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The President's ultimatum, transmitting the action to Congress, was cabled to the American minister at Madrid, upon April 20. Before it could be presented, the Spanish government, informed from other sources as to what Congress had done, and considering it tantamount to a declaration of war, dissolved diplomatic relations by giving to General Woodford his passports.
On April 22 a blockade of the principal ports of Cuba was proclaimed by the President. The next day was issued a call for 125,000 volunteer soldiers to enlist for two years unless sooner discharged. The same day the gunboat Nashville captured a Spanish merchantman, the Buena Ventura, a capture followed in a very few weeks by the taking of a large number of prizes from the Spanish merchant marine.
On April 25 Congress passed a brief bill stating that “war has existed since the twenty-first day of April between the United States of America and the kingdom of Spain."
The first action participated in by an American feet was a bombardment of some earthworks near Mantanzas by three war ships under command of Commodore W. T. Sampson, on April 27-a bombardment which caused a Spanish loss, as reported in Havana and Madrid, of "one mule.”
The next day the Asiatic fieet, commanded by Commodore George Dewey, started from Mirs Bay near Hong Kong, China, upon a six hundred twenty mile trip to the Philippine Islands in obedience to a dispatch received but three days before from the Secretary of War. The instructions in the message were brief and pointed: “DEWEY, ASIATIC SQUADRON:
War has commenced between the United States and Spain. Proceed at once to Phillippine Islands. Commence operations at once, particularly against Spanish fleet. You must capture vessels or destroy. Use utmost endeavors.
LONG." Nearing the islands it was decided to enter the bay at Manila where it was expected that the Spanish naval forces of the region would be found. The entrance to the bay was made at night, the Spanish forts and batteries at the mouth of the bay making but slight resistance. The early morning of May i found the fleets of the Spanish and Americans opposed off the shore of Cavite, the Spanish naval station south-east of the city of Manila.' The Spanish fleet was manned by a total of 1796 men under command of of Admiral Montojo, and consisted of seven cruisers and gunboats mounting 124 guns of all kinds. Dewey's ships taking part in the action included four cruisers,—the Olympia, the Baltimore, the Boston and the Raleigh; and the gunboats Concord and Petrel--the whole carrying 121 guns. The American ships were manned by 1678
The American armament included cannon of larger caliber than any carried by the Spanish fleet, but the latter was anchored under the protection of the guns of Cavite, receiving substantial assistance therefrom during the engagement which followed. The action commenced about half-past five o'clock in the morning and ended about one o'clock that afternoon,including a stop of nearly three hours, ostensibly for breakfast and rest for the American sailors, a stop afterward explained as based upon a need to overhaul and take stock of ammunition which it was feared was falling short.
The outcome of the battle is told in the delayed dispatch received from Commodore Dewey via Hong-Kong on the seventh of May:
“MANILA, May 1.-Squadron arrived at Manila at daybreak this morn ing. Immediately engaged the enemy and destroyed the following Spanish vessels: Reina Christina, Castilla, Don Antonio de Ulloa, Isia de Luzon, Isla de Cuba, General Lezo, Marques del Duera, Cano, Velasco, Isla de Mindanao, a transport and water battery at Cavite. The squadron is uninjured, and only a few men are slightly wounded. Only means of telegraphing is to Americaa consul at Hong Kong. I shall communicate with him.
DEWEY," A dispatch dated May 4 but received the same day added inforination :
I control Manila bay coinpletely and can take city (Manila) at any time. Spanish loss not fully known, but very heavy.
I am assisting in protecting Spanish sick and wounded.”
Later detailed information placed the total Spanish loss in killed and wounded at 634, including those in the shore batteries and forts at Cavite.
Commodore Dewey received the thanks of Congress and a sword of honor, while his comrades were voted medals commemoraive of the great victory which astonished the world and so gloriously justified America's pride in her navy.
The Republic of Hawaii had sought annexation to the United States from the time of its organization in 1893. Sentiment in the United States had been so divided upon the question that every effort to bring about annexation had failed. Upon the outbreak of hostilities the Hawaiian government refused to declare neutrality, in conformity with the example of other foreign nations, but practically proclaimed herself an ally of the United States even in the face of strong pressure from representatives of European governments in Honolulu. It was asserted that President Dole had sent a long communication to President McKinley before the end of April offering to transfer the islands to the United States for the purposes of its war with Spain, and to furnish American ships of war in the Pacific waters with coal, supplies and ammunition.
The success of our fleet in the East and the strategic importance of Hawaii, coupled with the feeling that the little Republic ought to be fully protected from the possible consequences of her open advocacy of the cause of the United States, encouraged the friends of annexation to accomplish their purpose by the passage of a joint resolution.
Accordingly, upon May 4, Mr. Newlands, of Nevada, introduced a resolution declaring the islands and their dependencies "hereby annexed as a part of the territory of the United States and subject to the sovereign dominion thereof,” and specifying details for carrying out such declaration,
On May 12 the House Committee on Foreign Affairs adopted the Newlar.d's resolution by a vote of ten to four. Their report was placed before the House on June 11 and adopted on the fifteenth, the vote standing 209 to 91. The Senate held the resolution up until July 6, when it finally passed that body by a vote of 42 to 21. The following day President McKinley signed it and the United States became the owner of her first considerable possession not upon the American continent.
In the meantime the war was hastening to momentous events in American waters. The blockade of Cuban ports, entrusted to the North Atlantic squadron under Com. Sampson, continued. What was termed the “flying squadron” was placed under the command of Com. W. S. Schley with its station at Fortress Monroe. To the "Aying squadron” was assigned the duty of guarding the Atlantic seaports from possible attack by Spanish fleets sent against them, always being held in readiness, however, to cooperate with Sampson's fleet.
At the time of the destruction of the Maine, the battleship Oregon, built upon the Pacific coast and then upon the Pacific coast station, was ordered to the Atlantic seacoast to replace the lost vessel. Her voyage around the continent was in progress at the outbreak of hostilities.
Upon April 29.the Spanish fleet under Admiral Cervera started from the Canary Islands for American waters. Much uncertainty existed as to his course and intentions and it was a matter of deep concern to America as to the possibility of his intercepting and capturing or destroying the Oregon. The battleship reached Jupiter inlet off the Florida coast, however, on May 24 without having encountered Cervera. The latter reached Martinque on May 12. For a time he eluded the American fleets in his efforts to reach Havana or some port easily acces
sible by laud from the latter city, but finally put into harbor of began before seven o'clock in the morning and it was not until Santiago to coal ships. Before he could finish and put to sea, four o'clock in the afternoon that the Spanish were overcome. the division of the American fleet under Commodore Schley A recent writer says: “The defense of El Caney was the best appeared before the harbor's entrance and reinforced by Com- and bravest bit of fighting that the Spaniards did in the whole modore Sampson's squadron securely blockaded him in the
For more than ten hours General Vera del Rey's harbor.
five hundred men kept at bay ten times their number of Amer. As soon as the blockade of Cervera's feet was accomplished ican soldiers." it was considered that it might be made more effective by sink- The American losses were nearly five hundred in killed and ing a ship in the narrow mouth of the harbor. The execution wounded. Of the five hundred and twenty Spanish soldiers of the plan was entrusted to Lieutenant Hobson. A collier defending ElCaney three hundred were killed and wounded, ship, the Merrimac, manned with a volunteer crew of six men, one hundred and twenty were captured, and the remnant was committed to his charge and in the early hours before day- escaped into Santiago. The heights of San Juan, almost in light on the morning of June 3, he steamed into the narrow front of the American center, and the strongest of Santiago's part of the channel and sank her. The act was accomplished outer line of defences, had been fortified by intrenchments that under a rain of projectiles from the Spanish forts at the har- in the hands of more determined forces than the Spaniards, bor's mouth. It was one of the bravest deeds recorded in his- would have been impregnable. A graphic and well authentitory.
cated account of the action says: “The story of the assault, in Hobson and his men escaped serious injury, two being only brief, was that the cavalry division-armed, it should be remem. slightly wounded. They were all captured and held prisoners bered, with carbines which had no bayonets-charged up San by the Spaniards, being treated with marked kindness. Admi- Juan hill, drove the enemy from the top, descended the further ral Cervera sent messengers under a flag of truce to inform the slope, and then, in line with Kent's division moved onward blockading fleet of their escape from serious harm. The ob- against the main Spanish division on the ridge of Fort San ject intended by the sinking of the Merrimac was not accom- Juan. The charge was not a swift rush of cheering regiments, plished, as the tide swung her past the position desired and sweeping forward in serried ranks, as the popular fancy has still left an open channel from the harbor.
pictured it. It was a climb up a steep slope that arose about Upon May 30 General Shafter, in command of an army one hundred forty feet above the river, and the assailants were of invasion, mobilized at Tampa, Florida, had received irregular and scanty masses of men, now halting to fire, now the following order: "Go with your force to capture garri- rushing on, breaking down the wire entanglements, or vaulting son at Santiago, and assist in capturing garrison and fleet.” them, and pushing onward and upward to the Spanish trenches." On June 8 the army was embarking on transports to carry out The Spanish defense of San Juan was not so stubborn as at the order, but was recalled on a false rumor that Spanish war El Caney. They fled from their trenches as the Americans vessels had been sighted. A delay of six days occurred, and topped the hill without waiting for a hand to hand fight. So then under the convoy of battleships the army, numbering a great was their demoralization that they might have been total of 16,887 oflicers and men, started for Cuba, the largest followed by the American soldiers without further serious expedition sent by sea in the history of the United States and resistance right into the city of Santiago. The latter had the largest sent anywhere aboard transports since the Crimean fought for eight hours, however, under a blazing tropical sun War. On the 22 of June the major part of the force was suc- and were in no condition for a further advance at once. San cessfully landed at the port of Baiquiri, twelve miles east of Juan cost the Americans over one thousand men, killed, the entrance to Santiago bay and about the same distance wounded and missing. south-east of the city of Santiago. The next day the advance Two days after El Caney and San Juan, on Sunday morning, upon the city began.
July 3, Admiral Cervera tried to escape from Santiago harbor The first serious resistance to the advance was met at La past the blockading feet. The details of that Sabbath mornGuasima, some four miles northwest of Baiquiri. Here upon ing's action seem almost past belief. The Spanish vessels the morning of June 24, parts of three regiments of the regular headed to the west, keeping close to the coast, and kept up a army and of Colonel Roosevelt's regiment of “Rough Riders”, running fight until every one of them was destroyed! First in all nine hundred and twenty-four men, attacked intrenched the cruiser Maria Teresa was disabled, and, burning, headed Spanish forces and after an hour's sharp fighting drove them for the shore; then the two torpedo boats were destroyed from their position. The American losses in killed and wounded within five miles of the harbor's mouth. were sixty-eight, of which over forty were “Rough Riders." In swift succession the cruisers Almiranto, Oquendo and the The Spanish loss was probably far greater.
Viscaya were also beached, helpless and ruined hulks, loaded After La Guasima the American forces pushed forward, the with a multitude of dead and dying sailors. The Christobal Spanish retreating toward Santiago until on the 29th General Colon, the fastest of the Spanish fleet, for several hours kept Shafter reported in a dispatch to Washington that his advance ahead of her pursuers but was finally compelled to give up
her pickets were within a mile and a half of the city without fight at a point some fifty miles west of Santiago. Her crew further serious opposition, and that he was expecting, with the surrendered but sank the vessel before the Americans could cooperation of Cuban forces under General Garcia, operating man and save her. north of Santiago, soon to have the place completely invested. The Spanish loss was some three hundred killed, half that
On July 1, the American forces began a combined attack number wounded and over one thousand six hundred prisoners. upon the outlying defenses of the city,-an attack which The Americans lost one man, killed, and had two wounded. involved two splendid operations, the battle of ElCaney upon The American ships sustained only the most trilling injuries. the army's right, and the storming of San Juan hill, in front of The day that Cervera's fleet was destroyed General Shafter the center.
demanded the surrender of Santiago under pain of bom. The object of the attack at El Caney was to crush the Span- bardment. ish lines at a point near the city and capture heights from Upon the Spanish commander's refusal to surrender, Gen. which Santiago could be bombarded if necessary. The action eral Shafter postponed the bombardment long enough to allow
non-combatants to leave the city,-a postponement lengthened to July 11 by fruitless negotiations upon the part of the Spanish looking to an evacuation of the city. The fleet then bombarded the town without inflicting serious damage.
Negotiations were again opened and upon July 14th, Gen. Shafter was able to telegraph to Washington that the Spanish commander, General Toral, would surrender not only Santiago, but "all of eastern Cuba from Acerraderos on the south to Sagua la Tamana on the north, via Palma, with practically the Fourth Army Corps."
Not until two days later, however, were the details of the surrender finally settled. The stipulations were: (1) The refugees from Santiago who had left the city upon notice of the approaching bombardment were to return; (2) Americans were to patrol roads leading from city; (3) the American hospital corps were to care for sick and wounded Spanish soldiers; (4) all Spanish troops in the province of Santiago except the ten thousand at Holguin were to come to the city to surrender; (5) the guns and defenses of Santiago were to be delivered up in good condition; (6) the Americans were to have full use of the Juragua Railroad; (7) Spanish troops were to surrender their arms; (8) all Spaniards were to be conveyed to Spain and to take with them portable church property; and (9) Spaniards were to cooperate with their captors in destroying the harbor mines.
The territory surrendered was about one-tenth of the area of Cuba and contained the two fine harbors of Santiago and Guantanamo. Upon July 17 the formal ceremony of surrendering the city was carried out and General Shafter took charge of Santiago de Cuba and the American flag waved in the city where not quite twenty-five years before Captain Fry and the brave crew of the Virginius had been shot to death.
W. S. PICKEN.
Art. 6.-Hostilities shall cease when protocol is signed and each government shall give orders to that effect.
This protocol was immediately followed by the proclamation of President McKinley, August 12, which declared a suspension of hostilities and ordered the same to be observed by all inilitary and naval commanders of the United States' forces.
Early in June, 1898, report had it that the European courts were much concerned about opening up negotiations for peace. It could hardly be hoped that the Pope would take the initiative. In July rumors were afloat that Spain was ready for peace, but feared a revolution at home. The Bank of Spain was unable to cash its own notes; and the pressure of European comment was becoming apparent. His Excellency, M. Cambon, French Ambassador to the United States, was asked to open negotiations, and the above protocol was the result. As per article 5 of the protocol, the United States appointed the following Peace Commissioners: Judge William R. Day, president of the commission, Senator Cushman K. Davis, Senator William P. Frye, Senator George Gray, and Whitelaw Reid, editor of the New York Tribune. Spain appointed Senor Don Montero Rios, president of the commission, Senor Don Buenaventura Abarzuza, Senor Don Wenceslao Ramirez de Vilbaurrutia, Senor Don Jose Garnica, and General Rafail Cerrero. Their sessions opened in Paris, October 1, in two salons in the Galerie des Fetes. In these same rooms, forty years ago, met the Congress of Paris, and a few years ago the Bering Sea Commission. The sessions were secret. Separate rooms were used for separate sittings. Two policemen guarded the commission's safe night and day.
The American commissioners stated their case frankly and declined to modify the provisions. The arrival of General Merritt in Paris placed much definite, needed information at the disposal of the American representatives. The first great difficulty arose over the Cuban debt. Spain insisted upon its assumption by the United States, and the United States positively refused. Only after the seventh session did Spain give up that point. Thus did the United States prove that she did not intend to assume sovereignty over Cuba. The second great difficulty arose in connection with the Philippines. United States must assume the Philippine debt and pay for the islands besides. The United States refused, and November 4 submitted a proposition as follows: First, to assume control of the islands; second, to assume such part of the debt as was incurred in the improvement of the islands Spain refused the first part of this proposition, claiming that her sovereignty there was not surrendered by the protocol. But the United States commissioners were firm. They presented a formal note to the Spanish commissioners, November 21, requesting a definite answer November 28. They refused to arbitrate; demanded the Philippines; offered twenty million dollars for the islands; promised an “open door”; agreed to waive all claims for indemnity by both countries. November 28 the Spanish yielded. These vital points settled, the treaty was drafted and the commissioners signed it December 10. Senor Rios filed a protest against violence done by the United States to private securities in the territory surrendered; against giving up the Philippines; against the United States' version of the Maine disaster; and against the position of Spaniards remaining in Cuba.
January 4 President McKinley transmitted to the Senate the text of the treaty with much related material, such as credentials of commissioners, protocols, diplomatic correspondence upon the subject, General Merritt's recommendations, and other information upon the Philippines. Senator Frye presented the treaty. It is composed of seventeen articles, in substance as follows:
[Continued on page 122.]
II. February 1, 1899, the stars and stripes were raised over Fort Santa Cruz, which commands the chief harbor, San Luis d' Apra, in the island of Guam. Commander Taussig of the United States gunboat Bennington was made governor. Guam is the largest and southernmost island of the Ladrone group. It is twenty-seven miles long and eight miles wide. Its rich soil produces coffee and cocoa. Its native population is about 10,000.
August 12, 1898, a protocol was concluded between Spain and the United States. Spain was represented by M. Cambon, the French Ambassador at Washington, and the United States by Secretary of State, William R. Day. The protocol, a forerunner of peace, comprised six articles, in substance as follows:
Article 1.- Spain will renounce all sovereignty over Cuba.
Art. 2.-Spain will cede to the United States Porto Rico, all other Spanish possessions in the Antilles, and one island of the Ladrones, chosen by the United States.
Art. 3.-The United States will occupy the city and bay of San Juan de Porto Rico and port of Manila until the treaty of peace, which shall determine the control and form of government of the Philippines.
Art. 4. -Spain will immediately evacuate Cuba, Porto Rico, and other islands of the Antilles. Within ten days of signing protocol, each government will appoint commissioners who shall meet at Havana within thirty days from signing the protocol to agree upon details of the evacuation of Cuba. In the same manner a similar commission shall be appointed and meet at San Juan de Porto Rico to consider details of the evacuation of Porto Rico.
Art. 5.-Spain and the United States shall appoint five commissioners to meet in Paris, October 1, 1898, to conclude a treaty of peace, which shall be ratified according to the constiutional laws of each country,
Program for Commencement Week.
Saturday, June 10.
Sunday, June 11.
Monday, June 12.
Class-Day Exercises. 8:00 o'clock p. m.,
Annual Address. 9:30 o'clock p. m., Banquet to the Graduating Class by the Junior Classes.
Tuesday, June 13. 8:00 o'clock p. m.,
Annual Concert and Graduating Exercises, Music Department.
Wednesday, Tune 14. 9:00 o'clock a. m.,
Alumni Open Meeting.
Alumni Banquet. 8:00 o'clock p. m.,
Class Reception. 10:00 o'clock p. m., Class Meetings, Undergraduates. The regular term examinations begin on Wednesday afternoon, June 7, extending through Thursday and Friday, forenoon and afternoon.
Let everybody who comes to commencement be sure to take receipt for money paid for ticket. Care in this respect will, we hope, secure the one hundred receipts necessary to insure the one-third rate for return.
The Alumni will please note the new plan for class reunions, here reproduced from the March number:
For several years the membors of the Alumni society have been considering plans whereby the Alumni reunions might be a little more satisfactory and might call in a larger number of the graduates of the School. After studying the plans in vogue in other institutions of learning, the following agreement has been reached : That for commencement week 1899, the following classes will have special reunions: '69, ’74, '70, '84, '89, '94. It will be seen that the class reunions take the classes in series of five years apart. In 1900 the following classes will hold their reunions: '70, '75, '80, '85, '90, '95, the classes moving forward one year each commencement until the series is complete. The series beginning this year begins again five
This plan is not intended to discourage the Alumni of the intervening classes from coming to commencement, but rather to give the occasion greater significance and to insure a larger attendance from the classes whose special reunions are assigned to each particular year. It often happens that Alumni would be delighted to come to commencement if they could have an assurance that a reasonable number of their own class would be present. Experience has shown that the method above outlined reaches the desired end in other colleges and schools. We hope the members of the classes named for reunions next June will begin at once to plan to be present. If all who think they will come will write at once to the chairman of the faculty committee, Prof. W. C. Stevenson, informing him of their intention, it will enable him to give valuable information to other members of the class who would be pleased to come if assured of the presence of their mates.
Inter-State Normal Oratorical Contest. On Tuesday evening, May 2, the boys and girls came together for a "rally'' to give inspiration and blessing to the delegation which should leave on the next evening for Cedar Falls, Iowa. In spite of a thunder storm that had been threatening nearly all afternoon, between seven and eight hundred people gathered in Albert Taylor hall with merry songs and vociferous yells. The prograin opened with a selection by the Orpheus boys which was heartily encored. The little girls from Miss Harris' room, dressed in regulation costume, wound the May pole to the delight of everybody. The Euridice club sang a humorous descriptive selection, responding to an encore with a warning to the contestants from neighboring states. Mrs. Fullerton, of St. Joseph, Missouri, who happened to be present, consented to sing a selection which captured everybody and called forth a double encore. She possesses a voice of rare sweetness and flexibility and at once won a place for herself among our most welcome visitors. Miss Paterson delivered the oration with which she had won the prize in our home contest and with which she hoped to secure the laurel in the Hawkeye state. The Ladies' Gymnastic Club, under the direction of Professor Stone, gave their entertaining ring drill which showed surprising proficiency and grace. The Orpheus boys sang a merry song which contained much Jayhawker humor and which would serve well as an introduction to the friends from the competing states. In response to an encore they came out with a new yell tacked to a strange melody that betokened victory.
President Thoroman, of the Inter-State Normal League, had gone to Iowa on the afternoon train and the delegation of thirteen members, chaperoned by Professor Marsland, left on Wednesday evening. They report a delightful journey and a cordial reception at the hands of the Hawkeye boys and girls. Missouri sent three delegates, Wisconsin four, and Illinois swept in with a full company of one hundred and twenty per-a sons headed by President Cook. The contest spirit was present and was as enthusiastic and demonstrative as ever. It is reported that five or six hundred people wanted tickets and yet could not be accommodated. The report of the judges ranked Wisconsin first, Iowa second, Kansas third, Illinois fourth, Missouri fifth. Of course we expected a better rank, but must be satisfied with the average place occasionally. Our delegation says that Miss Paterson honored Kansas in the presentation of her oration and that she made friends everywhere. The octette from the Orpheus club was in demand at all times and maintained itself as a feature of the contest occasion. Each one came back in good humor repeating over and over again the kind treatment he had received and yet declaring that there is no place like Kansas and the State Normal School.
After the dismission of the Friday evening societies, Albert Taylor hall was filled with a crowd of anxious boys and girls waiting to hear the returns. The telegram came about 11:35 p. m. and it is but proper to state that the Normal bell did not ring. Now for Wisconsin and the first circle will be complete! Kansas is well satisfied thus far.
The following named members of the Senior class ranked high enough to be requested by the faculty to present orations at the preliminary rehearsal on May 17. For various reasons several of them were excused from presenting orations, leaving twelve from whom the six will be selected to represent the class on commencement day: L. H. Armstrong, Louie Atkins, A. E. Lockhart, Raymond Oveson, W. W. Wood, D. A. Baugher, E. Bowles, Verna Brumbaugh, May Chandi E. G. Ganoung, Lillian Hand, Anna Paterson, Edna Roberson, Kittie Taylor, Minnie Wohlford, Mary Balcomb, Mabel House, A. M. Thor
Are you going to attend commencement?
The Literati crimson showed up wonderfully well. The decorations were elaborate and ingenious, drawing attention for
Educational Day at the Red Men's Festival. The Red Men of the State planned for a five days' festival the first week in May in the city of Emporia, and Hon. John Madden, secretary of the board of regents, was appointed chairman of the committee to organize parades and meetings for Friday, which was denominated Educational Day. He sent out invitations to the various schools and colleges of the city, but all except the State Normal School decided not to cooperate. As the other schools had decided not to make any demonstration, the day soon began to be called Normal day, the parade the Normal parade. Professor M. A. Bailey was appointed chairman of the committee from the Normal faculty, the other members being Professors Hill and Picken.
After some little negotiation and a vast amount of labor on the part of Professor Bailey and his assistants, about two hundred carriages and floats were placed at the disposal of the faculty and students by the citizens of Emporia. It was soon whispered about that several of the organizations of the institution were quietly planning some special demonstrations, and ere long every club and society in the school was secretly plotting to excel every other organization. Professor J. N. Wilkinson was appointed marshal with Secretary A. S. Newman as assistant, and shortly after two o'clock on Friday p. m., the members of the faculty and the different organizations fell into line on Commercial street headed by the Normal band and the battalion.
It soon became apparent that a thousand ingenious brains and two thousand ingenious hands had succeeded in transforming the carriages and floats into most beautiful and attractive chariots. As each fell into line hearty shouts of greeting rent the air on every side. The line of march was down Commercial street to Sixth, then west to Merchants street, south to Fifth, east to Commercial, north again to Sixth, east to Union, south to Fifth, back again to Commercial street and down to Soden's grove. The line was placed at a mile and a half in length. The decorations of the various carriages and floats carrying the different organizations were a profound surprise even to the members themselves and were everywhere greeted with cheers by the throngs of citizens that lined the streets. It was probably the greatest demonstration of the kind ever given in the city of Emporia and seldom have the citizens been so generous in their words of praise and appreciation.
Lucile Wilkinson, seated in a canopy top chariot drawn by a pony in charge of a Red Man, led the Literati society and was a happy hit.
The Belles Lettres boys and girls used bells in their decorations with great effectiveness and the design showed remarkable taste and study.
The Philomathians were not outdone by any of the other societies in their successful use of the colors which every Philomath loves so well.
The Tennis section surprised everybody by the novel way in which they decorated their carriage with balls, rackets, and nets.
'The Gymnasium club showed very effectively how the light implements of the gymnasium may be used in decorating floats.
What rare taste the Orpheus and Euridice clubs show in everything they undertake! Praise for their float was in everybody's mouth.
Perhaps the “Orator Factory” was the recipient of more hearty commendation from the politicians and preachers than any other float in the line.
The natural science and manual training floats made a handsome display of the great variety of apparatus with which the school is equipped.
Though not appearing as a formal organization, the Sunflower club was greatly in evidence with a handsomely decorated float.
The hay rack float was a puzzle, though the model school boys seemed to enjoy their trip greatly.
The devices used by the Christian Endeavor society made a very attractive float and showed how loyal to their organization the Endeavorers always are.
That green bower float carrying the May pole fairies from Miss Harris' room, was indeed a beauty. What is more charming than such covey of merry faces anyhow?
Of course it was impossible for the different organizations to keep quiet in such a line and the bedlam of yells and songs from Twelfth avenue to Soden's grove added greatly to the excitement and enthusiasm of the parade as a whole.
The base ball team came up in good shape and capped the achievements of the day by a splendid victory over the Haskell Indians, 16 to 5, at Soden's grove in the evening.
Mr. Jones, the popular decorator in G. W. Newman & Co's. great store, was unstinted in his praise of the great display. He said that he did not see how it was possible to prepare such elaborate and tasteful decorations in so short a time.
Hon. John Madden was probably the happiest man on the reservation. He little realized what a unique surprise he was instrumental in getting up for "educational day.”
Major Hood's handsome sorrels drawing the president of the faculty and his family, made one of the handsomest pictures in the entire line. Heavy old gold ribbons decorated the car. riage and four heavy old gold silk bands served as additional lines in the driver's hands to guide the proud team.
The Oven design was one of the best hits in line and the MONTHLY takes off its hat to its brethren.
Doctor Wagoner, the dentist, offered a prize of three dollars for the most handsomely decorated vehicle, and two dollars for the second. The first prize was awarded to one of the Lyceum carriages driven by Mr. J. H. Griffith of this city. The occupants, Misses Mitchell, Jones and Kellogg had decorated the carriage and were very proud of their victory. The second prize went to the “All-School” float, drawn by sixteen horses and carrying about one hundred and fifty shouting school boys and girls.
One of the most attractive rigs in the faculty section was the new family trap driven by Professor Ellsworth.
The rose float decorated and occupied by a select company of Lyceum girls was hardly excelled by anything in the entire parade.
EVERETT SADLER, son of H. E. Sadler, formerly of the State Normal faculty, is a midshipman on the “Badger," which has just made a trip from New York to San Francisco, around the Horn. The “Badger” is the vessel selected to carry the American, English and German commissioners to the Sam oan islands.-Emporia Daily Republican.
Minnie V. White, a former Normal School girl, now superintends the schools of Chautauqua county.