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Personals. '86. Edwin Minor is principal of the Sohaba Indian School and Industrial Garden near San Jacinto, California.
'89. A. M. Bogle is teaching in the Kansas City, Kansas, High school.
'92. T. B. Hanna is pursuing a special course in the University of Kansas.
'92. Professor Gurney Binford, of the Friends' school, Tokio, Japan, made a pleasant visit to us the other day. The Endeavor society announced a stereoptican lecture from him on Monday evening, April 10. It was most enjoyable from beginning to end and many present would have been delighted to attend another on the following evening. Mr. Binford is rapidly regaining his strength and hopes to be able to resume his work in Tokio soon.
'93. Grace Tolman is completing her third year in the
Woman's Medical College at Philadelphia. Her address is 1530 N. Twentieth street.
'94. Ambrose White is principal of the Linwood schools.
'94. M. Alice Spradlin after teaching for several years in the girls' school at Arcadia, Darjuling, India, became interested in the Spanish-American war and was appointed as nurse to the Twentieth Kansas Regiment, which has been having some thrilling experiences at Manila. The newspaper reports speak enthusiastically of her courage and her devotion to the needs of the wounded.
'96. Bertha Stachling is principal of the Hillsdale schools, and reports a pleasant year.
'97. Clara Elizabeth Lindamood became Mrs. Chas. Bayless on April 5. She will be at home in May at 1444 Puente de Alvarado, City of Mexico.
'99. C. C. Chapman, principal at Alma, expects to return for a short time before the year closes.
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Antilles remained the only considerable American colony subject to Spanish rule. In 1825 the Captain-General of the island was invested “with the whole extent of power granted to the Governors of besieged towns."'| This was martial law control and from the day of its inauguration until the island was wrested last year from Spanish hands, was virtually the only control that Cuba knew. From time to time, in response to the more or less successful efforts of desperate insurrectionists Spain promised measures of reform, but all promises were made apparently only to be broken and the iron hand never relaxed
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The Spanish-American War. (The course in history for the institutes this summer includes a lesson on the Spanish-American war. The following brief sketch will be found worth preserving by every teacher. It was prepared by Miss M. A. Whitney, teacher of United States History, and Mr. W. S. Picken, assistant teacher of history at the State Normal School. Persons desiring additional copies can secure the same by enclosing three two-cent stamps to the editor.)
1. The fairest of Spain's island possessions, Cuba was likewise one of the earliest locations for a Spanish colony. Columbus lived long enough to see a permanent settlement planted upon the island and Las Casas in his accounts of the inhuman treatment to which the Indians of the West Indies were subjected, gave to the world a reasonable portrayal of the policy of oppression or extermination which everywhere distinguished ths Spaniards as colonial rulers.
From the first, Cuba groaned under the Spanish colonial policy,-a policy which always meant the enrichment of the home government or of native-born Spanish officials at the expense and suffering of the colonists.
For a century the island was the base from which expeditions of conquering Spaniards over-ran surrounding tropical Amer. ica. For another century it was from her harbors that fleets laden with the spoils of conquests in the New World sailed for the homeland and then followed a long period during which she witnessed the efforts of French and English navies for supremacy in the West Indian seas. English speaking people of the North American continent became interested in Cuba in an especial way when, in 1762, toward the close of the French and Indian War, Havana fell into English hands after efforts of unparalleled bravery and hardship upon the part of the English soldiers and sailors. Spain's estimate of the value of the island's control may be readily inferred from the alacrity with which in 1763 she exchanged the Floridas for Havana.
Despite the selfishness and cruelty of Spanish rule it was not until the opening years of the present century that elements of friction and rebellion appeared. Indeed it would seem that the malevolence of the Spanish colonial policy, baffled by the successful insurrections of Spain's continental posessions in the New World, did not concentrate itself upon Cuba until at the end of the first quarter of the century the Pearl of the
From the time of Thomas Jefferson's administration the United States has been keenly alive to the consequences of the island's misgovernment in the hands of Spain and has perforce been compelled to consider the possibility of its ownership falling into her own or other hands as a legitimate consequence of such misgovernment. Indeed, Jefferson, as early as 1807, penned these words: “Napoleon will give his consent without difficulty to our receiving the Floridas, and with some difficulty possibly Cuba.” In 1823 Monroe referred to Cuba as a possible addition to the United States, and shortly afterward John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay advocated its annexation as indispensable to the integrity of the Union.
In 1845 the Spanish government rejected with scorn the proposition of the United States to purchase the island for one hundred million dollars, declaring that she would rather “see it sunk in the sea.” “To part with Cuba would be to part with national honor” was her answer to another proposition a little later.
The United States, in 1852, refused to agree to join England and France in guaranteeing Cuba to Spain because its ownership "might be essential to our own safety."
The Ostend Manifesto of 1854 was an open advocacy for the conquest of the island on the ground that this country could “never enjoy repose, nor possess reliable security, as long as Cuba is not embraced within its boundaries."
The year 1826 witnessed Cuba's first revolt. The uprising was crushed and its two leaders were executed. Shortly after occurred the "Conspiracy of the Black Eagle,” another attempt to throw off the Spanish yoke. Like the first effort, it too was unsuccessful and the parties engaging in it were imprisoned, banished or executed.
In 1844 another iusurrection occurred, with a story similar to the former struggles, and in 1850 the Lopez expedition from New Orleans landed on the island, the first of a series of illstarred filibustering movements participated in by American sympathizers of the Cuban patriots. Three hundred men comprised the expedition and they were carried by the steamer Pampero. W. S. Crittenden, a graduate of West Point and a hero of the Mexican War, though still almost a youth, was second in command. Having landed, the party separated into two divisions, one remaining at the seacoast under Crittenden's charge, the other, the main body, under Lopez, pressing on into the interior.
Both divisions were captured. Crittenden and fifty of his men were shot,—the brave American refusing to kneel with his back to the firing party in accordance with the Spanish usage, but standing with his face toward his executioners. Lopez was garroted, forty-nine of his command were shot and one hun
dred six of them sent to Spain in chains—the first large consign- McKinley had not dared to transmit to Congress, in spite of ment of political prisoners from Cuba. The Lopez incident the latter's repeated demands, the consular reports which pict. created intense excitement in the United States, particularly ured the situation. because of interest in the heroic and promising Crittenden. At the opening of 1898 our government had received permis
In 1855, as a result of further insurrectionary efforts, Ramon sion from Spain to feed the starving “reconcentrados" and Pinto was put to death and many other patriots were driven tons of food supplies raised by the charity of the American from the island. A period of quiet now ensued during people were being hurried by train and ship load to Cuba. which time the Cubans endeavored by fullest obedience and by The movement excited Spanish suspicion and jealousy. The peaceful methods to obtain some slight measure of justice and question of the safety of Americans in Havana was such as to self-government. Every effort failed and conditions grew cause uneasiness and President McKinley decided to send the
battleship Maine to that port. On January 5 she anchored in In 1869 the insurrection under Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, Havana harbor, received by the Spanish authorities as the rep“The Ten Years' War" as it was known, broke out.
resentative of a friendly power. On the evening of February during the progress of the "Ten Years' War” that the “Virgin- 15 the Maine was blown up and totally destroyed with the loss ius” massacre occurred. On October 7, 1873, Captain Joseph of two hundred fifty-four of her officers and crew. Fry, commanding the Virginius, a ship built in England for For forty days the American people awaited in grim silence blockade running during the Civil War in the United States, the report of a Board of Inquiry appointed to investigate the took aboard his vessel a large consignment of war material to cause of the disaster, Congress, however, appropriating withbe delivered to the rebel forces in Cuba. The Virginius was out a dissenting vote $50,000,000 for national defense. overtaken by the Spanish gunboat Tornado and her captain The vital part of the finding of the Board of Inquiry was that and crew carried to the port of Santiago de Cuba.
the disaster could have been caused "only by the explosion of Captain Fry and some fifty of his officers and crew were sum- a mine situated under the bottom of the ship," and "was not in marily tried and shot on November 7, just a month after the any respect due to fault or negligence on the part of any of the ship had sailed from Port au Prince. Ninety-three additional officers or members of the crew of the vessel.” men were under sentence of death and were saved from that The report was transmitted to Congress by the President fate only by the interposition of Captain Sir Lampton Lor- without comment. Congress, backed by an overwhelming raine, of the British steamer Niobe, who had brought his ship majority of the American people, soon determined upon two at full speed from Jamaica and who with his guns trained upon things,-that there must be atonement for the Maine and that the city made a peremptory demand upon the Spanish authori- the war and the destruction of the reconcentrados must cease ties that the massacre should stop.
even if it meant the end of Spanish rule in Cuba. For a time it seemed that the administration of President On April u a long-looked for message from the President, Grant would be forced into war with Spain as a result of the delayed by the need of getting American citizens out of feeling stirred up in the United States when the news of the Havana before the storm broke, was presented in both houses Virginius massacre became generally known. The good sense of Congress. On the seventh Mr. McKinley had had occasion of the American people at last woke to the fact that Captain to answer the representatives of Great Britain, France, GerFry and his crew had engaged in an unlawful enterprise, and many, Austria, Russia and Italy who in the name of their respecthat while their fate was greatly to be deplored it was not to be tive governments, had presented “a pressing appeal to the feelavenged. The influence of the barbarities characterizing the ings of humanity and inoderation of the President and of the war brought about an ultimatum from President Grant to the American people, in their existing differences with Spain." Spanish government looking toward the annexation of the He said: “The government of the United States appreciates the island by America unless the war should speedily be brought to
humanitarian and disinterested character of the communicaa close. Spain at once responded by promises to the revolu- tion now made on behalf of the powers named, and for its part tionists of the most liberal concessions, and the war ended by is confident that equal appreciation will be shown for its own the treaty of Zanjon.
earnest and unselfish endeavors to fulfil a duty to humanity by Had Spain honestly kept the pledges she made in this treaty ending a situation the indefinite prolongation of which has bethere had been an end of Cuban insurrections. But as Henry
come insufferable." Cabot Lodge says: “Spain unhesitatingly violated the agree- When the message following this declared that“In the name ment. With a cynical disregard of good faith, her promise of of humanity, in the name of civilization and in behalf of amnesty was only partially kept, and she imprisoned or exe- endangered American interests which give us the right and cuted many who had been engaged in the insurgent cause, duty to speak and to act, the war in Cuba must stop," and while the promised reforms were either totally neglected or asked Congress to “empower the president to take measures to carried out by some mockery which had neither reality nor secure a full and final termination of hostilities between the value."
government of Spain and the people of Cuba **** and to Bloodshed and oppression, increased abuses of an already use the military and naval forces of the United States as may be almost intolerable government, at last resulted in the opening necessary for these purposes,” the world knew that the issue of the recent Cuban revolt, when in February, 1895, Jose Marti was fully joined and that Spain must yield to the demands of landed in Eastern Cuba.
America or appeal to the arbitrament of war. A year later General Martinez Campos, with a record of fail- Four days after the President's message was received Conure against the inroads of the insurgents, was compelled to re- gress passed “resolutions asserting (1) that the people of Cuba sign the Govenor-Generalship and was succeeded by Valeriano are and of a right ought to be free and independent; (2) that Weyler.
it is the duty of the United States to demand the withdrawal of Weyler's "concentration” policy followed as a war measure,
Spain from the island; (3) that the President is authorized to and before the end of 1897 all Cuba controlled by Spanish compel Spain's withdrawal; and (4) that the United States has forces contained thousands of starving non-combatants, dying
no intention to absorb Cuba, but it is determined 'to leave the under conditions so pitiable and so horrifying that President government and control of the island to its people.'”