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form. Potassium Iodide is best manipulated by rubbing into a smooth paste with a very little water, then adding a small quantity of Liquorice powder. Potassium Permanganate should be worked up with kaolin and a very little water. Resin Cerate, Soft and Hard Paraffin and Cacao-butter are also used as its excipients.
Quinine,-requires very clean hands and tools, and a colorless excipient, as Glycerin or Glucose, to make a nice looking pill. If one part of Tartaric Acid is added to four of the Quinine salt the mass will be less likely to crumble and will be of less bulk. Sulphate of Quinine may be made into small and soluble pills by simply triturating it with Aromatic Sulphuric Acid miij to each 5 grains of the salt. The moulding into pills should be done at the moment when the mass has begun to dry. A drop of syrup or honey, added at this time, will prevent the too rapid hardening of the mass.
Rhubarb,-in powder makes a good mass with one-fifth of its weight of Glycerin; but Soap is the excipient ordered for the official Pilulæ Rhei.
SUBSTANCES UNSUITED to the pilular form are:Those requiring large doses, and those which are volatile. Emetics, and other agents administered for immediate effect. Essential Oils in quantity exceeding half a drop to each pill. Oils and other bodies which require much solid matter to make a
mass; except those having a very small dose, as Croton Oil. Deliquescent Salts, unless intended to be used immediately. Efflorescent Salts, unless deprived of their water of crystallization. Deliquescent Salts.
Efflorescent Salts. Ammonii Iodidum.
| Alumen (slightly). - Nitras.
Ammonii Carbonas. - Valerianas.
- Phosphas. Auri Chloridum.
Ant. et Potass. Tartras (slightly). Calcii Chloridum.
Cupri Acetas. Chinoline Salts, except the Tartrate, - Sulphas. which is stable.
Magnesii Sulphas (slightly). Lithii Citras.
Potassii et Sodii Tartras (slightly). - Bromidum.
- Ferrocyanidum (slightly). - Salicylas.
Quinina Bisulphas. Magnesii Citras,
- Sulphas (after a time). Potassa.
Soda. - cum Calce.
- Santoninas (slightly). Sodii Hypophosphis.
- Sulphas. - lodidum.
- Sulphis, Zinci Bromidum.
COATED Pills are manufactured upon a large scale by the large drug houses, extensive machinery being employed for the purpose. The coating material used is either Sugar or Gelatin. The U. S. Pharmacopæia directs that two of the officials pills shall be coated by being shaken with a solution of Balsam of Tolu in Ether, viz. —Pil. Ferri lodidi and Pil. Phosphori. In extemporaneous pharmacy it is rarely practicable to coat pills with any thing except gold or silver leaf, and this is sometimes directed by the prescriber, the word “ Deaurenter-let them be gilded” being used in the subscription. To do this neatly the pills should have no trace of powder on them, but should be first coated with a trifle of fresh mucilage by rolling between the mucilage-moistened fingers, each pill being then dropped directly on to a sheet of gold or silver leaf, until a dozen or more are so deposited. The leaf and its pills are then allowed to slide into a globular boxwood shaker, or the leaf may be first placed in the shaker and the pills dropped on it there. A cautious circular movement being given to the shaker the pills are caused to travel around its walls, and when the cover is removed they will be found to have each received an even coating of the metal used. Gold leaf should always be employed for pills of Blue Mass or Asafetida, as silver is amalgamated with the former and turned black by the latter.
Albumen may be used for coating small numbers of pills, which should be of very firm consistence before the coating is applied. Each pill is rolled between two fingers with a little white of egg, and then revolved in a warm pan. Another method of finishing them is, after coating with albumen, to rotate them in a tray with powdered French chalk until their surfaces become smooth and shiny. When carefully done this process gives a very nice finish.
COMPRESSED Pills, as now largely manufactured by several reliable firms, consist of various medicinal powders pressed into pill or tablet shape by machinery. They are extremely convenient preparations for the physician's use, as quite a variety can be carried in a pocket-case, and as slight pressure is sufficient to reduce them to powder, they can be dispensed with facility and accuracy of dosage. Messrs. John Wyeth & Brother, of Philadelphia, manufacture a very extensive line of these pills, includ. ing nearly all those put up in the sugar-coated or gelatin-coated form by other houses. The trade-list of this firm should be in the hands of every physician who keeps a small stock of medicines in his office, or who carries a pocket-case of drugs. The following list includes the most important of these preparations, the figures representing the number of grains in a pill in each case.
Acid, Arsenious, do, to so, zb. Ferrum Arseniate, %, %.
Proto-carb., 3, 5.
Hydrargyrum, 1, 3, 5.
Chlor. Corros., ob to zoo to. Aloes, 2. "Aloes et Ferri (U. S. P.). - Iod. Rub., zz, de. Aloes 2, et Myrrh 1.
- Proto-lodide, to g, 5, 1, . Aloes 23, et Rhei 1%, et Gentian 23. Ipecac. et Opii, 2, 3, 5. Aloin, }, }, ..
Morphine Sulphate, to, s, t, d, 4. Ammoniam Bromide, 5, 10.
Opium Deodorized, 1. Ammonium Chloride, 3, 5, 10. Opium 12, and Lead Acetate 1%. Atropine, zb.
Pepsin Sacch., 2, 5. Bismuth Subcarb., 5.
Podophyllin, to, 18, 4, 12, 1, 2, - Subnitrate, 5, 10.
Potassium Bromide, 5, 10. Borax, 5.
- Chlorate, 5. Caffeine Citrate, 1.
Iodide, 5. Calcium Sulphide, ty, }, }, 1.
Nitrate, 5. Calomel, 4, 12, 1, 2, 3, 5.
Permanganate, 72, 1, 2, Calomel 2, Opium 1.
Quinine Bisulphate, 72, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Camphor Monobromated, 2, 3, 5.
- Salicylate, 2. Cathartic Comp. (U.S. P.) and Imp'vd. - Sulphate, 12, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Cerium Oxalate, 2,
Quinquinine, 2, 3. Cinchona Alkaloids (Mixed).
Rhubarb, 3.' Rhei Co. (U. S. P.). Cinchonine Sulphate, 2, 3, 4, 5. Rhei 2, et Magnesiæ 2. Cinchonidine Sulphate, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Salicin, 272, 5. Codeine, 14.
Santonin 1, et Calomel 1.
Zinc Phosphide, Y's up to d. The following prescriptions represent the composition of a few unofficial pills in general use. A complete pill formulary is easily obtained, being published annually by each of the principal manufacturers. Pills of Iron.
Mannæ, . . . gr. xv. Pulv. Camphoræ,. . gr. xij.
Pulv. Opii, . . . gr. iij. Fiat massa, et div. in pil. xxv.
Bismuthi Subcarb., . gr. xij. Sig.-One after each meal.
Ext. Gentianæ, q. s.
Sig.-One thrice daily.
Pulv. Cretæ (Gallicæ), gr. Ixxx. · Fiat massa, et div. in pil. xxx.
Petrolati, 4. s.
Hooper's Female Pills.
Cholagogue Pills (Squibb).
Ferri Sulph. Exsic., . gr. xxiv. Ext. Belladon. Alcohol., gr. iij.
Pulv. Sacch. Lactis, aä gr. xxiv.
Glycerini, Syrupi, q. s.
Sig.-One or two as required.
R. Pulv. Aloes Socot., . gr. xxiv. Tonic Pill for Women.
Pulv. Rhei, . . gr. xlviij. R. Strychninæ Sulph.,
Hydrarg. Chlor. Mitis, gr. iv.
Ant. et Potas. Tart., . Ac. Arseniosi, äā gr. j.
Fiat massa, et div, in pil. xxiv.
Sig.-One or two as needed.
Pulv. Aloes Socot.,
Lupulini, . . . gr. xx. Potass. Bitart., . . äå gr. xx. Fiat massa, et div. in pil, xx.
Ext. Taraxaci, q. s. Sig.-One thrice daily.
Fiat massa, et div. in pil. xx.
· gr. v.
Gelatin Capsules are to be obtained from the drug stores of various sizes from o to 10. They are a convenient means of administering oils or nauseous solids, and when filled may be swallowed as easily as a large pill. By some of the manufacturers Soluble Elastic Capsules are prepared, each containing an ordinary dose of such medicines as Castor Oil, Cod-liver Oil, etc. The largest of these capsules makes a bolus which may be swallowed with a little effort, as it is quite compressible and changes its shape to suit the calibre of the passage. The ordinary capsules are easily filled by the aid of a paper funnel, and the end of a pen-holder as a packer ; but simple devices (capsule-fillers) may be obtained for the purpose of facilitating the operation. R. Pulv. Opii, . . . gr. x. R. Copaibze,. . . . giss.
Pulv. Camphoræ, . . gr. xx. Oleo-resinæ Cubebæ, , 3ss.
M., et fiant capsulæ xij.
Sig.-Two capsules three times Sig. - One at bedtime for chordee; daily, soon after meals, for gonor. repeat in two hours if necessary. rhæa.
Troches (Trochisci),—also named Tablets, Pastilles, Lozenges, etc., and Compressed Pills, are not readily compounded at the dispensing counter, but may be obtained in all first-class shops, being prepared in great variety by the manufacturers. Besides the official Troches (see ante, page 461), those named in the following list are generally for sale :
Compressed Tablets. Alum, gr. ij.
| Ammonium Chloride, gr. iij. Alum gr. 122, Catechu gr. ij.
Charcoal, gr. x. Ammonium Chloride gr. ij, and Cu- Cocaine Hydrochlorate. bebs gr. j.
Dover's Powder. Ammon. Chlor. gr. ij, Liquorice gr. Mercury, Yellow Oxide, gr. zbo. viij.
Pepsin and Pancreatin. Benzoic Acid, gr. %.
Potassium Bicarb., gr. v. Borax, gr. iij.
Potassium Chlorate, gr. v. Bismuth, gr. ij, and Charcoal, gr. v. Potas. Chlorate and Borax, äă gr. Bronchial,-Ol.-res. Cubebs, gr. , - 2 %.
Tolu, gr. 1, Ol. Sassafras, gr. to, Potas, Chl. and Ammon. Chloride. and Ext. of Liquorice, gr. vij.
Spencer's Chloramine Pastilles. Brown Mixture.
Sodium Bicarb., gr. iv., Ammon Carb., Carbolic Acid, gr. j.
gr. 4, 01. Menth. Pip., gtt. %. Ginger and Sodium Bicarb.
Sodium Salicylate, gr. iij. Guaiac., gr. ij.
| Antiseptic. Hydrarg. Chlor. Corr., Kino, gr. ij.
gr. vijss. Lettuce, gr. j.
Fehling's Test for grape-sugar in the Lime-juice.
urine. Logwood, gr. ij. Magnesia, gr. iij.
Hypodermic Tablets. Pellitory, gr. j.
Morphine Sulphate, gr. 1 to 4. Pepsin, gr. iij, Charcoal, gr. iij, Morph. Sulph. and Atropine Sulph.
Magnesia, gr. ij, and Ginger, Atropine Sulphate, gr. złoto gr. j.
Strychnine Sulphate, gr. rão: Potassium Bitartrate, gr. iij.
Apomorphine Muriate, gr. 1. to. Potassium Citrate, gr. iij.
Pilocarpine Muriate, gr. 1-1. Santonin, gr. 72, and Calomel, gr. %. 1 (And several others.)
Confections (Confectiones), and Electuaries (Electuaria), —are very seldom prescribed, and therefore can have but little place in extemporaneous pharmacy. They are medicinal powders, etc., beaten up with sugar, honey or molasses, to the consistence of a thick paste, and are administered with a spoon like preserved fruits. The two official confections are described on page 461, and a few old formulæ for similar preparations are given below as pharmaceutical curios. The first is a meritorious prescription.