. Spigeliæ Fl. (DA). Ext. Gentianæ Fl. (DA).
Ext. Stillingiæ Fl. (DA). Ext. Geranii Fl. (DA,G).
Ext. Stramonii Fl. (A,W,).
Ext. Taraxaci Fl. (A,W3).
Ext. Uva Ursi Fl. (DA,G).
Ext. Valerianæ Fl. (A,W,). Ext. Hamamelidis Fl. (A,W2). Ext. Veratri Viridis Fl.(A). Ext. Hydrastis Fl. (A,W,).
Ext. Viburni Fl. (A,W). Ext. Hyoscyami Fl. (A,W,). Ext. Xanthoxyli Fl. (A).
Extractum Zingiberis Fluidum (A). In nine instances only does the Pharmacopeia direct the making of other preparations from corresponding fluid extracts, these nine being the Syrups of Krameria, Lactucarium, Rubus, Senega, and Ginger, the Extract of Ergot, the Liniment of Belladonna, the Ointment of Mezereum, and the Mixture of Rhubarb and Soda. Notwithstanding this fact it is a common practice for dispensing pharmaceutists to make tinctures, syrups, infusions, etc., from fluid extracts; and some manufacturers put a label on the bottles containing their fluid extracts, giving the formulæ for so preparing other preparations. This practice is illegitimate, and tends to still further degrade the profession of pharmacy into a mere trade, so far as all dispensing is concerned.
A large number of unofficial fluid extracts are manufactured and for sale, one house alone carrying over 400 such on their catalogue. Normal Liquids are a class of superior fluid extracts introduced by Parke, Davis & Co., which are claimed to be adjusted to a maximum strength by accurate assays for alkaloidal strength made at each stage of their manipulation, irrespective of the amount of material required, which in the case of official fluid extracts is prescribed by the Pharmacopæia, regardless of the varying quality of drugs in the market. This firm prepares Normal Liquids of Aconite, Veratrum Viride, Belladonna (root or leaves), Cannabis Indica, Cinchona Calisaya, Cinchona Rubrum, Colchicum (root or seed), Conium, Ergot, Digitalis, Gelsemium, Hyoscyamus, Ipecacuanha, Podophyllum, Nux Vomica, Rhubarb, and Stramonium (seed or leaves). Of these preparations one cubic centimeter is equivalent to one gramme of the corresponding drug of standard alkaloidal strength. A fluid extract of Belladonna leaves may contain .25 or .45 per cent. of atropine, according to the quality of the drug employed; a Normal Liquid will contain invariably .4 per cent. of the alkaloid, so that in a given dose it may be relied upon to produce a certain effect.
Tincturæ, Tinctures,--are alcoholic solutions of medicinal substances; and with one official exception (Tincture of Iodine) are made from non-volatile bodies. They are prepared by percolation, maceration, solution or dilution; the menstrua employed being chiefly Alcohol and diluted Alcohol of various strengths, though in a few cases the Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia, and mixtures of Alcohol, Water and Glycerin are directed to be used. The Pharmacopoeia prescribes a general formula for Tinctures of Fresh Herbs, according to which, when not otherwise directed, these preparations are to be made by macerating 50 parts of the Fresh Herb, bruised or crushed, with 100 parts of Alcohol for 14 days, then expressing the liquid and filtering. Of the 72 official Tinctures 2 are made with 5 per cent. of the ingredient, 20 with 10 per cent., 9 with 15 per cent., 23 with 20 per cent., 1 with 35 per cent., 1 (Aconite) with 40 per cent., 3 with 50 per cent., and i (Soap) with 65 per cent.; the others varying in strength from 0.4 per cent. in the case of Paregoric to 26 per cent. in that of the Compound Tincture of Benzoin. Fifty-four are made by percolation, a few by solution or dilution, and the rest by mace
The official Tinctures are as follows, the figures placed
after each giving the number of grains of the active ingredients in each fluid-drachm, viz.Tinctura Aconiti, 19.
Tinctura Guaiaci Ammoniata, 104. Tinctura Aloes, 10%.
Tinctura Humuli, 104. Tinctura Aloes et Myrrhæ, 104. Tinctura Hydrastis, 10'4. Tinctura Arnicæ Florum, 10%. Tinctura Hyoscyami, 872. Tinctura Arnicæ Radicis, 578. Tinctura Ignatiæ, gr. % of Extract. Tinctura Asafætidæ, 104.
Tinctura Iodi, 4. Tinctura Aurantii Amari, 10%. Tinctura Ipecacuanhæ et Opii, 104. Tinctura Aurantii Dulcis, 10%. Tinctura Kino, 5%2. Tinctura Belladonnæ, 812.
Tinctura Krameriæ, 10%. Tinctura Benzoini, 10'4.
Tinctura Lavendulæ Composita, 2%. Tinctura Benzoini Composita, 1372. Tinctura Lobeliæ, 104. Tinctura Bryoniæ, 444.
Tinctura Matico, 578. Tinctura Calendulæ, 10%.
Tinctura Moschi, 578. Tinctura Calumbæ, 5%8.
Tinctura Myrrhæ, 10'4. Tinctura Canuabis Indicæ, 10%. Tinctura Nucis Vomicæ, 10%. Tinctura Cantharidis, 2%3.
Tinctura Opii, 5%2. Tinctura Capsici, 213.
Tinctura Opii Camphorala, ļ. Tinctura Cardamomi, 872.
Tinctura Opii Deodorata, 5%. Tinctura Cardamomi Composita, 273. Tinctura Physostigmatis, 434. Tinctura Catechu Composita, 104. Tinctura Pyrethri, 10'4. Tinctura Chiratæ, 518.
Tinctura Quassiæ, 576. Tinctura Cimicifugæ, 104.
Tinctura Rhei, 72. Tinctura Cinchonæ, 104.
Tinctura Rhei Aromatica, 1672. Tinctura Cinchonæ Composita, 10/4. Tinctura Rhei Dulcis, 9. Tinctura Cinnamomi, 578.
Tinctura Sanguinariæ, 872. Tinctura Colchici, 872.
Tinctura Saponis Viridis, 36%. Tinctura Conii, 872.
Tinctura Scillæ, 8/2. Tinctura Croci, 578.
Tinctura Serpentariæ, 578. Tinctura Cubeba, 5%8;
Tinctura Stramonii, 578. Tinctura Digitalis, 872.
Tinctura Sumbul, 434. Tinctura Ferri Acetatis.
Tinctura Tolutana, 578. Tinctura Ferri Chloridi.
Tinctura Valerianæ, 10'4. Tinctura Gallæ, 104.
Tinctura Valeriana Ammoniata, 104. Tinctura Gelsemii, 772.
Tinctura Vanillæ, 518. Tinctura Gentianæ Composita, 7%. Tinctura Veratri Viridis, 24. Tinctura Guaiaci, 104.
Tinctura Zingiberis, 104.
Vina, Wines,—when medicated are practically the same as Tinctures, White Wine brought to a definite alcoholic strength (Vinum Album Fortius), being the menstruum used. The official Wines number 14, of which 3 are not medicated, 4 are made by solution or admixture, 3 by maceration and 4 by percolation. They are as follows, viz. Vinum Album, 10-12.
Vinum Colchici Seminis, 15.
Vinum Ergotæ, 15.
Vinum Ferri Amari, 8.
Vinum Ferri Citratis, 4.
Vinum Ipecacuanhæ, 7.
Vinum Opii, 1o.
Vinum Rhei, 1o.
The figures placed after the first three show the percentage of absolute alcohol which is required in each ; those placed after the other members of the group show the quantity of the active ingredient used in preparing 100 parts of the Wine.
Spiritus, Spirits,-are alcoholic solutions of volatile substances which may be solids, liquids or gases. They are officially prepared either by simple solution, by solution with maceration, by gaseous solution, by chemical reaction, or by distillation. The number of official Spirits is 22, as follows, viz. Spiritus Ætheris.
Spiritus Menthæ Piperitæ.
Spiritus Menthæ Viridis.
Spiritus Ætheris Nitrosi.
Spiritus Frumenti. Spiritus Juniperi Compositus. Spiritus Vini Gallici. Of these, the first fifteen are prepared by simple solution, the next three by solution with maceration, the next one by gaseous solution, the next one by chemical reaction, and the last two by distillation.
Elixiria, Elixirs,—are sweetened, aromatic, spirituous preparations containing active medicinal substances in small quantities. There is but one official Elixir (Elixir Aurantii), which is intended as a type of the class of unofficial elixirs so largely employed in extemporaneous pharmacy. It is practically a flavored alcoholized syrup, designed for use as an excipient with extracts, salts and tinctures.
ETHEREAL PREPARATIONS. Oleoresina, Oleoresins, -are liquid preparations consisting principally of natural oils and resins extracted from vegetable substances by percolation with Stronger Ether. They differ from fluid extracts in not bearing any uniform relation to the drug of gramme to cubic centimeter, in containing principles which though soluble in ether are not in alcohol, and in some instances being devoid of principles which are insoluble in ether but soluble in alcohol. They are the most concentrated liquid preparations