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Abstractum Ignatiæ. Abstractum Nucis Vomicæ. The menstrua used for these are Alcohol 8 Water i for the two last-named, and Alcohol for the others; but 2 per cent. of Tartaric Acid is added in the case of Aconite, and 6 per cent. of HCl in the case of Conium.
Resina, Resins,—are solid preparations obtained by precipitating the resinous principles of plants from their alcoholic solution by the agency of water. They differ from alcoholic extracts in containing only those principles which are soluble in alcohol and insoluble in water, while the extracts contain all principles which are soluble in alcohol. There are 4 official Resins, viz. Resina Copaibæ.
Massi Ferri Carbonatis.
Massa Hydrargyri. Pilulæ, Pills,-are spherical masses composed of medicinal agents and intended to be swallowed whole. The “ mass” consists of the active ingredients and the excipient or substance which gives the mass its adhesive and plastic qualities. In official pharmacy the excipients are specified both as to composition and quantity in each case, and those directed to be used in the preparation of the 3 official Masses and the 15 official Pills are as follows, viz. 5 are made with Sonp and Water, viz.–Pil. Aloes, Pil. Aloes et Asafætidæ,
Pil. Asafætidæ, Pil. Opii, Pil. Rhei. 3 are made with Water alone, viz.–Pil. Aloes et Mastiches, Pil. Cathar
ticæ Comp., Pil. Rhei Comp. 3 are made with Syrup, viz. ---Pil. Aloes et Myrrhæ, Pil. Ferri Comp., Pil.
The pharmacopeial directions for the formation of the pillmass vary in each case, but in general they prescribe that the
ingredients shall be mixed intimately, then beaten with the ex-
Pilulæ Catharticæ Compositæ,
Pilulæ Ferri lodidi.
Trochisci, Troches,-also called Pastilles, Tablets or Loz. enges, -are small flattened cakes of medicinal substances, prepared from a mass made with a basis of Sugar, some having Mucilage of Tragacanth, others Orange-flower Water, Syrup of Tolu, etc., as excipients. They are convenient preparations for the pocket-case, and are especially useful when the active ingredients are intended to come into contact with the mucous surface of the throat. There are 16 official Troches, named as follows, viz. Trochisci Acidi Tannici.
Trochisci Mentha Piperitæ.
Trochisci Morphinæ et Ipecac.
Trocbisci Potassii Chloratis.
Trochisci Sodii Bicarbonatis.
Confectiones, Confections,-consist of medicinal substances formed into a mass with Sugar, Honey, Water, etc., with the object of rendering them palatable and of preserving them from change. Electuaries are similar preparations, but this term is now obsolete. There are only two official Confections, viz.Confectio Rosæ.
Pulveres, Powders,—are usually prepared extemporaneously, but a few compound ones have been made official, the ingredients being simply directed to be rubbed together until reduced to a
fine powder and thoroughly mixed. Special directions are given
Pulvis Glycyrrhiza Compositus.
Pulvis Ipecacuanhæ et Opii.
Pulvis Jalapæ Compositus.
Pulvis Rhei Compositus. The composition of each of these preparations will be found in the section on Materia Medica, and under the title from which its name is derived, except that of the Compound Effervescing Powder which is placed under the title POTASSIUM. Pulvis Ipecacuanhæ et Opii is really a trituration.
Triturationes, Triturations,-form a class of powders having for their diluent Sugar of Milk, and possessing a definite relation between the active ingredient and the diluent. The Pharmacopoia prescribes a general formula for these preparations, according to which to parts of the Substance and go parts of Sugar of Milk are to be well mixed by a spatula, the latter being added in successive quantities, and both triturated in a mortar until the substance is intimately mixed with the diluent and finely comminuted. There is but one official Trituration (Trituratio Elaterini), though the Pulvis Ipecacuanhæ et Opii practically belongs to this class, except in respect of the proportions prescribed. For a further discussion of this subject see the article Triturations under the heading EXTEMPORANEOUS PREPARATIONS.
Suppositoria, Suppositories,-are solid bodies containing medicinal substances, and intended for introduction into the vagina, rectum or urethra. There are no official suppositories enumerated, but the Pharmacopeia prescribes a general formula for their preparation, according to which the medicinal portion should be incorporated with Oil of Theobroma by rubbing them together at a temperature of 95° F. The mixture should then be poured into suitable moulds, and cooled on ice or in ice-cold water. Unless otherwise specified they shall be made to weigh about 15 grains each.
Unguenta, Ointments,-are soft, fatty mixtures of medicinal agents with a basis of lard, petrolatum, or fixed oils with a solid fat such as wax or spermaceti. They are intended for application to the skin by inunction, and have a melting point which is below the ordinary temperature of the human body. Of the 26 official Ointments I is prepared by chemical reaction, viz.- Unguentum Hydrargyri Nitratis; 5 by fusion and 20 by incorporation of the ingredients with each other by mixing them through the agency of a spatula and a porcelain slab. Unguentum itself is prepared by fusing together 80 parts of Lard and 20 of yellow Wax, and is the basis of 3 other ointments, while 16 have Benzoinated Lard as their basis. Unguentum.
Ung. Hydrargyri Oxidi Rubri (10). Unguentum Acidi Carbolici (10). Unguentum Iodi (4). Unguentum Acidi Gallici (10). Unguentum Iodoformi (10). Unguentum Acidi Tannici (10). Unguentum Mezerei (25). Unguentum Aquæ Rosæ.
Unguentum Picis Liquidæ (50). Unguentum Belladonnæ (10). Ung. Plumbi Carbonatis (10). Unguentum Chrysarobini (10). Ung. Plumbi lodidi (10). Unguentum Diachylon.
Ung. Potassii lodidi (12). Unguentum Gallæ (10).
Unguentum Sıramonii (10). Unguentum Hydrargyri (45). Unguentum Sulphuris (30). Ung. Hydrargyri Ammoniati (10). Ung. Sulphuris Alkalinum (20). Ung. Hydrargyri Nitratis.
Unguentum Veratrinæ (4). Ung. Hydrargyri Oxidi Flavi (10). Unguentum Zinci Oxidi (20).
The figures in parentheses show the percentage of extract or other active ingredient in the ointment. The composition of each may be found in the section on Materia Medica under the title from which the preparation is named, except Unguentum, which will be found under the title ADEPS, and Unguentum Diachylon under PLUMBUM.
Cerata, Cerates,-are unctuous preparations similar to ointments but of a much firmer consistence. They all contain Wax (Cera), and do not melt at temperatures below 104° F. They are intended for external use, and are generally spread on lint before being applied. There are 8 official Cerates, including Cératum itself, which is made by fusing together 30 parts of White Wax and 70 of Lard. The composition of the others may be found in the section on Materia Medica under the appropriate titles, but the figures in parentheses below give the percentage of drug to basis in each. Of the following-named 6 are prepared by fusion and 2 by incorporation. Ceratum.
Ceratum Extractum Cantharidis (30).
Emplastra, Plasters,-are solid compounds, insoluble in water, of a tenacious but pliable consistence and intended for
external application to limited areas of the body surface. They
Emp. Picis Burgundicæ.
Emp. Picis Canadensis.
Emp. Picis cum Cantharide.
Emplastrum Saponis. Of the foregoing only two are directed to be spread, viz.Emp. Capsici upon muslin, and Emp. Ichthyocollæ upon taffeta, the others having no pharmacopæial prescription for the material to be used. Plasters after being spread should remain soft, pliable and adhesive, without melting at the heat of the body. To soften the surface, if old, it should be brushed with a small quantity of Tincture of Camphor.
Chartæ, Papers,-consist of strips of paper. medicated by impregnation of its fibres with medicinal substances, or by being coated therewith. Of the 3 official Papers 2 are made with sized paper, and are intended for external application as vesicants or counter-irritants; the third (Charta Potassii Nitratis) is unsized paper impregnated with Nitre and intended for the inhalation of its fumes while burning. Those officially recognized areCharta Cantharidis.
EXTEMPORANEOUS PHARMACY. This division is the most important of the whole subject of Pharmacy, embracing as it does the preparation and dispensing of those medicines which are designed for immediate use and which are compounded on the prescriptions of physicians. Hence it com