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Dr. Pavay, Chief of the Presburg Hospital, gives the palm to Antipyrine (see page 72), as a practical antipyretic, being equally efficient with Quinine and Salicin, while comparatively devoid of the secondary symptoms which detract so much from the value of these two agents. He uses only 3i-ij per diem, and denounces larger doses. Comparing its action with that of other antipyretics, he says that Chinoline causes vomiting, Resorcin and Hydroquinon great nervous excitation, and Kairin a very unpleasant sensation in the face and nose, besides vomiting, cyanosis and collapse.
Avena Sativa, the common Oat, a plant of the nat, ord. Graminaceæ,was official in the U. S. P. 1870, as Avena Farina, or Oatmeal. A concentrated tincture or fluid extract has recently been extensively advertised by drug manufacturers as a nerve stimulant and tonic, especially efficacious in the treatment of chorea, epilepsy, insomnia, nervous exhaustion, alcoholism and the Opium-habit. The seeds contain starch, gluten, gum, etc., and form a nutritious food, the meal being made into a porridge, or gruel. In the latter form it is a good demulcent for coughs. The pericarp contains an amorphous alkaloid, which has doubtless some stimulant and narcotic power; but the claims advanced for it, as a specific remedy for the cure of the opiumhabit, have been strenuously denied by many competent observers. Dose of the concentrated tincture or fluid extract, may be stated at mx-3ij.
Cocaine (see page 182). Besides the great value of this alkaloid and its salts for producing local anæsthesia, it is coming into daily use as a general stimulant, a diuretic, an analgesic and an anti-pruritic. Doses of gr. ss of the Hydrochlorate twice daily have marked diuretic action, and as such it should be decidely useful in cases of anæmia, uræmia, and weak heart with dropsy. Prof. Laskevitch ascribes to it the power of relieving the paroxysms of angina pectoris, at first only tempering their acuteness, but after a few days' use the attacks decrease in strength and duration, finally disappearing altogether. In sea-sickness it is reported to be very useful, if used in solution; cases in which the tablet sorm was employed deriving no benefit from it. It is further reported efficacious in the insomnia and diarrheas of children. The writer has found it to be an extremely prompt and efficient application, in ointment, oleate or solution (5-10 per cent.), for the burning and itching of Rhuspoisoning, and for pruritus ani et scroti, and similar affections. Mr. Jessup declares that Cocaine, as used in ophthalmic practice, is often injurious, that it may produce glaucoma, and will increase exophthalmos.
The internal dose of Cocaine Hydrochlorate is gr, -ij for an adult; gr. to gr.ss, according to age, for a child.
Hoang-Nan (from Strychnos Gaultheriana),-is, in common with the other members of the Strychnos family, a tetanizing agent. It is recommended in leprosy, syphilis, scrosula, varicose ulcers, eczema and other skin diseases; and has lately received attention as a preventive of hydrophobia, if given during the period of incubation in daily doses of gr. xv, which suffice to produce the physiological effects of the drug, namely-heightened reflexes, convulsions and trismus (Barthélemy). The ordinary dose is gr. -gr. ss, in pill.
Ichthyol, is a preparation obtained from a bitumen found in the Tyrol, and regarded as the animal residue of antediluvian sea-animals and fishes. Ichthyol has a peculiar odor, a faintly alkaline reaction, and contains Sulphur
in the proportion of ten per cent. It has been introduced by Dr. Unna, of Hamburg, the celebrated dermatologist, as a promptly efficient remedy in cer. tain chronic skin diseases, particulaly eczema and psoriasis. It mixes with vaseline, lard and oils, is soluble in a mixture of ether and alcohol, and is not irritant locally, even if covered with oiled silk.
In one case of eczema infantile, an ointment was applied containing I part of Ichthyol to 5 of Vaseline, resulting in the child's sinking into a stupor which lasted for 12 hours. Though recovery was complete, the result of the application shows that care must be used in the employment of the remedy, as it is not devoid of danger (Sinclair).
Lanolin, is a cholesterin fat obtained from the suds from the washing of sheep's wool, by a process patented in the United States by Prof. Liebreich, the discover of Chloral; and though a very old medicament, being mentioned by Ovid, Herodotus, Pliny and Aristophanes, it is now being introduced to the medical world as the best basis for ointments. It contains 25 to 30 per cent. of water, and readily unites with 110 per cent. of its own weight of water; differing from all other fatty substances, chiefly in resisting saponifica. tion and the action of water, having no tenleney to become rancid. It readily passes through the integument, carrying with it any medicament with which it is charged. It is a perfectly neutral base, and hence is not liable to decompose any ordinary substance. The difficulty about its use has been its very disagreeable sheepy smell, but recent samples, exhibited to the British Medi. cal Association, seem to have been devoid of this objectionable quality. It is particularly useful in chronic skin diseases where there is infiltration, and a penetrative action is desired for medicaments. In a few cases of acute and subacute eczema it has proved irritating, but as a rule it is persectly bland. Where a simple protective action is desired it is inferior to Lard, Vaseline or Cold Cream.
Manganese (see page 2561,-is becoming more of an acknowledged remedy in derangements of the menstrual function, as irregular or scanty merstruation, amenorrhæa, menorrhagia, and even metrorrhagia. By some authorities, the emmenagogue power of Potassium Permanganate is ascribed to its large proportion of Oxygen, which it is supposed to give up to the uterus; as, until recently, Potassium Chlorate was supposed to do by the system at large. According to the views of others who have studied its action, Manganese should be classed with the excito-motors, increasing arterial tension, and specifically acting upon the uterus. The best preparation is the Binoxide, in freshly-made pills of two grains each, of which i 10 3 or 5 pills may be taken twice or thrice daily. The Permanganate of Potassium has generally been the preparation given when the effects of Manganese were desired (see page 2571 ; but as it causes great gastric irritability, with abdominal pains and burning sensations, besides other decidedly unpleasant symptoms, it is a difficult matter to get patients to take it for any length of time.
Salol, or Phenol Salicyl,-is a new antiseptic and antipyretic, lately dis. covered by Prof. Von Nencki, of Berne. It is a white, greasy body, of slightly aromatic odor, but no taste, almost insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol. It is decomposed in the organism by the pancreatic juice, appearing in the urine as urate of salicyl, the decomposition taking place in the duodenum, without any modification of its constituent parts. It, therefore, causes no
n. usea whatever, but colors the urine almost black, without any untoward symptoms; and is administered in quantities of zj-ij daily in divided doses.
As an Antiseptic it is hoped that Salol will displace the disagreeable Todo. form and the dangerous Bichloride of Mercury. It certainly prevents the development of bacilli, and is the best substance to apply to wounds. Internally it will be of benefit in all intestinal catarrhs, in typhoid fever to disinfect the ulcerations; in cystitis and catarrh of the bladder, rendering the urine completely aseptic;-in cholera, and against intestinal parasites. As an Antipyretic, it has been used in phthisis, diminishing the temperature 7° F., from 104° to 97°; also in various rheumatic affections, in which it has given better results than the Salicylate of Sodium; while being tasteless and non-nauseant it has a great advantage over the latter salt.
Terebene, is a clear, colorless fluid, having a pleasant odor, something like that of pine wood, and is prepared by the action of Sulphuric Acid upon Oil of Turpentine. It imparts a violaceous odor to the urine, and does not mix with water; but its small doses for internal administration (Mv-xv), enables it to be given on sugar. Being less irritating and less disagreeable than Oil of Turpentine, and possessing most of the properties belonging to the latter, it will doubtless largely displace it in many affections for which Turpentine is now employed.
It has been extensively used by Dr. Murrell, with excellent results, as a remedy for obstinate winter-cough and emphysema of the lungs, in fatulence, and flatulent dyspepsi1, also in cystitis and in gleet. He has employed it with benefit as a spray in phthisis and post- nasal catarrh, also with Cocaine in solution as a spray for coryza and hay-fever. Other observers, of several years' experience with this remedy in England, praise it highly as an inhalant remedy in phthisis, bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis, and other pulmonary affections characterized by prosuse, purulent expectoration. Dr. Rieu employs it extensively in bronchitis and bronchorrhæa, in doses internally of gr. xv-XXX per diem, - but says that it does not affect the muco-purulent expectoration of phthisis (Bull, Gén, de Therap., April 30, 1886). It probably has no superior efficacy to Creasote, Venice Turpentine, etc., except that it is without much odor, and has no taste.
Urethan, the new hypnotic, is chemically a Carbamate of Ethyl, very soluble in water, and may be administered hypodermically, as it is free from local irritant action. It is decidedly hypnotic, slows the pulse and lowers the temperature. In large doses it produces complete muscular resolution and general anæsthesia. It cloes not derange nutrition, nor does it coagulate the Muids of the body. Extensive experimental observations have been made with Ure. than on animals, by Prof. Coze, of Nancy, which prove it to be a complete functional antagonist to the action of Strychnine. It should be useful in any form of convulsions and especially in tetanus.
TABLE OF SPECIFIC GRAVITIES AND
(Temperature at 59° F., except when otherwise stated.)
Specific. Specific Gravity. Volume.
Specific Specific Gravity. Volume.
(34 per cent.).......
1. 303 1.077 1.160 1.049 1.212 1.420 1.059 0.800 1.347 1.057 1.840 1.094 .750
725 .820 .812 .928
.953 .833 . 704 .944 1.250 • 742 .945 .543 .914 1.333 1.379 1.219 1.231 1.077 1.087 1.00 1.043 1.III 1.403
Liq. Ferri Tersulph.... Liq. Potassæ......... Liq. Sodæ......... Mel (Honey)... OI, Adipis......... OI, Amyg. Expres OL. Aurant. Cort. Ol. Bergamii. Ol. Caryophilli ... 01. Copaibæ. Ol. Cubebæ... OI. Eucalypti. OI. Gaultheria.... 01. Gossyp. Sem..... Ol. Lavandula... OI. Limonis ....... 01. Lini .......... OI. Mentha Pip. Ol, Morrhuæ Ol. Olivæ .. OL Ricini Ol, Rosmarini... O1. Sassafras.......... Ol. Sesami..... OI. Terebinthinæ... Spt. Ætheris Nitrosi... Spt. Frumenti ...... Spt. Vini Gallici. Syrupus Simplex...... Vinum Album........ Vinum Rubrum...
1.329 .757 1.036
.905 1.059 .944 1.333 .750 .900
1.001 .860 1.163 .875
1.143 1.050 - .952 .890 1.123 .920
1.111 1.173 .852 .925 1.081 .890 1,123 .850 1.176
1.008 .900 I.111 .920 1.087 .916 1.092
1.11 1.091 ..917
1.080 .862 1.100 .824 1 1.214 .920 1.087 .930
11.075 1.310 . .763 1.000 1.000 1.000
1.000 .959 .900 .670 1,272 1.488 1.470 1.250 1.160 1.405
.672 .680 .800 .862
TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBER OF DROPS IN A FLUIDRACHM OF VARIOUS LIQUIDS, ALSO THE WEIGHT OF ONE FLUIDRACHM IN GRAINS.
(COMPARE PAGE 469.)
Drops i Weight in f3j. of f3j in (Mlx.) | grains,
Drops, Weight in f3j. of 13j in (Mix.), grains.
130 120 123 119
132 148 129
Liq. Jodi Compos ....... Liq. Potassæ........ Liq. Zinci Chloridi.... Oleores. A pidii.... Oleores. Capsici... Oleores. Cubcbæ.. Oleum Anisi..... Oleum Bergamii Oleum Cari... Oleum Juniperi Oleum Limonis, Oleum Ricini. Oleum Rosz. Oleum Terebinth. Oleum Tiglii........... Spt. Ætheris Comp..... Spt, Ætheris Vitrosi Spt. Camphoræ....... Syrupus Simplex........ Syrupus Acaciæ....... Syrupus Ferri lod.... Syrupus Scilla........ Syr. Scilla, Comp....... Syrupus Senegar Tinctura Aconiti......... Tinctura Belladonna Tinct. Benzoini Comp.. Tinct. Cantharidis... Tinct. Digitalis............ Tinct. Ferri Chlor. Tinct. lodi... Tinct. Opii................ Tinct. Opii Camph.. Tinct. Opii Deodor.... Vin, Colchici Rad... Vin Colchici Sem... Vinum Opii.....