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THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR.
(Continued from page 119 ]
1. Spain will evacuate Cuba. United States will preserve peace under international law.
2. Spain will cede to the United States Porto Rico and other islands in the West Indies, also Guam in the Ladrones.
3. Spain will cede to the United States the Philippines. United States will pay twenty million dollars for them.
4. United States will maintain an “open door” to Spain in the Philippines for ten years.
5. United States will return Spanish prisoners at Manila.
6. Spain will release and return prisoners in territory surrendered.
7. All claims for indemnity are mutually released.
8. Spain will relinquish all claims to property belonging to public domain.
9. Spanish subjects, desiring to remain in territory surrendered, may remain Spanish subjects by a declaration to that effect. 10. Religious freedom will be granted.
Court regulations to meet special cases.
Rules for pending judicial proceedings. 13. Spanish copyrights and patents will be respected. 14. Spain may establish consular ports in relinquished territory.
15. The same commercial regulations for vessels of the two countries will be observed for ten years.
16. United States' obligations last only during United States' occupancy of Cuba; succeeding government shall assume the same.
17. This treaty shall be ratified by the President and Senate of the l'nited States and by her Majesty, the Queen Regent of Spain. The exchange of ratifications shall be at Washington within six months thereafter.
The debate in the Senate was spirited. Those in favor of ratification included Senators Foraker, Teller and Lodge; the opposition, Senators Hoar, Hale, Gorman, and Caffery. The news of the Filipino outbreak at Manila settled all further dispute and the treaty was ratified February 6 by a vote of 57 to 27-just one vote more than the necessary two-thirds vote. It was signed by the President February 10. The Senate later passed the McEnery resolution in which it was declared to be the sense of the Senate not to make the Filipinos United States citizens, nor the Philippines American soil, but to work toward their independence. Queen Regent Christina of Spain signed the treaty March 17. The exchange of ratifications took place in Washington at 3 p. m., April 11, 1899.
These ceremonies were witnessed by many distinguished persons—members of the cabinet and governmental officials. After the preliminaries of greetings, at 3:28 p. m., M. Cambon, the French Ambassador, signed the protocol of exchange in behalf of Spain, and Secretary Hay for the United States. The protocol was in French. The President then handed the American copy of the treaty to M. Cambon, at the same time receiving from him the Spanish copy. “Mr. Ambassador," said President McKinley, “I will issue my proclamation at once.” The Spanish copy of the treaty was engrossed on parchment in old English script, in double columns, Spanish and English, bound in red morocco, and embossed in gold. The l'nited States copy was a model of simplicity and neatness. The text, in double columns, English and Spanish, surrounded by a a narrow border of the national colors, was bound in dark blue morocco with the great seal of the United States upon its face and a decorative design in gilt.
The proclamation issued by President McKinley following the exchange of ratifications of the treaty was "to the end that he same and every detail and clause thereof may be observed
and fulfilled with good faith by the United States and the citi. zens thereof." The President then appointed Mr. Bellamy Storer, our present minister to Belgium, as our minister to Spain. The Duke of Arcos, late minister to Mexico, who married Miss Virginia Lowery of Washington, has been appointed Spanish minister to the United States. The United States consuls who served in Spain before the war, will return to their former posts. April 29, M. Cambon officially notified Secretary Hay that Spain would accept through him the $20,000,000 for the Philippines. April 10, at the request of the Secretary of State, Secretary Gage drew four diplomatic settlement warrants of $5,000,000 each. These warrants were turned over to M. Cambon May 1, who receipted for the same. The ambassador deposited these warrants in the Riggs National Bank in Washington, awaiting further instructions from Spain. As the warrants are drawn upon the sub-treasury in New York the next steps are possibly as follows, to place the warrants in some New York bank and then "draw against the deposit in the purchase of bills of exchange. These bills will in time be presented at the foreign banks against which they are drawn and the amounts will be placed to Spanish credit. A few scratches of the pen and the transaction is complete."
September 17, 1898, a commission was appointed “to examine into the conduct of the Commissary, Quartermaster, and Medical Bureaus of the War Department, during the war and into the extent and cause and treatment of sickness in the field and in camps." The commission consisted of Col. James A. Sexton, E. P. Howell, G. M. Dodge, C. S. Woodbury, James A. Beaver, Charles Denby, P. S. Conner, Generals Wilson and McCook.
Tbeir demands were for testimony from all available sources. “Things appeared better than reported by rumor and complaint.” “Lacks” wer
ere admitted, but were “unavoidable." Individual rustling was often the only means of overcoming the lack. The commission reported no evidence of dishonest conduct in the War Department; but that needed reforms should be instituted to avoid friction. Out of this investigation grew the famous Miles-Eagan controversy. General Miles cited complaints about the refrigerated or "embalmed” beef supplied to the soldiers, saying “there was a pretense that it was sent as an experiment.” General Eagan, assuming this to be a personal thrust, presented a written document to the commission in which he answered General Miles, using most violent and offensive language. Commission refused to record the document and returned it with a note of censure to General Eagan. Later, General Eagan again presented it to the commission, expurgated and accompanied by a note of apology, with an attempt at justification. Such a rupture as this could not have occurred had General Eagan felt accountable in any measure to General Miles. This indicates the existing relations between the War Department and the army. It resulted in the Army Reorganization Bill.
General Eagan was charged with conduct unbecoming an officer and gentleman and was tried before a court martial. Their verdict was guilty and dismissal from the service. Pres. ident McKinley commuted it to suspension from rank and duty for six years, with full pay, minus allowances for rations, etc.
A military commission to investigate beef charges was then appointed by the President. It was composed of Generals Wade, Gillespie, Davis and Colonel Davis. General Miles was allowed an attorney. The commission met in Washington February 20. President McKinley then submitted to the court a list of questions, the finding of definite answers to which should constitute the work of the court. After hearing testimony pro and con in Washington, they visited Chicago and
other cities to investigate personally methods used by the vari- The Filipino insurrection against American authority is the ous packing houses. General Miles later attempted to show result of a misguided, over-ambitious leadership. When the that “canned” beef was really the worse. Testimony in gen- United States became a party in the Philippine situation, as eral favored "refrigerated” beef, but "canned" beef was "nau- she did by the battle of Manila and later by the surrender of seating," "unfit for food," "foul-smelling," "sickening and the city, she found the Filipinos under the leadership of Aguinweakening," "bury the meat or bury the soldiers, so we buried aldo, claiming that they were a republic independent of the the meat." April 5 the Yale chemist, in the government em- sovereignty of Spain or of the United States. At no time ploy, testified that no chemicals had been found and that it was whatsoever has the United States recognized the Filipinos his judgment that the tropical heat caused the trouble. The either as allies or belligerents. In September, 1898, Aguinaldo Wade Court of Inquiry closed its investigations and signed its asked all foreign nations, except the United States, to recognize report April 29. This document of about thirty thousand the Filipino republic. In October a representative presented a words, was taken to the War Department, where it was sealed copy of their constitution to President McKinley. December in an envelope, forwarded at once to the White House, and to the treaty was signed by which Spain transferred her sov. forthwith sent to the President in New York. Though not yet eignty in the Philippines to the United States, which condition made public, the report is generally thought, first, to find that Aguinaldo insisted was impossible since the Spanish sovereignGeneral Miles' charges concerning refrigerated beef are unsus- ty was superseded already by the independent republic. Jantained; that the canned and the refrigerated beef was the beef uary 5 President McKinley directed General Otis to issue a of commerce, good when delivered, but was affected by the proclamation as to the extension of American sovereignty over, tropical heat; that canned beef is not a suitable steady ration; and friendship for, the Filipinos, and ordered a military occuthat no chemicals were used to "embalın" the beef; and that pation of all ceded territory. It was answered by Aguinaldo dependence upon beef on the hoof would have been impractica- declaring himself “military governor” in the Philippines and ble; second, to criticise General Miles and other officers for declaring for absolute independence. January 28 the Philipdelinquency in the duty of bringing these complaints to the pine commission was appointed by President McKinley, comWar Department when they were first entered. If this fore
posed of Admiral Dewey, General Otis, Professor Worcester of cast of the report be true, the War Department has been vindi- Michigan University, Colonel Denby, former minister to China, cated and the light in which it leaves the “General command- and President Schurman of Cornell. Their function was ading" is not the most enviable.
visory and informative; they are expected to complete their Last November, Major-General 0. O. Howard called atten- work by September at the latest. About this time Senor Agontion to certain defects in our army organization, which had cillo, Aguinaldo's representative, arrived in Washington to in. long been apparent, especially the lack of ability to locate re- sist that Spain had no sovereignty to transfer and to protest sponsibility. He recommended the abolition of the office of against American interference. The Filipino Junto in London commander-in-chief and the making of the Secretary of War ex- threatened to suspend all relations with the United States officio that commander. In consequence, two bills were intro- unless Agoncillo were recognized at Washington. Spain eviduced into Congress; one originated from the War Depart- denced anxiety to precipitate hostilities between the United ment, and was introduced into the House by Congressman States and the Filipinos, and as the insurgents then held Iloilo Hull; the other originated from the General "commanding and were encamped in a threatening attitude before Manila, the army,” and was introduced into the Senate by Senator hostilities seemed imminent. Saturday evening, February 4, Hawley. They agreed as to increasing the army to one hun- the break came by act of the Filipinos, but they were repulsed. dred thousand men, but differed in almost all other respects. February 7 the Americans captured the waterworks east of The Hawley bill provided for one soldier for every one thous- Manila, a most fortunate thing for the city and army. Aguiand in population; many staff and line officers; one general naldo then disregarded the constitution of his government and and two lieutenant-generals. The Hull bill provided for an in- declared war. Since then, engagement after engagement has crease of the medical corps to four thousand officers and men: brought new nors to American arms. soldiers in sub-tropic countries to have one-fourth increase in After the battle of Caloocan, February 10, the fall of Iloilo, pay. Congressman McClellan introduced another bill, and February 11, Aguinaldo issued an order for the burning of finally the House Committee, attempting to combine the best Manila and the extermination of the Americans, April 21. features of all three, reported practically the Hull bill, changed General Otis immediately ordered all the inhabitants of Manila only in details. It provided for one lieutenant-general, six to remain indoors from 7 p. m. until daylight. This attitude major-generals, twelve brigadier-generals; the departments of of the insurgents coupled with one or two diplomatic conditions adjutant-general, inspector-general, judge-advocate-general, was followed by Admiral Dewey's requesting the presence of the and quartermaster-general, and a few other minor departments, battleship Oregon at Manila “for political reasons." After were to be independent in action. The main objection to such this the plan of the Americans to capture Aguinaldo or to a large standing army is the estimated yearly expense, $310,- force him to surrender and so put down the insurrection, was 000,000, which covers $165,000,000 current expense and $145,- sought to be accomplished by two moves-first, the establish000,000 pensions. The House adopted this with two amend- ment of a line of positions from Manila eastward to the coast, ments: gave the President discretion to keep as few as 50,000 thus cutting Luzon into two sections; second, the pursuit of in the field; and abolished the canteen system. The Senate Aguinaldo to the north. The first was accomplished by the altered it still further, and the bill as finally approved March 2, battle of Pasig, March 15, the occupation of Lagoon Bay 1899, provides in the main as follows: The regular army shall March 20, and the fall of Santa Cruz April 8. The object of be on the basis of 65,000 for two years. The President may the second move
so easily accomplished. Although enlist 35,000 mor
ore for service in Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Aguinaldo was now limited to the resources and men of the Philippines, natives or Americans as he deems wise. July 1, northern part of the island, he made a number of defiant 1901, the army is to be reduced to 27,000, the number before stands. After the battle of Malabon, the attempt to surround the war opened. This bill does not remedy the evils of present Aguinaldo by moving northeast to Novalishes failed because he staff-officer appointments.
escaped before our forces were in position. Pressing farther
north, the battle of Bulacon followed, and on March 31 General emblem on the deserted palace and "waited for the band to MacArthur's division captured Malolos, Aguinaldo's capitol. come up;" it was Colonel Funston at Calumpit, who, with a few In the meantime the Island of Negros had sent a commission companions, swam the Bagbag river, under fire, and dislodged to Manila to acknowledge United States sovereignty, refusing the enemy. It is Colonel Funston, the Kansas volunteers and the to acknowledge Aguinaldo; a United States vessel had taken Kansas "yell” that strike terror to the heart of the Filipino, possession of the Island of Cebu; the Oregon had arrived ; whether these particular Americans—with such privates as General Lawton had arrived to aid General Otis; and Dewey Trembley and White-are swimming the stream with the ropes had raised his Admiral's flag at Manila on the fourth of March. to a raft in their mouths and guns held aloft, or clambering April 4 the American commissioners issued a proclamation- over their deserted trenches pursuing the fleeing enemy. For "a greater document than this has not appeared since the Dec- wherever the “ittle Colonel” is, there that oth Kansas always laration of Independence," says an authority. The whole is. It is not only Kansas who is proud of these men, but the 1500 words bespeaks American sovereignty in the Philippine East is clamoring to do them honor. When it was known that islands but promises all things good in religion, education, May 2, President McKinley promoted Colonel Funston to the justice, rights and government for the Filipinos. Spanish, position of Brigadier General of volunteers, the nation approved Tagalo, and English versions of it were spread broadcast. At it as the reward of merit for achievements of unusual daring the same time the Filipino Junta issued a proclamation claim- and brilliancy. General Funston and his deeds are already a ing to have received information of mysterious intrigues for a part of our national history even if “his name will not rhyme union of the Vatican and American officials to re-establish the with anything sublime.” Kansas City, Missouri, not to be former ascendancy of the church in the Philippines. April 8 outdone by Kansas, already has plans formulating to do the it was reported, that the insurgent army deposed Aguinaldo handsome thing for the Kansans "when they come marching and chose General Di Luna as their leader. Neither the fall home" and so will Kansas and the nation prove our apprecia. of the capital, nor the proclamation of the Commissioners had tion of our heroes. the desired effect, and our force again engaged the insurgents at February 16, 1899, President McKinley was the guest of honor Quingua, April 23, at Calumpit, April 26, and at Apalit, April at a banquet given in Boston by the Home Market Club. 1,914 27, from which point they retreated to San Fernando to pre- plates were laid, while fully 3,800 spectators occupied the balcopare for another stand. General Luna then took steps to agree nies. This club then had the distinction of providing for the larg. upon some terms of peace. The United States has signified est banquet ever given in America, but it has since been exceeded its determination to accept nothing short of unconditional and by one in New York City. President McKinley was accompanied absolute surrender. Although desultory fighting may continue by Messrs. Long, Alger, Bliss, Gage, and Smith, of his cabinet. for a time, it is to be hoped that the end is near. The Filipinos Before the banquet the President received in Paul Revere hall have evidently found the American method of fighting some- and shook hands with fully 2,500 persons. At six o'clock the what of a surprise after the encounters with the Spanish. As banquet call was answered. Upon the walls of the banquet hall they themselves express it, we did not fight and then rest as the were the likenesses of Washington, Lincoln, and McKinley, Spaniards did, therefore we "did not fight fair.”
with “Liberator" underneath; Speaker Reed and ex-President The American losses have been slight when compared with Harrison; Admiral Dewey with the motto, “To the Captain of those of the enemy. The navy suffered its first reverse April 12, a German ship--you must not sail by an United States flag in the capture of Lieutenant Gilmore and fourteen sailors of without seeing it," and the famous command, “You may fire, the “Yorktown" while they were attempting the rescue of some Gridley, when ready;" with Grant and McKinley. The menus Spanish prisoners on the east coast of Luzon. The United
were eight-page books containing the picture of President States has refused to permit Spain to buy the release of Span- McKinley, the names and positions of the guests at the tables, ish prisoners in the hands of Aguinaldo-about 6000 in all- the menu, toasts, musical program, and the ode to the Presithus preventing him from receiving this pecuniary aid. We, dent written by Samuel W. Foss to the tune of America, and to as Kansans, are especially interested in this insurrection be sung by the audience at the close of the President's address. because of the personal relation we as a State sustain to it. The President's menu was satin-bound, hand-painted. Upon “Our boys,” ever eager to get to the front, here found their the conclusion of the dinner, two addresses of welcome to the opportunity, and in the noble fulfillment of that opportunity President were given by Governor Wolcott and by Mayor there has come to our Kansas great sorrow for her dead, and Quincy, to which President McKinley responded in substance: intense joy because of those deeds of valor. From the onset “The year 1898 has added new glory to American arms, and a at Caloocan to the unprecedented charge at Calumpit, the new chapter to American history. The year 1899, sees mighty dashing Colonel Funston and the invincible 2oth Kansas have problems before this republic for solution. They are the well nigh been “the whole American army.” The sacrifice of result of the evolution of events which no man could control. such Kansas men as Captain Elliott, Colonel Egbert, Lieuten- Every effort to avoid war failed, it was the war of the undivided ant Alford, and Private Curran Craig, causes us to try to esti- nation. The Philippines, like Cuba and Porto Rico, were mate anew the value of human liberty in terms of the lives of intrusted to our hands by the war, and to that great trust, our dear ones.
es. Shall civilization feel the responsibility for the under the providence of God, and in the name of human waste places of the earth? Can free America minister to the progress and civilization, we are committed. It is a trust we needy islands of the sea with no cost to herself? These men have not sought; it is not a trust from which we will finch. have answered, and in that answer there have come to Kansas We will support Dewey and Otis in upholding our flag where glories of which she had not dreamed. It was Colonel Funs- it now floats, the symbol and assurance of liberty and justice. ton with twenty of his men, at Caloocan who swam the Marilao Who can fix the limits of war? Congress can declare war, but river, under fire, and captured eighty fully armed insurgents; a higher power decrees its bounds and fixes its relations and it was Colonel Funston who crept over a dismantled bridge responsibilities, and these can only be measured when the last before the commander had called for volunteers to lead the gun is fired and the verdict embodied in the stipulations charge; it was Colonel Funston who was the first in the city of peace. Malolos, and disregarding sharpshooters, ran up the starry Although views may differ as to the relations to exist between
The base ball boys, having beaten the Ottawa University team on their own ground, repeated the victory on our home grounds Friday afternoon, May 12, winning by a score of 10 to 6.
ANOTHER of our brave boys has fallen in the Philippines. William McTaggart, Second Lieutenant Company G, Twentieth Kansas, was killed at San Tomas, May 5, 1899. He was one of the most popular boys in his classes when here. With such noble blood is human progress attained.
We are having inquiries concerning the article by Doctor Holland on the "Social Undertow” mentioned in “The Study of the Child” page 153. It will be found in “Plain talks on Familiar Subjects," a handsome little volume issued by Chas. Scribner's Sons. Any book dealer can order it for you.
The M., K. & T. railroad has changed time so that its trains now make connection at Parsons with the St. Louis and Chicago trains. That “Flyer" from Texas through to St. Louis is a "dandy" and the people ere rapidly learning what delightful accommodations the “Katy” provides for its friends.
The following named persons were selected at the rehearsal on the eventng of May 16 to represent the class of 1899 on commencement day: Elihu Bowles, May Chandler, Mabel L. House, Edna Roberson, Kittie M. Taylor, and A. M. Thoro
The class elected A. M. Thoroman valedictorian and Edna Roberson salutatorian.
the Philippines and the United States, all agree that they should not be restored to Spain, and to have permitted them to be given to any other power would have created serious international complications. The treaty gave them to the United States. Could we have required less and done our duty? After freeing them from Spain, could we have left them without government, and without power to protect life and property, or to perform the international obligations essential to an independent state? Could we have left them in a state of anarchy, and justified our consciences? Could we have done that in the sight of God or man?
In doing all that has been done, we needed no one's consent because we were seeking the highest welfare of these peoples and so were obeying a higher moral obligation-fulfilling a duty approved by conscience and civilization. The war is ended. The nation itself has ratified the treaty. The best and yet the hardest thing to do, is yet to be done. We cannot shirk grave responsibilities although it is not always given us to know why they are thrust upon us. The future of the Philippines is now in the hands of the American people. The whole subject is now with Congress and Congress is the voice, the conscience, the judgment of the American people. Upon their judgment and conscience can we not rely? I believe in them, I trust them. I know of no better or safer human tribunal than the people.
Until Congress shall wirect, the executive can only possess and hold the Philippines, making them know that we are all friends, and that their good is our aim, but that it cannot be accomplished until our authority is acknowledged and unquestioned. This government means a self-government for them. No imperial designs lurk in the American mind. They are alien to American sentiment, thought, and purpose. Our priceless principles undergo no change under a tropical sun. They go with the fiat:
“Why read ye not the changeless truth,
The free can conquer but to save!" If we can benefit these remote peoples, who will object, who will not rejoice in our heroism and humanity? I have no light or knowledge not common to my countrymen. I cannot bound my vision by the blood-stained trenches around Manila, but by the broad range of future years, when that group of islands shall have become the glory of the tropical seas, a land of plenty, a people devoted to peace, in touch with all nations, enjoying the blessings of freedom, civil and religious liberty, and of education; and whose children for ages shall bless the American republic because it emancipated and redeemed their fatherland and set them in the pathway of the world's best civilization."
Mr. McKinley was followed by Postmaster-General Smith, in whose speech occurred this sentence: “Lincoln emancipated 4,000,000 of beings; McKinley has lifted 10,000,000 into new light and freedom, and the devoted President * * * is keeping touch with the popular heart as he fulfills his lofty mission of taking the flag of American liberty where Lincoln has left it pure and stainless, and carrying it forward to wider sway and influence in the world.” May 2, 1899.
M. A. WHITNEY.
T. B. Henry, '94, Richard Allen, '98, and W. E. Ringle, a recent student of the State Normal School, were elected in April to positions in the newly organized county high school at Independence.
'90. We are in receipt of an invitation to attend the graduating exercises of the Senior class at Princeton Seminary, New Jersey, with the compliments of E. E. E. Hench, who now becomes a regularly ordained pastor in the cause of his Master.
'84. Correa J. Cretcher writes us that she is attending the University of Chicago this year. Her sister Gertrude entered our classes the first week in May.
'95. We have the pleasure of announcing the arrival of a handsome baby girl at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Keene.
'95. W. M. Edgerton completed a course in the St. Louis College of Physicians and Surgeons in April last. We are under obligations to him for a handsome invitation card.
Notice to Contractors and Builders.
Until nine o'clock a. m. on Tuesday, June 13, 1899, sealed proposals will be received for the following described work:
For furnishing material and erecting one boiler house on the grounds belonging to the State Normal School, including also a smoke stack for the same.
For repairing and removing boilers from old boiler house and placing them in new boiler house and for furnishing one or two new boilers as may be determined later by the board of regents of said State Normal School.
3. For furnishing material, excavating and piping from boilers in new boiler house and connecting same with main building.
Drawings and specifications for above work may be found at the office of the Secretary of the Board of Regents, Emporia, Kansas, on and after June 1, 1899.
JOHN MADDEN, Secretary Board of Regents State Normal School.
THE STATE NORMAL DIRECTORY,
The Board of Regents. HON. F.S. LARABEE, President
... Stafford HON. A, H. TURNER, Vice President.
Chanute HON. JOHN MADDEN, Secretary
Emporia HON. S. H. DODGE, Treasurer
Beloit HON. J. H. RITCHIE
.Cherryvale HON, E. A. ROSS..
Burr Oak The Faculty. ALBERT R. TAYLOR, PH. D., President.
928 Union Psychology and Philosophy of Education. JASPER N. WILKINSON, Secretary....
832 Merchants Director in Training. MIDDLESEX A. BAILEY, A, M.
218 West Twelfth Avenue
Mathematics. JOSEPH H. HILL, A, M.
1515 Highland Place
Latin. M'LOUISE JONES, A, M.
English. WILLIAM C. STEVENSON
..1017 Mechanics Bookkeeping and Penmanship. EMMA L. GRIDLEY..
Drawing. CHARLES A, BOYLE, B. M.
827 Constitution Voice, Piano, and Harmony. CORA MARSLAND, O. M.
Elocution. MARY A. WHITNEY
..827 Market History United States. ACHSAH M, HARRIS
827 Mechanics Critic Teacher, Model Intermediate. OSCAR CHRISMAN, PH. D..
.1013 Market History of Education, and Economics, DANIEL A. ELLSWORTH
Geography. L. C. WOOSTER, Ph. D....
.1017 Union Natural History. T. M. IDEN, Ph. M..
.913 Union Physics and Chemistry. MAUDIE L, STONE, S. B...
728 Merchants Physical Training. EVA M'NALLY
714 Merchants Associate Professor, English. ELI L. PAYNE, B. P.
.1218 Neosho Associate Professor, Mathematics. MRS. HATTIE E. BOYLE, B. M.
827 Constitution Associate Professor, Piano and Theory. ANNA L, CARLL
1002 Market Assistant Teacher, Model Grammar. HATTIE E. BASSETT.
724 Merchants Assistant Teacher, Elocution. ELVA E. CLARKE
Librarian. MARTHA J. WORCESTER
.906 Mechanics Assistant Teacher, English. MAUD HAMILTON
1002 Market Assistant Teacher, Latin and Pedagogics. MARY S. TAYLOR
.312 West Twelfih Aveuue Assistant Teacher, Mathematics. LOTTIE E. CRARY
1315 N. Merchants Assistant, Natural History. WILLIAM A. VAN VORIS..
1316 Market Assistant, Physics and Chemistry. ISABEL MILLIGAN
312 West Twelve Avenue Assistant Critic Teacher, Model Intermediate. JENNIE WHITBECK, B. P.
1028 Congress Assistant, Model Department. HATTIE COCHRAN
1315 North Merchants Manuscript Assistant, English. E. E. SALSER
1028 Congress Assistant, Bookkeeping and Penmanship. CHARLINE P. MORGAN
.617 Exchange Model Primary and Kindergarten. WILLIAM S. PICKEN
.717 Mechanics Assistant Teacher, History. FREDERICK B. ABBOTT, Ph. D.
1015 Constitution Manual Training. WILLIAM G. BUTLER
827 Mechanics Violin, Mandolin, Guitar, and Banjo. E. ANNA STONE
1315 North Merchants Second Assistant in Piano. EDWARD ELIAS..
.823 Mechanics Assisiant Teacher, German and French. ALLEN S. NEWMAN...
1013 Merchants Office Secretary. PEARL STUCKEY
422 Marke Stenographer. NELLIE STANLEY..
1123 Congress Assistant, Library and Office. BESSIE KNAPPENBERGER
312 Neosho Assistant, Library.
The Eastern Question. The students and faculty of the Normal and the citizens of Emporia enjoyed during the third week in April a course of five lectures of surpassing interest. They were given in Albert Taylor hall by Dr. D. M. Harris, editor of The Observer, Saint Louis, Mo. Four of the lectures were presented upon successive afternoons, their subjects being “The Eastern Question.” The Doctor makes no pretensions to oratory, but he is a clear, forcible speaker who carries the attention and sympathy of his hearers to a climax of interest. He has traveled abroad extensively and has made a profound study of the governmental and territorial problems of the Eastern hemisphere. He is full of his subject, speaks without notes, and has a happy faculty of presenting related facts in a grouping which leaves the most definite impressions upon the minds of his audiences.
He used a fine set of continental maps belonging to the institution and located the different countries and their dependencies as he discussed them. Beginning with the unspeakable Turk, he presented a vivid picture of the Mongol blot upon European civilization, enlarging upon the relations of England and Russia to the Turkish Empire. England with a chain of fortifications established upon the borders and islands of the Mediterranean Sea, is desirous of retaining military and commercial supremacy there, while Russia, whose land-locked situation renders southern water communication her most coveted ideal, wishes to gain control of Constantinople and the outlet of the Black Sea which is now closed to her by the mandates of the powers of Europe. Russia's greatest national need is possession of southern outlets for her navy and commerce. These she has long sought from three directions: the Mediterranean, through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles; the Arabian Sea, through Persia; and the Yellow Sea, through a foothold in China. She has her vast possessions almost spanned by some five thousand miles of railway which, when shortly connected with Port Arthur, will give her control of Eastern Asiatic commerce and will compel England to build a competing line through Southern Asia. When this latter project is realized and England shall have succeeded in her present purpose of connecting her North and South African possessions by a railway line, the commerce of the world will again be revolutionized as it was through the great changes occurring in the medieval period.
The Doctor's fourth lecture was devoted to an exposition of the colonial dependencies of the world powers. He asserted the Anglo-Saxon to be the supreme colonizing stock, citing the lamentable failures of Germany, Italy, France and Spain to sustain successful relations with their colonies. He discussed the varieties of tenure under which colonial possessions are held and stated that England administers some three dozen different forms of colonial government.
The closing lecture was given on Saturday evening to a fine audience of citizens and Normal folk. Taking as his theme the great Italian poet, he presented in a masterly manner the times, life and works of Dante. In a detailed review of the Divina Commedia he paid a magnificent tribute to this world. classic, quoting from the original and explaining the beauties of choice passages,-a labor of love with him as he has read the poem in the Italian no less than forty-five times.
Dr. and Mrs. Harris were entertained while in Emporia by President and Mrs. Taylor who took peculiar pleasure in the renewal of a valued intercourse, Dr. Harris having formerly sustained to President Taylor the relations successivefyl of teacher, pastor and co-worker.
It is the generally expressed wish of the faculty and students of the Normal School and of the citizens of Emporia, privi. leged to hear the lectures, that Dr. Harris may return at a future period and present another course. It is known that the Doctor has a series of twenty lectures upon European governments, largely based upon data collected during his years of study of their
practical workings while he was touring in Europe, and Emporia would assure him a warm welcome should he return to give us selections from that course.
W. S. P.